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Full text of "St. Lawrence River project; Appendix"

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ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

PROJECT 



FINAL REPORT 

1942 



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BARNHART ISLAND 

POWER HOUSE 
ANALYSIS OF DESIGN 



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CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U.S. ARMY 

U.S. ENGINEER OFFICE • MASSENA, NEW YORK. 

APPENDIX HL-24 (3) 




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ST. LAOSNCE RIVEE 



PROJECT 



* * * * * 



PINAL REPORT 



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BARNHART ISLAHD 



POWER HOUSE 



ANALYSIS 07 D1SIGH 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY 



U.S. Engineer Office - Massena, New York 



July t 19^2 



APPEN DI X IH-gll (3) 






Ay 7 




. 






FOREWORD 

This appendix contains five individual parts as follows: 

Part IA - Report of Harza Engineering Company, March 2U, 19^2, 

Part IB - Report of Harza Engineering Company, June 21, 19^1. 

Part II - Report on Investigations at Powerhouse Site. 

Part III - Analysis of Design, Barnhart Island Powerhouse 
Dikes and Cofferdams. 

Part IV - Estimate of Cost, Barnhart Island Powerhouse. 



The design of the powerhouse structure was developed by the 
Harza Engineering Company and is described in Parts IA and IB. The 
subsurface investigations for the structure was conducted by the 
St. Lawrence River District. After the investigations were completed, 
a report, which is Included as Part II t was prepared and furnished 
to the Harza Engineering Company to assist in the design of the 
powerhouse structure. The recommendations made in Part II regarding 
the treatment of the powerhouse foundation have been provided by in- 
cluding in the contract an extensive grouting program to seal the 
gypsum and an impervious rolled backfill upstream from the powerhouse 
to prevent water from seeping into the rock. The investigations and 
studies for the dikes and cofferdams, the design and the redesign of 
the cofferdams as prepared by the personnel of the St. Lawrence River 
District Office, are included, as Part III, To reduce the number of 
plates in Part III, references are made to plates in Part II. 



PART IA 

REPORT OF HARZA ENGINEERING COHPA1IY 
MARCH 24, 1942 



Appendix 111-24(3) 



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT 



AIM US IS OF DESIGN OF 



BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

March 24, 1942 

Colonel A.B. Jones 
District Engineer 
U.S. Engineer Office 
Massena, New York 

Dear Sir: 

In accordance with your instructions of December 23 , 1941 t we are 
giving you herein our supplementary report on analysis of design of the pro- 
posed Barnhart Island Powerhouse and appurtenances of the proposed hydro- 
electric development of the St. Lawrence River. 

This report supplements and modifies our report of June 21, 1941 
and presents the final data, studies and designs that form the basis for the 
preparation of contract drawings and specifications for the construction of 
the powerhouse. 

For sake of brevity, we have not endeavored to include all data 
that was considered or the step-by-step development which preceded the final 
decision on any phase of the work or the adoption of the details as shown on 
design and contract drawings. It must be understood that an appreciable a- 
mount of general design had to be undertaken in the preparation of the con- 
tract drawings in order that the latter would show a reasonably correct 
presentation of the construction which would be followed in the subsequent 
drawings. It is to be noted, therefore, that although the preliminary draw- 
ings which accompany this report, and which were used as a basis for the 
contract drawings, reflect results of careful analyses and study, yet it is 
contemplated that many changes and improvements may be made in the final de- 
sign drawings. The details of mechanical equipment have been developed suf- 
ficiently to permit determining the structural outlines and dimensions that 
have been incorporated in the contract drawings. 

Decisions affecting details now incorporated in the contract draw- 
ings and specifications were discussed or decided upon, as the case may be, 
during the following conferences that were held at the indicated locations. 

Conferences Prior to Submittal of Harza Engineering Company's Report of June 

Date Location 

November 15, 1940 Massena, New York 

December 5» 1940 Washington, D.C. 

December 19-20, 1940 Massena, New York 

January 22-23, 1941 Washington, D.C. 



Conferences prior to Submittal of Harza Engineering Company's Report of June 

21. 1941. (Cont'd) ' 
D&te £ocat ion 

March 11-12, 1941 Chicago, Illinois 

April 9-10, 1941 Chicago, Illinois 

May 9-10, 1941 Toronto, Canada 

May 27 #28, 1941 Chicago, Illinois 

General Conferences Subsequent to Submittal of Report of June 21, 1941 * 

June 27, 1941 Washington, D.C. 

July 31-Augustl, 1941 New York, New York 

August 15, 1941 ChicagOt Illinois 

September 15, 16 and 18, 1941 Portland, Oregon 

October 7-8, 1941 Toronto, Canada 

October 20-23, 1941 Chicago, Illinois 

November 28-29, 1941 Toronto, Canada 

In addition to the above conferences at which there were usually present 
representatives of the various Canadian and United States Commissions or 
Authorities interested in the power development, the following conferences were 
held for the stated specific purposes; 

December 22-23, 1941— a * Chicago, Illinois, - to discuss generator specifi- 
cations* 

Present : Representatives of U.S. Engineer Offices and Harza En- 
gineering Co., and generator manufacturers for part of 
the time. 

February 5-6 » 1941 — —at Chicago, Illinois, - to discuss turbine and power- 
house specifications. 

Present: Representatives of U.S. Engineer Offices and Harza 

Engineering Co., and turbine manufacturers on February 
5. 



POWERHOUSE 

A complete discussion of the types of powerhouse and possible loca- 
tions and the various governing factors affecting each are presented in our 
report of June 21, 1941» At a conference with the United States Advisory s t. 
Iawrence Board in Washington on June 27t 1941» the Board tentatively selected 
the downstream location of the powerhouse, designation n C" in that report, and 
the type «D" powerhouse with transformers located on the donwstream side above 
the draft tubes, - both selections subject to final decision at the Joint 
Meeting of the United States and Canadian Advisory Boards. Both selections 
were later approved at the Joint Meeting in New York on July 31, 1941, subject 
to further architectural studies of the type «D" powerhouse. Accordingly, we 
have confined our designs and studies to this type and location. 

At the conference in Chicago on October 20-23, 1941» many of the 
powerhouse features were decided upon and most of the available room space was 
allocated for specific occupancy or use. The Harza Engineering Company's com- 
putations on stability of the powerhouse, which were submitted on October 13, 
1941. to the various interested Boards, were also discussed at this conference 



and the following decisions were reached » 

(a) No reduction should be allowed in the loadings and design 
criteria previously established and used in the design of the Long 
Sault Dam, including headwater at elevation 249* 

(b) A full gravity section, without tension in the upstream face, 
should be used up to elevation 229 * n tne section containing generating 
units. Above this section, tension in the upstream face could be 
carried by reinforcing steel, if necessary, but sections should, be kept 
as massive as reasonably possible in order to reduce vibration. 

(c) The bottom of the concrete should be taken at not higher than 
elevation 115 at the heel, and elevation 103 at the toe. In case it is 
found when the foundation is unwatered that the elevation of sound rock 
is higher than 115 at the heel or lower than 103 at the toe, necessary 
changes in design will be made at that time. 

(d) In* computing stability for full pool level, it should be 
assumed that the speed rings and scroll case concrete have been placed, 
but no credit shall be taken for the weight of superstructure or 
machinery. If, during construction, it should appear desirable to 
raise the pool before all speed rings and scroll cases can be placed, 
the International Commission will then decide what special measures or 
changes in design will bo required and to what extent, if any, some 
temporary concessions may be made in stability criteria.. 

It was further decided at the conference that the earth pressure 
on the upstream side, below the intake still, should be analyzed and the 
section changed if necessary. Such a change was not found necessary, as 
shown by the accompanying computations of powerhouse stability, Appendix I, 
Plates 1 to 8, inclusive* 

POWERHOUSE DESIGN DATA 

1. Hydrology 

The following hydrologic data, furnished by the U. S. District Engineer, 
is based on applying regulation "Plan 5" of the Canadian Department of 
Transport to the 80-year record of monthly means of the elevation of Lake 
Ontario and the discharge of the St. Lawrence River. 



(a) Stream Flow 

Msan flow 

Min. average monthly flow 

Max. average monthly flow 

(b) Initial Operation 



•242,000 c.f.s. 
-180,000 c.f.s. 
-310,000 c.f.s. 



Normal head 

Range of heads 

Maximum head for runway speed 



-81 ft. 

-71.3 to 83.8 ft, 

-90 ft. 



Controlled headwater 

Normal corresponding tailwater 



-Elev. 238 
-Elec. 157 



Maximum headwater (no units 
operating) 



-Elev. 249 



Initial Operation ( Cont ' d ) 

Minimum tailwater 
Maximum tailwater 

(c) Ultimate Operation 

Normal head 
Range of heads 

2. General Powerhouse Dimensions 

(a) C. to C. of units 

(b) Width of generator room inside 
face to face of walls 

(c) length of end erection bay 

(d) Length of center erection bay 

(e) Total length 



3. Design Conditions 

(a) Headwater elevations 

(b) Tailwater elevations 

(c) Ice pressure at 10,000 
lbs./lin.ft. applied at 
elevation 

(d) Uplift at toe 

(e) Uplift at upstream face 



-Elev. 154 
-Elev. 190 



-83.5 

-71.3 to 87.3 ft. 



-SO'-O" 





-70 » 


-0" 


* 




-203 


• -0" 




y 


-67' 


-6» 






-350l»-0« 




Case I 




Case II 


Case III 


249.0 




245.0 


245.0 


150.0 




154.0 


154.5 


None 




None 


244.0 


Full 




Static 


Tailwater 


Full 




Static 


Tailwater, plus 
50% of the diff- 
erential between 
headwater and tail- 
water. The pressure 
across the base is 
to be uniformly 
graded between these 
upstream and down- 
stream values. 



4» Stability 

It has been found, in general, that Case I, namely high headwater, governs 
the design whenever the plane of analysis is at or below the turbine floor, 
elevation 186.5* Case III, namely ice pressure conditions, governs whenever 
the plane of analysis is above that elevation. In none of the calculations 
was Case II found to govern. In all analyses the main buttress piers, 15 feet 
wide, have been assumed to carry the full load of the 80-foot unit powerhouse 
block. 



5* Live loads 



(a 
(b 
(c 

(d 
(e 
(f 
(S 



Generator room floor 
Turbine floor 
Erection bay floors 
Office floors 
Roofs 

Upstream deck 
Transformer deck 



1000 lbs./sq. ft. 

1000 » " 

1000 ■ 

75 

50 ■ 

500 ■ 

1000 " 



9 

■ 
It 



ERECTION BAYS 

It is proposed, in the erection of the turbines (other than the em- 
bedded parts) to start with the first turbine of each speed that is nearest 
the center of the combined powerhouse and proceed in both directions toward 
the shore ends. This necessitates utilizing the center erection bays for tur- 
bine parts and leaving the end erection bays and the generator barrels for 
two or more units available for placing, storing and assembling the rotors, 
bearing brackets and other generator parts. The arrangements of equipment 
in the erection bays are shown more fully on accompanying preliminary draw- 
ing PR-4t Appendix II. 

The prints of the proposed plans and sections of the generator in- 
stallations and of the erection bays were submitted to the generator manu- 
facturers, to ascertain if the spaces and clearances provided were sufficient 
for the installation of generators with as low reactances as 30 to 3%, The 
manufacturers have advised that the provisions shown are amp]e for even such 
generators. 

MACHINE SHOPS 



A machine shop, to serve both the Canadian and United States pow- 
erhouses, is to be located on the elevation 174 floor, below the center erec- 
tion bays, as shown on preliminary drawing FR-4» Appendix II. It is proposed 
to install in this area a large boring mill, shaft lathe, planer and any 
other desired shop equipment. This shop is to be made accessible to the 
main powerhouse crane by large hatches in the erection bay floor at elevation 
197*5 » which are normally covered with removable panels. 

In addition, a grinding and a sand-blast equipment room are to be 
provided on the elevation 197-5 floor, at the shore end of each powerhouse, 
as also shown on the aforementioned drawing. These are intended, principally, 
for turbine runner repair work. 

ELEVATORS 

At the conference of October 20-23, 1941t it was decided to install 
elevators in each powerhouse, as follows: 

(a) Three elevators at the end of each powerhouse ; -one reserved for 
operators only, one for the general public, and one for package and freight. 

(b) The upstream elevators to be removed from the piers and run to 
elevation 209 only. 

(c) Elevators on the downstream deck to service the lower floors* 

It was later found desirable to increase the width of the ice sluice 
pier adjacent to the main unit. This permitted the installation of an ele- 
vator to service every floor of the powerhouse, and its inclusion was approved 
at the Toronto meeting on November 27-28, 1941. Subsequently instructions 
were received from the U.S. District Engineer to also provide elevator service 
in the center area over the ice sluice. 

In addition to indicating the elevator shafts on the plans and sec- 



tions of both preliminary and contract drawings, the diagrammatic location of 
the elevators in the two powerhouses is further shown on preliminary dram ng 
PR-6 - ELEVATORS (Appendix II), together with suggested typical details. All 
elevators are proposed to be 25001b. capacity, the passenger elevators to op- 
erate at 200 feet per minute and the freight elevator in each powerhouse at 
50 feet per minute, 

POWERHOUSE CRANES 

Main Generator Room Cranes . The preliminary data submitted by the 
generator manufacturers indicate that the weight of each rotor would be about 
600 tons. It is proposed, therefore, to have two 300 tone cranes in each 
powerhouse, with a lifting beam arrangement to utilize the combined crane ca- 
pacity to lift each rotor. Each crane will have two 150-ton trolleys with 
about a 30-ton auxiliary on each trolley. 

The crane runways for both the United States and Canadian power- 
houses are to be continuous to facilitate the exchange of cranes from one 
powerhouse to the other. Provisions are to be made to travel the cranes over 
an isolated section at the International Boundary Line, so as to avoid the ne- 
cessity of synchronizing the power supplies of the two powerhouses. 

Generator Room Crane Data. 



(a 
(b 
(c 
Cd 
(e 
(f 
(g 



(h) 



W 
(1) 
(m) 

(n) 



Capacity of each main hook 

Capacity of each auxiliary hook 

Lift, each main hook 

Lift, each auxiliary hook 

Span C. to C. of rails 

Travel (approx.) 

Current 

Speeds 

1* Main hook 

2. Auxiliary hook 

3. Trolley travel 
4» Bridge travel 
Estimated weight of crane 
Wheels, one side 
ftfcxiraum wheel load 
Crane rail 

Side Thrust 5i£ of maximum crane load on 



-150 tons 

- 30 tons 

- 70»- 0» 
-110 «. 0» 

- 71 1 - 10" 

-3400 ft. 

- 60 cycle, 5$Q volt, 

3 phase 

- 4 F.P.M. 
-18-25 » 

-35-40 « 
-100 » 

-600,000 lbs. 

- 8 
-103,500 lbs. 

- Lorain #418 -175 lt» 
each rail. 



Erection Bay Cranes . The erection bay cranes are to be installed 
for the purpose of handling generator parts, transformers, turbine runners 
and shafts separately, and other parts of equipment -in the center erection 
bays. Information received from manufacturers indicate that the heaviest 
piece to be handled in these areas will weigh about 4°5»000 1 DS » Two single- 
trolley 200-ton cranes have been selected for this location to provide max- 
imum maneuverability. 

Erection Bay Crane Data. 



(a) Capacity of main hook 

(b) Capacity of auxiliary hook 



-200 tons 
- 20 tons 



Erection Bay Crane Data. (Cont'd) 



(c) 


lift, main hook 


w 


Lift, auxiliary hook 


(e) 


Span, C. to C. of rails 


(f) 


Travel 


(g) 


Current 



(h) Speeds 

1. Main hook 

2. Auxiliary hook 

3. Trolley travel 

4. Bridge travel 

(j) Estimated weight of crane 
(k) Wheels on one side 
(1) Maximum wheel load 
(m) Crane rail 

(n) Side thrust % ot maximum crane 
load on each rail. 



■ 50 ft. 
• 75 ft. 

■ 40 ft. in. 
•215 ft. & 140 ft. 

- 60 cycle, 550 volt, 

3 phase. 

- 4 F.P.M. 

- 18-25 • 

- 35-40 » 

- 60-75 " 
-200,000 lbs. 

- 4 

- 60,000 lbs. 

- Lorain #418, 175 Lbs. 



TURBINES AND GOVERNORS 

The type, capacity and rated head of the turbines are to be as 
discussed and recommended in Rarza Engineering Company's report of June 21, 
1941, which, with slight modifications, was found to be acceptable by the 
various Commissions and Authorities interested. 

At the conference in Toronto on October 7 and 8, 194lt it was de- 
cided that the speeds should be 66.7 rpm for the 60-cycle units and 68.2 
rpm for the 25-cycle units, provided that these speeds were satisfactory to 
the generator manufacturers. The latter subsequently advised that a syn- 
chronous speed of 66.7 rpm, requiring 108 poles in each generator, might in- 
duce third harmonics and unnecessarily limit the design. The generator 
manufacturers further recommended using 104-pole machines at 69.2 rpm for 
60-cycle operation and 44-pole machines at 68.2 rpm for 25-cycle operation. 
These speeds were approved at the conference in Chicago on October 20-23, 
194lt and were subsequently incorporated in the specifications for the tur- 
bines and generators. 

Initially, the type of scroll case, as now shown on preliminary 
and contract drawings, was selected to conform to the suggestions of the 
consultants at the various conferences, and was acceptable to the authorities 
concerned. The turbine manufacturers in the United States were requested by 
the U.S. District Engineer, in the meantime, to study the possibility of 
presenting an identical design of scroll case and draft tube that could be 
used by all of them in conjunction with the turbines that they might be 
called upon to build. 

On the basis of preliminary information received from one of the 
manufacturers, the U.S. District Engineer, by letter of November 21, 1941» 
authorized continuation of the contract drawings along the lines laid down, 
since it appeared improbable that any proposed modification would alter 
the spacing of units or upset the stability calculations. 

On November 21, 1941. the turbine manufacturers submitted an out- 
line of semi-spiral casing upon which they had agreed, this being materially 
different from the one approved by the consultants. The scroll case as pro- 



posed by the turbine manufacturers would, .moreover, require radical changes in 
the powerhouse cross-section, necessitating either (a) lowering the center line 
of the unit 3 feet, which would affect the powerhouse stability, or (b),. rais- 
ing the turbine floor and everything above it by 3 feet. 

At the conference with the turbine manufacturers in Chioa go on Feb- 
ruary 5» 1942, an endeavor was made to arrive at some compromise design of 
scroll case, which would eliminate these changes in the powerhouse and still 
provide a scroll case that each manufacturer would accept for inclusion with 
his design of turbine. Full agreement could not be reached, but the majority 

of the turbine manufacturers represented were of the opinion that a satisfac- 
tory scroll case of a design somewhat similar to the one adopted by the con- 
sultants could be developed after further study and tests. The Harza Engin- 
eering Company was, therefore, authorized to retain the outline and generali- 
ties of the scroll case as now shown on the contract plans, on the assumption 
that eventually the type and details of the scroll case would be determined 
by tests on model runners and scroll cases. 

The draft tube outline and section up to the top section of the 
steel p]ate draft tube liner, as submitted by the turbine manufacturers with 
their letter of November 21, 194l» has been used in the preparation of draw- 
ings, on the basis that the upper portion of the cone liner would be made to 
accommodate the different dimensions of the discharge throats of the indivi- 
dual manufacturer's units. 

Piping is to be provided for Winter-Kennedy, or similar, type of 
turbine flow recording, - from the piezometer connections at each scroll case 
to flow meter registers on the generator floor, as shown on preliminary draw- 
ing PR-11, Appendix II. The registers are to be located between pairs of 
units, adjacent to the upstream generator room wall. 

The governor equipment is to consist of twin-cabinet type actuators 
placed between alternate units at the downstream side of units on the genera- 
tor floor, with dual-type sumps, pumps and pressure tanks on the turbine floor 
as shown on preliminary drawing PR-5» Appendix II. Each twin-governor group 
is to be provided with two individual air compressors, one for maintaining 
pressure in the pressure tanks and the other for air brake operation. 

In general, the specifications for turbines and governors were ac- 
ceptable to the turbine manufacturers and approved by the U.S. Engineer 
Offices, subject to incorporating the details thereof in the proposed U. S. 
Engineer standard form of turbine specifications. 



Turbine Data - Used in Powerhouse Design 

(a) Type 

(b) Speed 

(c) Rated capacity 

(d) Rated head 

(e) Runaway speed at 81' head 

(f) Runaway speed at 90' head 

(g) Hydraulic thrust at 90 1 head 
(h) Weight, runner & shaft 

Total thrust 
(j) Weight of heaviest part 



( 60 Qycle Units) 

- Francis 

- 69.2 rpm 

- 6l,100 hp at best gate 

- 67,100 at full gate 

- 81 ft. 

- 133 rpm 

- 140 rpm 

- 475.000 lbs. 

- 550,000 lbs. 

- 1,000,000 lbs. 

- 400,000 lbs. 



8 



Turbine Data - jsgd in Po^rhmiae Design (60 Cycle Unita ) ( Cont • d) 



(k) Weight of heaviest embedded piece 
to be handled in substructure 
construction 

(1) Total weight of turbine 

(m) Governor capacity 

(n) Governor size 

(o) Height C.L. Distributor to 
generator coupling flange 
Outside diameter of speed ring 
Diameter of shaft 



(P) 

(q) 

(r) 
(s) 



Diameter of pit liner 
WR of runner 



- 50,000 lbs. 

- 1,800,000 lbs. 

- 420,000 ft. lbs. 

- 6 in* 

- 21 ft. 

-32 ft. 

- 41 in* 

- 28 ft. 

- 25,000,000 lb. ft.' 



GENERATORS 



The main unit generators as discussed in the report of June 21, 
1941, were approved, with minor changes in electrical characteristics, by 
the Advisory Committees. The desired characteristics for generators in the 
Canadian plant were furnished by the Canadian Authorities. Following is a 
tabulation of the main features of the generators for both plants: 



U.S. Powerhouse 



Canadian Powerhouse 





60 cycle 


25 cycle 


18 


6 


12 


55,000 


55,000 


58,000 


.95 


.95 


•90 


69.2 


69.2 


68.2 


13,800 


13,800 


13,800 


125,000,000 


125,000,000 


125,000,000 


.05 


.05 


.05 


.44 


•40 


-35 


1.15 


1.15 


1.15 



Number of generators 
KVA capacity 
Power factor 
Speed, rpm 

Phase to phase* volts 
WR 2 , - lbs. ft. 
Exciter response 
Transient reactance 
Short circuit ratio 

The specifications for the generators for the United States plant 
were discussed with and made acceptable to the generator manufacturers and 
were later approved by the U.S. Engineer Offices, subject to incorporating 
the details thereof in the proposed standard U.S. Engineer form of genera- 
tor specifications. 

The several manufacturers that are capable of building generators 
of these sizes were contacted, and the data provided by them was used to 
determine the maximum requirements for loadings and space provisions for in- 
corporation in the design of the powerhouse. 

TRAH3F0RMERS 

The project set forth by the International Agreement of March 19, 
1941, does not include transformers, high-tension leads, or high-tension 
switching. These will have to be provided by the agencies operating the pow- 
erhouse, presumbaly the Power Authority of the State of New York and Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario. It was agreed at the meeting in New 
York City on July 31, 1941, that the transformers would be placed on the 
downstream platform above the draft tubes, and that the powerhouse super- 



structure would be designed to provide rooms for the transformers and their 
auxiliary equipment and the high-tension leads, while such high-tension 
switching as might be required would be located on Barnhart Island and the 

Canadian mainland. 

Since no decision has been made as to the wiring diagram to be used 
in the United States plant, the Harza Engineering Company was instructed to 
design the powerhouse with sufficient space allotted for the transformers and 
switching to permit the use of that diagram which would require the most room. 
This is the cross-connected scheme, X-2, on plate 100 of our report of June 21, 
19^1* using three-winding, single phase transformers, and as also shown herein 
on preliminary drawing PR-21, -Appendix II. The Canadian Authorities have sub- 
mitted another diagram for the Canadian 60 cycla system and one for the 25 
cycle system, as shown on preliminary drawing FR-25. 

These diagrams, together with required transformer capacities, 
switching requirements and preliminary drawings of the proposed layout, have 
been submitted to the interested manufacturers, who advised that the allocat«d 
space is sufficient for the required equipment. 

The transformers are to be cooled by circulating the oil through 
water coolers located below the cable tunnels, to be supplied with water pump- 
ed from the tailrace, as shown dia grama tically on preliminary drawings FR-10 
and PR- 11, Appendix II, and as further described hereinafter under Piping 

Systems . 

Three banks of single phase transformers are to be used to transform 
the capacity of six United States units to 115 ^ v t which would be carried by 
three outgoing feeders to 115 kv buses in the switching station. These buses 
would feed 115 kv lines as required. The capacity of the other 12 units in 
the United States powerhouse is to be transformed by six banks of single phase 
transformers to 230 kv, each bank feeding one 230 kv line. Provision is made 
for the United States 115 kv switching station to be connected to use the 
output of four of the six 60 cycle units on the Canadian side. By means of 
disconnect switches any one or more of these four units could be connected 
either to the United States system or to the system of the Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario. This arrangement is shown on preliminary drawing 
PR-25. Appendix II. 

SWITCHQEAR CUBICLES 

The proposed wiring diagrams require switching at generator voltage, 
and data was obtained from the manufacturers on cubicles containing such 
switching with the required disconnects, buses, instrument transformers, »tc. 
mounted therein. The manufacturers have advised that the size of these cu- 
bicles with oil circuit breakers will be approximately the same as with air 
circuit breakers. 

At the conference in Chicago on October 20-23, 1941 1 the question 
of oil circuit breakers and air circuit breakers for this service was discuss- 
ed. The Canadian Authorities were not certain that air breakers could be 
purchased in Canada and all present agreed that it was not desirable to in- 
stall oil circuit breakers in tne powerhouse. It was therefore decided that 
the cubicles with the 13*800 volt breakers, either oil or air type, shall 
be installed between the transformer cells, on the downstream platform at 



10 



elevation 197 .5 • 

REACTORS 

The low tension switching arrangement. Scheme X-2, was studied on 
the AC calculating board at Bonneville, and it was found that this arrange- 
ment may require the use of a synchronizing bus with reactors connected be- 
tween this bus and each group of two generators. The Canadian 60 cycle wir- 
ing diagram, adopting the use of a synchronizing bus, requires reactors for 
each generator. 

The reactor cubicles are to be placed above the switchgear cubicles 
in the spaces between transformers on the downstream side of the powerhouse, 
approximately at elevation 217» aa shown on preliminary drawing PR-25« Di- 
mensions and weights were obtained from the manufacturers on reactor cubicles 
of three capacities. It is apparent from this information that space is a- 
vailable for any reasonable capacity that may be later decided upon. 

Calculations show that it may be desirable to use reactors in the 
generator neutrals, and provision has been made to mount these on the turbine 
floor next to the neutral breakers, if such reactors are considered necessary. 

POWER LEADS 

High Tension Power leads . At the conferences held in Washington on 
June 27 1 1941 t and in New York on July 23, 1941» it was decided that the 115 
Kv leads from the transformers serving the six generators in each half of 
the powerhouse nearest the center of the river would consist of cables, and 
that these would be led to the high-tension switching stations on shore 
through suitable galleries in the powerhouse and galleries or tunnels on 
shore. It was also decided to plan for the use of cables similarly installed 
for the 230 Kv leads from the transformers serving the twelve generators at 
each of the shore ends of the powerhouse. However, since there were still 
some doubts as to the practicability of 230 Kv cable, the layout was to 
be so arranged that there would be no serious difficulty in changing the 
plan, erecting high towers on the downstream side of the powerhouse, and 
carrying the 230 Kv power from the transformers to the switchyards by over- 
head conductors, 

t 

At the conference on October 20-23, 1941* it was decided to make 
available for the high tension power leads from the transformers to the 
switching station, and the control cables, all space downstream of the gen- 
erator roo;n wall between elevations 164 and 197»5» This space is sufficient 
for any cable scheme that may be adopted. 

Should cables not be used for high tension leads, overhead leads 
would be provided, mounted on towers at the powerhouse and at the switching 
stations. By letter of March 28, 194lt the U.S. District Engineer instruct- 
ed the Harza Engineering Company that all lines above 132,000 volts should 
have a clearance of not less than 175 feet above navigable waters. It was 
suggested that the pond area above the plant must be considered navigable 
since a ship might approach the plant because of fog or loss of control. 
With this consideration, the towers at the plant would have to extend about 
373 feet above the transformer platform or to elevation 570, as shown on 
preliminary drawing PR-24, OVERHEAD HIGH VOLTAGE TOWERS, Appendix II. This 



11 



elevation could be materially reduced if this headwater is not to be consid- 
ered navigable. 

For the purpose of visualizing the magnitude of forces acting upon 
the pull-off towers at the powerhouse, all external forces have been computed 
on the basis of normal wire tension with Class "C" loading of 3/4 inch ice 
and a wind pressure of 11 lbs. per sq. ft., as shown on the aforementioned 
drawing PR-24* 

low Tension Power Leads . Provision has been made for the 13,800 
volt leads from the generators to the circuit breakers to pass under the gen- 
erator floor and enter the cubicles from below. From here to the transformers 
the leads would be along the downstream side of the generator room wall, above 
the cubicles. Both spaces are sufficient for the use of cable or metal-en- 
closed leads, as shown on drawing PR- 25, ALTERNATE ARRANGEMENTS HIGH VOLTAGE 
CABLES and on drawing PR-31, TYPICAL CONTROL AND INSTRUMENT CONDUITS, Appendix 
II. 

SWITCHBOARDS 

In accordance with d ecision of the conference in Chicago on October 
20-23, 1941, the control rooms have been located at the shore ends of the gen- 
erator room, at elevation 231»5» Detail layouts of these rooms have not been 
made. 

A benchboard is to be provided in each control room for the routine 
operation and will have mounted thereon all of the switches and indicating 
lights required for the control of the units. The intent is to arrange these 
controls so that the switchboard operator can start, regulate speed, synchro- 
nize, adjust load and shut do?7n any unit or can signal the generator floor 
operator to prepare a unit for synchronizing or to shut it down. Only those 
instruments and gages required to indicate the momentary conditions will be 
mounted on the benchboard; all others that may be required for record pur- 
poses, etc., will be mounted on vertical boards. A second benchboard, or an 
extension of the other, is to be provided for control of such transmission 
lines as may have high tension switching. The faces of these boards are to 
have miniature buses with switching controls mounted in their relative posi- 
tions. 

The vertical boards are to be provided with indicating, integrating 
and recording instruments for use with all generators, transformers and trans- 
mission lines as desired. Such time-control, load-control, line-relaying, 
etc., as may be required, and the annunciation of all troubles in the gener- 
ating units, are to be on vertical boards in these rooms. 

Manual synchronizing is to be provided, but it is planned that in 
normal operation, the synchronizing will be automatic, with two or more in- 
struments provided in each operating room. To insure operating continuity of 
these synchronizers, it is planned that each will ordinarily be used for a 
certain group of switches. Provision is to be made, ho?/ever, to substitute, 
by switching, any synchronizer for an instrument that may be out of order. 

Local vertical switchboards are to be provided on the generator 
floor between each group of two units, on which there would be mounted the 
controls and indications required for the mechanical features of each unit, 
for the use of the operator on this floor. In addition, there are to be 

12 



mounted on these boards: (a) relaying for the zones near the generators and 
transformers, (b) temperature recorders for bearings and generator and trans- 
former windings, and (c) annunciation of mechanical troubles -- the latter 
being in addition to the provisions therefor in the control room as stated 
above. 

HOUSE TOWER AND LIGHT 

In order to conform to the motor service standards of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario in their several plants, it was decided 
to adopt the 5$0 voltage for this service and make it common to both the 
United States and Canadian powerhouses, to facilitate interchange of motors 
and equipment and to permit generator room cranes and gantries to travel a- 
cross the international line. The power is to be three-phase, 60 cycle. 

The distribution system proposed for the United States powerhouse 
is shown on preliminary drawing PR- 22, SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM - STATION POWER 
AND LIGHT, in Appendix II. The conduit and distribution board arrangement 
for light, power and control systems are shown on preliminary drawings PR-26 
to -32 inclusive, in Appendix II. 

HOUSE UNIT 

At the conference in Toronto on November 28 and 29 » 1941 » it was 
decided that power for station service, including service of the Long Sault 
Dam, should be supplied by one hydro-electric unit in each powerhouse with 
characteristics as tabulated below, and the specifications have been prepared 
accordingly. The turbines are being specified with a conservatively low 
specific speed. This installation is to be supplemented in each powerhouse 
by transformers for furnishing service power at 13» 600 volts from the 
switching station. 

The normal operation will be for the Canadian and the United States 
sections to each operate its own house unit and keep its local power indepen- 
dent of the other, with the transformers as a reserve, thus giving each two 
sources of power. In further emergency, or as desired for any reason, the 
13»800 volt or primary side of the house service systems can be synchronized 
to enable either plant to furnish auxiliary power for both plants. 

Tne intake gate, trash racic, stop log, and draft tube gate 
slots are to be identical to those for a main unit, and the intake 
and draft tube widths are to be equal to the respective widths of 
a section of like structure for a main unit. This arrangement 
would make possible the exchange of equipment and avoid the need 
for extra stop logs, emergency trash racks, or permanent draft tube 
gates for the house unit. 

House Unit Data - Used in Powerhouse Design 

1. Turbine 

- Francis 

- 150 rpm 

- 9,000 hp 

- 81 ft. 

13 



(a) 


Type 


00 


Speed 


(c) 


Rated capacity 


W 


Rated head 



Turbine - (Cont'd) 



(e) Runaway speed at 81' head - 260 rpm 

(f) Runaway speed at 90 1 head - 274 rpm 

(g) Hydraulic thrust at 90' head - 65 #000 lbs. 
(h) Weight, runner & shaft - 35 » 000 lbs. 

Total thrust - 100,000 lbs. 

(j) Governor capacity - 55 »°00 ft. lbs. 

(k) Governor size - 3 i n » 
(1) Height C.L. distributor to 

generator coupling flange - 32 ft. 

(m) Outside diameter of speed ring - 13*5 ^» 

(n) Diameter of shaft - 18 in. 

(o) Diameter of pit liner - 12 ft. 

2. Generator 

(a) Capacity - 7.500 kva 

(b) power factor - d>% 

(c) Frequency - 60 cycles 

(d) Phase to phase - 13,800 volts 

(e) WR 2 - 2,200,000 lb. ft. 2 

(f) Transient reactance - 4^ 

(g) Short circuit ratio - 1.05 

POWERHOUSE HEATING , VENTILATING A ND AIR CONDITIONING 

It was decided to provide for heating and ventilating all spaces 
and for summer air-conditioning in the offices only. As a measure for dust 
elimination in the powerhouse, it was also decided to omit all window sash 
and provide mechanical ventilation and air filtering. Waste heat from the 
generators is to be utilized to the extent possible for general space heat- 
ing and heating headgate operating spaces, ice sluice crests, gate seals, 
etc. 

Studies of heating, ventilating and air conditioning have been 
pursued to the extent necessary for establishing the general systems and 
allocating space for equipment. These studies have been based on the fol- 
lowing design assumptions: 

Winter Conditions 

Outside dry bulb temperature - 20° F 

Inside dry bulb temperature 
Generator room, turbine room, 

and downstream spaces - 60° F 

Headgate operating space - 50° F 

All other spaces - 70° F 

Summer Conditions (for conditioned spaces) 

Outside dry bulb temperature 95 F 

Outside wet bulb temperature 750 p* 

Inside dry bulb temperature 80° F 
Inside relative humidity not to 

exceed 45£ 

The approximate loads and air volumes resulting from these studies 
are summarized in Table I, below. 

14 



Heated air is to be discharged from the generators into a common 
plenum chamber extending the full length of the powerhouse on the upstream 
side of the units. Hot air for heating may be tapped from this plenum 
chamber at any point along its length. To replace air thus bled from the 
generator air circuit, provisions are to be made to draw air back into the 
generator circuit from the turbine floor, the point of completion of the 
circulation through the powerhouse proper. 

Provision is also to be made for cooling the generators by circula- 
ting air from the generator housing through surface-type water coolers and 
back to the housing, as shown on preliminary drawing FR-9» Appendix II« The 
temperature of air discharged from the generators is to be controlled by reg- 
ulating the amount of water supplied to the air coolers. Whenever a genera- 
tor is shut down, it is to be isolated from the external air circuit by auto- 
matic louvres. 

The air supply to the individual room or space is to be a mixture 
of outside fresh air and return air from that room, tempered" with hot genera- 
tor air to the required temperature for heating. Thermostats are to control 
the amount of heated air supplied to the mixture. Zone temperature control 
is to be effected by thermostatically-operated volume dampers in the branch 
ducts. 

The proposed locations for the major items of heating and ventil- 
ating equipment, in the upstream portions of the floors at elevations 227 end 
243*5 ar e shown on preliminary drawings PR-7 and -8, -Appendix II. 

The equipment is to be arranged in six groups for each of the 
Canadian and United States powerhouses, each group to be composed of four units, 
as follows: 

(a) One unit, consisting of air filters, surface-type water cool- 
ers and fan, on the elevation 22? floor is to supply 20,000 C.F.M. of air to 
the generator room. Provision is to be made for cooling the air to be supplied 
to the generator room in the summer time in order to avoid excessively high 
temperatures in that space from solar radiation and radiation from the gener- 
ator housings. 

(b) Another unit, consisting of a fan and air filters, on the 
elevation 227 floor, is to supply 8,700 C.F.M. to the upstream spaces below 
elevation 241. 5* 

(cl Two units on the elevation 243*5 floor, one to supply 6,000 C.F. 
M. of air to the headgate operating space and the other to supply 4t300 C.F.M. 
to the remaining space on that floor. The first unit is to consist of a fan, 
without filters, and the second unit, of both a fan and air filters. 

It is intended to place the office air-conditioning equipment on the 
elevation 275 floor. This equipment is to be arranged in two units, one to 
supply 23*000 C.F.M. of air to the elevation 275 floor, and the other to sup- 
ply 16,800 C.F.M. of air to the lower floors. Each unit is to consist of 
fan, air filters and blast cooling coils. In general the proposed system is 
adaptable to cooling either with unchilled river water or by means of mechan- 
ical refrigeration, the choice to depend upon detailed studies. 

Ample space is available for air-conditioning equipment for the of- 
fices over the center ice sluice, and also for fans to distribute air to the 

35 



ice sluice crests, gate seals, etc., if detailed studies should indicate 
that fans are necessary for that purpose. 

Air is to be exhausted from the turbine room floor through the 
cable tunnels to an outlet in the switching station in sufficient quantities 
for cooling those tunnels. In addition to the air that would be exhausted 
through the various exhaust fans from toilets, grinders, etc., provision is 
to be made to permit exfiltration from relief louvres located in the genera- 
tor room walls near the ceilings. 

All air filters are to be qf the automatic self-cleaning type. 
The principle ventilating fans are to be the usual, centrifugal type, with 
backward curved blades and non-overloading characteristics. In certain 
cases, such as the cable duct ventilating fans, low-tip speed propeller- type 
fans may be substituted for centrifugal blowers. 



16 



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PIPING SYSTEMS 

Oil Purification Systems. Provision has been made for grouping 
all oil storage and purifying equipment on the elevation 150 floor, near 
the center of each powerhouse, as shown on preliminary drawing PR-10, 
Appendix II. 

Each transformer oil system is to include two 18,000 gallon fil- 
tered-oil tanks, two 18,000 gallon unf iltered-oil tanks, two 1,200 g.p.h. 
oil-purifying sees, including centrifuge, filter, heaters and purifier 
pumps, and two 250 g.p.m. oil transfer pumps. Purifiers and pumps are to 
be provided in duplicate to insure continuity of service. 

Each governor and lubricating oil system is to consist of one 
7,800 gallon filtered -oil tank and one 7,800 gallon unf iltered-oil tank, 
a 300 g.p.h. purifier set and a 75 g.p.m. oil transfer pump. 

The entire downstream portion of the elevation 150 floor is to 
be used as a piping and equipment gallery. Transformer supply and drain 
headers are to run the length of this gallery, with branch connections 
leading to each transformer. Branch connections are to be provided at 
suitably located oil-unloading and transformer detanking-points. Gover- 
nor and lubricating oil supply headers are also to be run the length of 
the gallery, with branch piping to each generating unit and governor 
group and to suitable oil-unloading stations. 

Water Supply Systems. The various water supply systems are 
shown on preliminary drawing PR-11, Appendix II. A. separate 8 inch dia- 
meter generator cooling water intake for each unit is to be provided in 
the roof of each scroll case, from which water will go through a twin- 
basket strainer to the cooling coils. 

Intakes for water for other uses are to be arranged in three 
sets of duplicate 8 inch diameter intakes for each powerhouse. These in- 
takes are to be located in the piping and equipment gallery at the eleva- 
tion 150 floor, to pump directly from the tailrace. Space is also avail- 
able at each set of intakes for two 1,200 g.p.m. raw water pumps and two 
1,200 g.p.m. fire pumps. Space is provided at the shore end of e::ch power- 
house for rapid-pressure type water filters, chlorinating equipment and 
treated -water pumps for sanitary and drinking water services. The water 
pumps are to discharge into longitudinal headers for their respective 
systems. 

It is proposed to cool the transformers by circulating oil through 
external oil coolers to be located in the piping and equipment gallery. 
Cooling water for these coolers is to be taken from the main raw water 
header in this gallery. 

The main fire header is to supply miscellaneous fire-hose cabinet 
outlets and sprinkler systems, as well as the emulsifying type of sprinkler 
system protection for transformer vaults and oil equipment rooms. 

Unwatering Systems. There are to be provided 18 inch diameter 
branch lines from each draft tube to a common 18 inch diameter draft tube 
unwatering header, which is to run the length of each powerhouse. Each 
branch is to be provided with a shut -off valve. Eighteen inch diameter 
branch lines are also to be run from each scroll case, through shut-off 
valves, to a separate like-sized scroll case unwatering header. 

The scroll case unwatering header is to be cross-connected to the 
draft tube header for every group of 6 units and a 5t 000 g.p.n;. turbine- 
type unwatering pump connected to the headers at each cross-connection. 



18 



Valves are to be provided for isolating sections of either header between 
pumps. Each unwatering pump is to discharge to the tailrace through dupli- 
cate discharge lines. 

Drainage Systems. In general, all roof drains, seepage drains, 
wastes (except sanitary wastes) above the respective maximum head-water and 
tailwater elevations are to drain directly to either the headrace or tail- 
race. The generator cooling water discharge is to drair to the draft tube. 
All other drains and wastes (except sanitary) are to drain to sumps located 
in the same pits where the main unwatering pumps are to be located, i.e., 
one for every group of six units. Each sump is to be provided with a pair 
of 500 g.p.m. open sump pumps to discharge to the tailrace through the 13 
inch diameter unwatering pump discharge lines. Generalities of drainage 
provisions are shown on preliminary drawing PR -12, Appendix II. 

Sanitary and Plumbing Systems . It was decided that all sanitary 
wastes should drain to a collection tank in the piping and equipment gal- 
lery at elevation ISO, and should be lifted by means of a pneumatic or elec- 
tric sewage ejector to an outside septic or Imhoff tank at the shore end. 
The effluent from such tank would discharge to the tailrace. 

INTAKE TRASH RACKS 

It was assumed in the design of the trash racks that at no time 
would the accumulated debris be sufficient to block off enough area to in- 
duce stresses in the rack bars or beams greater than that caused by a ten- 
foot differential in head water pressure. An allowable unit stress of 
13,000 lbs. per sq. in. was used in the design of both racks and supports. 
The racks are to be built in section, complete with frames and beams, for 
ease in maintenance and removal for repairs, as shown on preliminary drawing 
PR-13, Appendix II. 

One additional set of trash racks, designed to fit the emergency 
gate slots, is to be provided for each powerhouse. These are to be used 
to continue operation of any unit during the period that its permanent 
trash racks are removed for maintenance or repair. 

All trash rack sections are to be built so as to be self -align- 
ing and to be easily set or removed by mesns of a follower or lifting 
beam attached to the upstream gantry crane. 

INTAKE SERVICE GATFS 

The intake gate3, as shown on preliminary drawings PR-15-and -16 , 
Appendix II, are designed 33 built-up plate sections with continuous welds 
for structural strength as well as for watertightness. The design unit 
stresses are as stated in the accompanying D ESIGN DATA , Plates % to 41, 
Appendix I. Roller bearings are to be provided in the wheels to reduce the 
rolling friction factor, and the spacing of the wheels is to be such as to 
maintain as uniform wheel lo.id as possible when the gates are closed, 
without undue displacement of structural members. The wheels are to be 
case-hardened because of the relatively high concentrated v/heel loads. 

The gates are designed to close against full hydrostatic head , 

on the assumption that for some reason or cauae, the turbine v/icket gates 

would remain open. At the conference in Toronto on November 28 and 29, 

1941, it was decided that the head gate hoisting machinery should have 

sufficient capacity to open the gates under full head and thus eliminate 
the use of filler valves. 



19 



The head gates are to be divided into three sections by the two 
horizontal bolted field joints, to provide for the following: (a) it would 
permit shop assembly of each section and shipment of units ready for field 
erection; (b) for setting the gates by sections and for subsequent re- 
moval for maintenance within their respective slots, the total height of 
the required gantry crane would be kept to a minimum. 

It is proposed to have only a single hoist connection at the cen- 
ter of the top of each. gate to eliminate the need for equalizing two lift- 
ing media. Provisions are to be made for rapid closing of the gate for 
emergency shut-down, werein a solenoid-operated brake would be released 
to let the gate drop and a hydraulic brake in turn would "check" the speed 
of lowering to within safe limits. 

Dogging devices are to be provided to hold the gates in maximum 
top position while installing or removing the permanent gate hoists. 

Intake Gate and Hoist Data 



(a 
(b 
(c 
(d 
(e 
(f 
(g 

(h 

(j 
(k 

(1 



Overall dimensions 
Weight of gate 
Maximum head on sill 
Maximum head at top of gate 
Sliding friction factor 
Rolling friction factor 
Type of seal, top and sides 

bottom 
Closing force 
Lifting force 
Closing speed 
Lifting speed 



20' - 0" wide x 45' 
113,000 lbs. 

99-5 ft. 
54.25 ft. 

1.13S 

Rubber belting 

Steel to steel 
216,000 lbs. 
153,000 lbs. 
15 F.P.M. 

5 F.P.M. 



- 3" high 



IHTAKE STOP LOGS 

The intake stop logs are designed for such height as to require 
not more than 75 tons for lifting the top section under maximum headwater 
pressure, so that they could be handled by the gantry crane of that capacity. 

The proposed details of the stop logs are shown on preliminary 
drawing PR-14» Appendix II. A total of 14 stop logs, that can be placed 
in any order, are to be provided to close off one opening. 



Intake Stop Log Tata 



(a) 



(b 
(c 

(d 
(e 

(f 

(g 
(h 

(j 
(k 



Overall dimensions - each 
stop log (14 per opening) 
Weight of each stop log 
Total weight of stop logs, 

per opening 
Maximum head on sill 
Maximum head at top of 

stop logs 
Sliding friction factor 
Closing force 
Lifting force, each log, 
Closing speed, each log, 
Lifting speed, each log, 



- 3' 9^» x IS' - 11' 

- 7.500 lbs. 

- 316,000 lbs. 

- 99.5 ft. 

- 46.5 ft. 

- 70S 

- Dead wt. of gate 

- 152,300 lbs. 

- 15 F.P.M, 

- 15 F.P.M. 



20 



HEADWORDS GANTRY CRANE 

A gantry crane is to be provided on the upstream or penstock 
deck of each half of the powerhouse for the following purposes: 

(a) By extending the crane runway onto the bulkhead 
section at the shore end of the powerhouse and by providing 
a downstream overhang, a crane could lift gates, stop logs, 
and other materials off the railroad cars at generator 
floor level and hoist them up to the penstock deck. 

(b) For lowering an intake head gate into the gate 
slots, until the gate is retained by the dogging device and 
attached to its individual hoist; - and for lifting head 
gates out of the slots for inspection and maintenance. 

(c) By means of a special lifting beam, a crane could 
lower or raise the head gate emergency stop logs; - also 
lower or raise the permanent and emergency trash racks. 

(d) The capacity of each crane is such that when two 
cranes are used together, they would be capable of handling 
one large ice sluice gate. Both the $0 foot and the 75 foot 
ice sluice gates are to be provided v/ith lifting pins at each 
end independent of the gate hoist connections. The hooks of 
the gantry cranes could engage these lifting pins to lift a 
gate out of the slots. 

(e) By means of special lifting beams, the crane could 
handle the stop logs for both the 5° foot and the 75 foot 
ice sluices. 

(f ) Handle large drift accumulations at the face of the 
intakes, with a grab bucket. 

(g) Lift and set the ice sluice gate hoist out of the 
way prior to removing the sluice gates. 

(h) Handle intake gate hoists, grating, covers and 
other equipment and materials to be moved or transported on 
the penstock dock. 

The proposed methods of handling and installing the intake and 
ice sluice gates with the headworks gantry crane, or cranes, are shown 
on preliminary drawing FR-1% Appendix II. 

Headworks Gantry Crane Data 



(a) 
(b) 
(c) 
(<3) 
(e) 
(f) 

(Z) 



Capacity of main hook 
Capacity of grab bucket 
Lift, main hook 
Lift, grab bucket 
Span C. to C. of rails 
Current : 

Speeds 

1 . Ma in hook 

2. Grab bucket 

3. Trolley travel 

4. Crane travel 

(h) Estimated weight of crane 



75 


tons 




3 


tons 




80 


ft. 




130 ft. 




o 2 i 


- 0" 




60 


cycle, 550 
3 phase 


volts, 


15 


E.P.U. 




10 


11 




100 

onn 


n 




200, 


000 lbs 





21 






DRAFT TUBS GATES 

The draft tube gates, as shown on preliminary drawing FR-20, 
Appendix II, are to be each built in two sections, as the limited lift- 
ing space will not permit handling a single gate for the full height. 
Each section of gate is to be provided with a timber seal at the top and 
bottom, thus providing, (a) timber-to-timber seal at the meeting surface 
between sections, (b) timber-to-steel seal at top and bottom, and (cj 
steel-to-steel seal at the sides. Six sections of gate are required to 
close off the draft tube opening for one unit; however, three extra sec- 
tions are to be provided to close off to elevation 170.0 that portion of 
the draft tube which contains the manhole opening, necessitating a total - 
of nine gate sections for a complete close-off. Two such sets of nine 
gate sections are to be provided for each powerhouse. All gate sections 
and all gate slots are to be provided with dogging devices for the pur- 
pose of storing one gate section in any slot. Thus 18 slots out of $$ 
for each powerhouse would contain one gate section in storage. 

A I the conference in Chicago on October 20-23, 1941, it was 
decided to close off all draft tubes with temporary gates to permit the 
substructure contractor to remove the tailrace cofferdam and complete 
the tailrace excavation, before letting the contract for installation of 
equipment and construction of powerhouse interior, of before progress 
on that work is sufficient to permit removal of the cofferdam. Accord- 
ingly, 149 temporary draft tube gate sections, in addition to the 18 
permanent gate sections, are to be provided for each powerhouse. The 
temporary gates are to be similar to the permanent gates, except that 
they would have timber faces set in steel frames. 

The permanent gates are designed for normal stresses as stated 
i n DESIGN DATA , with tailwater at elevation 170.0 or maximum head of 60 
feet on the sill. Should the tailwater rise to elevation I9O.O or a 
maximum head of 80 feet on the sill, the unit stresses on the gates would 
be increased 1/3 to approximately 24,000 lbs. per sq, in. This is considered 
satisfactory for unusual operation or for short periods and in keeping 
with good design practice. An allowable unit stress of 27,000 lbs. per 
3q. in. was u3ed in the design of the steel frame for the temporary gates, 
with tailwater at elevation 170.0. it is proposed that, if the tailwater 
should rise above this elevation, the draft tubes should be filled so that 
the differential head on the gates would not exceed 60 feet. An allowable 
unit stress of 1000 lbs. per sq. in. was used in the design of the timbers. 

The leakage through all draft tube gates is to be handled by the 
three 5 000 gallon puwps in each powerhouse, as described above under 
PIPING SYSTEMS, k filler pipe and valve is to be provided for the purpose 
of filling the individual draft tube before removing the gates. Therefore, 
frictional forces were not used in determining the required hoist capacity, 
as the gates would be raised or lowered under balanced water pressure. A 
lifting capacity of 10 tons is required for raising one section of draft 
tube gate. 

To prevent vacuum when draining the draft tube down to the low 
point of the draft tube ceiling, which would cause excess pressure on the 
gates, the draft tubes are to be vented through the manholes. 

DRAFT TUBE CRANE 

A crane is to be provided for the purpose of handling the draft 
tube gate sections. To close off one draft tube completely would require 



22 



transporting nine sections of gates from their storage slots to the point 
of use. Inasmuch as this might require crane travel of nearly 1/+00 feet 
to complete the setting of one gate section, the crane travel speed is to 
be 400 feet per minute, or a quick walking pace. The crane is to be pro- 
vided with a lifting beam to facilitate handling of the gates. 

The crane runway is to extend into the erection bay area where 
the draft tube crane may be stored. From this location the gate sections 
could be brought in or removed through a hatch in the ceiling by means of 
the erection bay crane to be located directly above. 

Draft Tube Crane Data 

(a) Capacity - 10 tons 

(b) Lift - 75* - 0" 

(c) Span C. to C. of rails -9' -6" 

(d) Current: - 60 cycle, 55° volt, 

3 phase 

(e) Speeds 

1. Hook - 10-15 F.P.M. 

2. Trolley travel - By hand 

3. Crane travel - 400 F.P.M. 

(f) Estimated weight of crane - 20,000 lbs. 

« 
ICE SLUICES 

In general the design of the ice sluices and gates, was governed 
by conditions or criteria set forth in the report of June 21, 1941. under 
the heading "Ice Control", as follows: 

(a) Surface ice may exist and provision must therefore , 
be made for handling it at all elevations from a minimum pond 
elevation of 232 to a maximum pond elevation of 244* 

(b) Not less than 3 foot depth of water over the crest 
of the spillway section to be provided, thus establishing 
the spillway crest at elevation 229« 

(c) Gates or stop logs to be designed to take ice pressure 
at all elevations from 232 to 244 inclusive. 

(d) Ice pressure to be 10,000 pounds per lineal foot 
of gate or stop log, distributed over 4 feet of gate height 
or 2500 pounds per square foot at an allowed 2% increase 
in stress. 

(e) Provision to be made to keep all gates or stop 
logs. free to operate under all weather conditions. 

(f) Provision to be made for proper repair, painting 
and general maintenance of the gate grooves, wheels and hoist 
ing equipment for both gates and stop logs. 

(gj Ice gates to be located at the opposite ends of the 
two powerhouses in the belief that floating ice will be driven 
by north or south wind to either shore rather than to the mid- 
dle of the river. 

(h) A minimum of two 75 foot ice gates or equivalent to 
be provided at each shore end. 

In the earlier report, it was contemplated to provide a spillway 
between the two powerhouses, as described therein under the heading, "Spill- 
way Between Powerhouses." At the Joint Board Meeting in New ¥ork on July 
31, 1941» it was decided to replace this spillway by an ice sluice. Ac- 



23 



cordingly, the U. S. District Engineer issued instructions, by letter 
dated August 8, 1 941 1 that (a), the large spillway with tow 50 by $0 foot 
gates should not be provided between the two powerhouses ; (b) the District 
Engineer Office would provide the equivalent regulating capacity by the in- 
stallation of individual gate hoists on a sufficient number of gates of the 
Long Sault Dam; and (c ) in place of these spillways one ice sluice or pos- 
sibly two sluices each about 5° feet long should be provided between the 
powerhouses. 

At the subsequent conferences, approval was given on the installa- 
tion of two 75 foot ice sluices at the shore end of each powerhouse and two 
50 foot ice sluices between the powerhouses. 

The Harza Engineering Company's computations on stability of ice 
sluices were submitted with the powerhouse stability studies on October 13» 
1941 for review by the various interested Boards. The loadings and design 
criteria that were decided upon at the conference in Chicago on October 
20-23, 1941. for the powerhouse stability apply equally as well to the 
ice sluices and other structures. These are as described hereinbefore 
under the heading, POWERHOUSE , except that for the ice sluices full grav- 
ity section, without tension in the upstream face, was to be used up to 
elevation 208 -^. It was also decided that, above this section, tension 
in the upstream face could be carried by reinforcing steel if necessary, 
but sections should be kept as massive as reasonably possible in order to 
minimize vibration. 

The stability of the ice sluices was re-computed in accordance 
with the criteria established at the conference, and new computations 
were submitted on November 8, 1941» At the conference in Toronto on Novem- 
ber 27-28, 1941» it was suggested that investigations be made on the sta- 
bility of the ice sluices when taking into consideration, (a) the effect 
of backfill pressure, and (b) the assumption that the lower parts of the 
ice sluice passages would be obstructed and the entire passages subjected 
to water pressure. The re-computations on these bases, as .submitted on 
December 13 and 31» 1941 and included herein as Plates 9 to 19 inclusive, 
Appen_dix I, indicated that it would be necessary to increase the roll way 
sections and also tie the piers to the rollways. 

Subsequently, at a meeting of representatives of the Canadian 
Authorities and the IT. S. Engineer Offices, held in Toronto on January 
30, 1942, it was suggested that if the center ice sluice pier were main- 
tained at its full width of 15 feet throughout and the pier and head wall 
were extended downstream on a slope from elevation 221.5 to 290.0, the 
tension at elevations 174 and 209 might be eliminated. It was further 
suggested that the Canadian Authorities and the Harza Engineering Company 
make further studies to determine whether these changes would provide 
adequate stability, without the provisions for tying any portion of the 
rollway to the piers. This has been investigated fully and it was found 
that with the aforementioned changes the ice sluices would be stable with- 
out tying the rollway and piers together. The construction drawings have 
been revised accordingly. 

The ice sluice crests ure to be provided with hot air supply and 
return ducts, and are to be cross-connected with circulating pipes to be 
tied or welded to the crest reinforcing steel for the purpose of heating 
the seal contact surfaces as well as the crest proper, above a freezing 
temperature. The ducts are to be made large enough to walk through for 
the purpose of inspection. 

The crests are also to be provided with bubbler systems, which 

with the ice sluice arrangement and details of ice sluice gates and gate 



24 



operation are described hereinafter under ICE SLUICE GATES. 
ICE SLUICE GATES. 

The type of ice sluice gate to be used with the decided-upon 
arrangement of ice sluices was narrowed down to a choice between stop 
logs and a drop gate, at the conference in Chicago on August 15, 1941» 
After further studies by the various bodies, the Harza Engineering Comp- 
any was authorized, at the conference in Toronto on October 7 and 8, 1941* 
to design "dropping" gates, and to so arrange the gate slots and other 
structural details that it would be possible to shift from the "dropping" 
gates to the plan proposed by the Canadian Authorities to use rising gates 
in conjunction with stop logs to fix the elevation of the discharge crest. 

Both the 75 foot and the 5° foot ice sluice gates were designed 
with an allowable unit stress of 22,500 lbs. per sq. in., or 2% larger 
than the normal stress of 18,000 lbs. as permitted in the governing cri- 
teria above in sub-paragraph (d) under ICE SLUICES . - when using 2,500 
lbs. per sq. ft. ice load. This provision is more than ample to provide 
for full headwater pressure with an allowable unit stress of 18,000 lbs. 
per sq. in. The bottom girder, which is to span the opening and to which 
the bottom seals would be attached, was designed for a maximum deflection 
of 1/2 inch, in additon to meeting the requirements of the governing cri- 
teria stated previously. 

Details of the ice sluice gates are shown on preliminary drawings 
PR-17 and PR-18, Appendix II. Hot air ducts are to be provided at the 
crest and sides of each gate to prevent freezing at the seals, and electric 
heaters and a bubbler system are to be provided for the gate proper to pre- 
vent the forming of ice on the face. Thus, as long as these precautionary 
measures are in working order, there could not actually be any thrust from 
ice against the gates and the inclusion of the ice load in the designs is 
therefore considered to be only an additional safety measure. 

Each ice sluice gate is to be connected v/ith link chains at each 
end to an electric hoist, to be operated and controlled from an adjacent 
push-button station. Dogging devices are to be provided at each end of a 
gate to hold it in place during the installation or removal of its hoist. 
The method of handling the gates in and out of the slots is described above 
under HEAD7/0RKS GANTRY CRANE.' 

Two continuous and parallel seals are to be provided on three 
sides of each gate, on the theory that any leakage past the first seal 
would find its way into the hot air ducts in the piers and gate crest, 
through holes provided for this purpose. This should prevent any leakage 
past the gate in those locations where ice could form. Furthermore, by 
providing ample drain pipes from these air ducts, any infiltration through 
the holes when the gates are open may be readily r amoved. 

Insulation of the downstream faces of -the ice sluice gates, or 
some means of heating the gates, is to be provided. 

Ice Sluice Gate Data 



50 Ft. Gate 



75 Ft. Gate 



(a) Overall dimensions 
(bj Weight of gate 



18- -4» x 54' -7" 18' -4" x 80' -4" 
107,200 lbs. 256,000 lbs. 



25 



Ice Sluice Gate Data (Cont'd) 



SO Ft. Gate 



(c ) Wheel bearings 

(d ) Maximum head on sill 

(e) Maximum head at top of gate 

(f) Gliding friction factor 
(q) Rolling friction factor 

, (h; Type of seal 



(j) Closing (raising) force 
(k) Opening (lowering) force 
-actually breaking force) 
(1) Closing speed 
(m) Opening "peed 



Roller 
20 ft. 

3 ft. 
7Q£ 
1.13S 
Rubber "J" seal 

on steel 
160,000 lbs. 

120,000 lbs. 
1 F..P.M. 
1 F.P.M, 



75 Ft. Gate 

Roller 

20 ft. 

3 ft. 

7Q£ 

1-13? 

Rubber "J" seal 

on steel 
300,000 lbs. 

260,000 lbs. 
1 F.P.M. 
1 F.P.M. 



ICE SLUICE STOP LOGS 



One set of stop logs is to be provided for the four 75 foot ice 
sluices of both powerhouses and another set of stop logs for the two 50 
foot ice sluices. The stop logs are to be welded steel plate girders with 
wood seal peices on top and bottom. A follower or lifting beam is to be 
provided for one set of stop logs of each size. 

The stop logs are designed to take full hydrostatic pressure 
with an allowable unit stress of 2^,000 lbs. per sq. in., or an increase 
of 33-1/3^ over the normal unit stress of 18,000 lbs. per sq. in., taking 
into consideration the temporary and infrequent nature of their use. No 
ice load is included in the design of these logs. 

Should it become necessary, at any time, to operate the ice 
sluice gates in accordance with the plan proposed by Canadian Authorities 
as described hereinbefore under ICE SLUICE GATES, new logs capable of taking 
full ice load will have to be substituted. 



Ice Sluice Stop Log Data 



50 ft. 
Ice Sluice 



75 ft. 
Ice Sluice 



(a) 

(b) 
(c) 

■Id) 
(e) 
(f) 

(g) 



Overall dimensions, each stop 

log (5 per opening) 3' -5 n x 54*-2" 



Weight, each stop log 
Weight, for entire opening 
Max. head on sill 
Max. head at top of gate 
Sliding friction factor 
Required hoist capacity 



3'-5 B x,79' -2" 
35,000 lbs. 
175,000 lbs. 
20 ft. 
3 ft. 
7Q£ 



20,000 lbs 
100,000 lbs 
20 ft. 
3 ft. 
7Q£ 
42,000 lbs. 6,9,000 lbs. 



WING WALLS 

At the conference in Chicago on October 20-23, 1941 1 i-t was agreed 
that the upstream wing walls connecting the ends of the powerhouses with 
the earth dikes should be full gravity section, to the point where the dike 
has its full section or a little farther, and that the ends and upstream 
faces of the walls should have 1:12 better. This was decided upon for the 
following reasons : 



26 



(1) Comparative cost estimates indicated that, for 
walls of the required height there would be negligible differ- 
ence in cost betv/een the gravity type and the buttressed or 
counterfort type. 

(2) The gravity section would offer greater resistance 
to shock and vibration. This would also be applicable to 

the downstream wing walls, where water and ice would be dis- 
charged at high velocity from the adjacent ice sluices. 

In accordance with decisions <5f the conference in Toronto on 
November 28-29, 1941, computations were made on the stability and strength 
of the wing walls when subjected to tailwater pressure at elevation 150, 
which condition requires drainage to tailwater at the ends of the walls 
adjacent to the powerhouse. 

A resume of the conditions for which the wing walls mere inves- 
tigated and the computations thereof are included herein as Plates 20 to 
34 t inclusive, Appendix I. 

In the upstream wing walls, the sections are to be modified to 
provide road and walkways for access from the earth dikes to the upstream 
decks of the powerhouses, and to provide for extensions of the upstream or 
headworks; gantry craneways in order to permit use of the gantry cranes for 
handling gates and other equipment between yard and deck levels as des- 
cribed herein under HEADVifORKS GANTRY CRANE. 

DESIGN DATA ' 

The structures and appurtenances were designed in accordance 
with the design criteria set forth in the accompanying DESIGN DATA. Plates 
35 to i{.l inclusive, Appendix I. The procedure and allowable unit stresses 
as stated therein follow those used by the U. S. District Engineer Office in 
the design of the St. Lawrence dams, as given in tables submitted with 
letter of February 20, 1941 from that office to Mr. W. H. McAlpine, Chief 
of Engineers Office. 

SWITCHING STATIONS 



The switching stations are to be upstream from the powerhouse, 
the Canadian station to be north of the ship canal and the United States 
station to be on Barnhart Island. 

High tension leads from the transformers to the switching station 
may be overhead on towers as shown on drawing PR-24 »" OVERHEAD HIGH VOLTAGE 
TOWERS, Appendix II, or underground in a tunnel running the length of the 
switching station. 

In the United States switching station, the 115 kv system is to 
consist of a double ring bus with proper circuit breakers for each trans- 
mission line and for leads from each bank of transformers. Space is avail- 
able for similar arrangement of the 230 kv system, and if it is decided 
not to include 230 kv switching in the initial installation, the trans- 
former leads, cable or overhead, are to be routed through this space in 
order to permit future installation of a switching station. 

These switching stations, high-tension lead 3 and accessories 
form no part of the project and are not included in the estimate of cost. 
Final decision as to their design and installation must be made by the 
respective oporatinc; agencies. Their study by the District Engineer and 
by the Harza Engineering Company was only for the purpose of determining 

that space and other provisions were ample to accommodate any reasonable 
design. 

27 



COFFER^..' "J 

The diversion and care of the river are to be performed in 
accordance with the procedure therefor as described in Section II of the 
Barnhart Island Powerhouse Specifications, and as shown on the U.S. Engineer 
Office drawings BP-1-5/1 and BP-1-5/2. 

Two upstream cofferdams will be constructed. The first coffer- 
da^. "A" is initially to be a low, dumped-rock dike with crest elevation 180 
at a narrow point in the channel about 3 miles upstream from the powerhouse 
site* It will interrupt flow in the Barnhart Island North Channel and 
permit construction of the second or n B" cofferdam in still water. Coffer- 
dam "A" will later be raised from crest elevation 180 to elevation 213 to 
take care of the raised Long Sault pool. Two cofferdams are employed 
instead of one in order to keep the area to be dewatered to a minimum and 
also to maintain a pool in the North Channel between cofferdams A and B 
in order to minimise seepage into the channel from the Cornwall Canal and 
to protect the banks of that canal. A single cofferdam at B would have 
offered serious construction difficulties besides offering les3 protection 
to the Cornwall Canal. Estimates show that the two -cofferdam plan will 
be less .costly than an adequate single cofferdam. 

The crest of B cofferdam will be at elevation 205 and it will 
be designed to provide an access road to be used during construction of 
the powerhouse. 

The tailrace cofferdam is to be constructed to sufficient eleva- 
tion to render protection against probable maximum high water due to ice 
gorges and in addition is to contain sluices to permit flooding of the 
powerhouse working area for protection in case of excessively high water. 
The crest elevation of this tailrace cofferdam is established at elevation 
190. The stream flow records for 30 years show that in only two years 
(I913 and 1925) have ice jam levels exceeded elevation 190, and that the 
frequency of such high water at lower elevations increases rapidly. 

It was found that a total spillway width of 5° feet would allow 
safely filling the work area to elevation 180 in about 11 hours. This 
is predicated on removing the stop logs progressively, so that 2 feet of 
water would flow over the stop logs for the first 2 hours, 3 feet for the 
next hour, and so on until all logs were removed. In this way any dam- 
age due to an inrush of water into the empty work area would by minimized. 
It was assumed, furthermore, that construction in the work area would be 
at the median point, i.e., excavation completed and one-half of the sub- 
structure concrete placed. Due to the large quantities involved in exca- 
vation and concrete, the filling time would obviously vary appreciably 
for conditions other than those assumed. However, since excavation and 
concreting would necessarily progress during the construction period, it 
is considered that the assumed conditions represent the severest probable 
conditions. 

It is desirable that the. spillway sill elevation be as low as 
possible to minimize the volume of water to be pumped out after flooding 
of the work area, should this ever be necessary. A study of the records 
shows, however, that the river level after an ice jam falls rapidly down 
to about elevation 170 and much more slowly below that elevation. Hence 
it may. be anticipated that pumping would be resorted to when the water 
in the flooded area falls to some level between elevation I65 and 175 t 
and elevation I65 appears to be a suitable spillway sill level, as a min- 
imum. At the same time the latter would be 5 or more feet above open- 



28 



river water surface, thus providing ample freeboard for maintenance of 
the sluiceway during the greater part of the year. 



Respectfully submitted, 
HARZA. ENGINEERING COMPANY 



By: /e/ ERIK FLOOR 
Erik Floor 
Chief Engineer 



29 



APPENDIX I 



STABILITY STUDIES 



Plate No. 



Title 



1 
2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 

8 



Stability Analysis, Powerhouse, - Summary 
Stability of Powerhouse, Elev. 209 

, Elev. 197.5 
, Elev. 186.5 
, Elev. 145 
, Elev. 100, 98, 103 
, Elev. 115, 98, 103 
Stability Analysis, Effective Earth Pressure 



9 
10 
11 
12 

13 

14 

15 
16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
21 

22 
23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 
32 

33 

34 



35 
36 

37 
33 

39 
40 

41 



Stability Analysis, Ice Sluice 



- Summary 



H 
ft 


H 






n 


" , Case I 
N ii 




ft 


h 






« 


« n 


II 


« 






* 


« « 


ft 


11 






ii 


« N 


ft 

II 


H 
H 






" Piers, Case III, - Summary 
H 11 11 


H 


N 






« 


11 * 


II 


n 






11 


H * 


ft 


11 


ft 




11 


« a 


Stabil 

H 


ity Analysis 

* 


, Wing 
N 


Walls, - Design Assumptions 

11 . • 11 

» 


II 

II 


M 
N 




] 


Downstream Wing Wall, - Summary 
11 H R 


II 


11 








n ii H 


II 


i« 








H h H 


Stabil- 
11 

H 

11 
« 
ft 
11 
« 

• 


Lty Analysis 

11 

11 

n 
ft 
H 
11 

H 


, 1 


Jpstream Wing Wall 
11 n 

H 11 

« n 

« 11 

11 11 

H ft 
ft ft 
It II 


, - Summary 

, - Conditions 

, - Case III, Elev. 230 

- Case I, Elev, 216.0 

- Case III, Elev. 216 

- Case I, Elev. I65.O 

- Case I, Elev. I05.O 

- Case I, Revised 

- Case I, Revised 






DESIG 


N DATA 




Design 


Data, 
11 


Sheet 

H 


1 
2 






ii 
11 

• 


ii 

« 

H 
ft 


11 

N 
( » 


3 
4 

5 
6 

7 












HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



Subject 



Stabr'ffty Analysis 



PniA/'(=>r House 



Computed 'RQ.S. A-^ Checked T?-(a-S 



PLATE I 

project St Lo tv Pence 

File No. 4& 




FILE NO- 
BP-A-I5/I 






PLATE 2 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



Subject 



5 fob/ J ft u of Power //oose 



£f.2Q9 



Computed. 



ft A. *• CHgcl<gD T>Wfe 



project ifr Lawrence 

File No._TO 



.Page. 



-OF. 



2L 



.Pages 



Oce) * 



E/. 256-7 



A_^ 



## 



#75 



t 



513 



e'JH 



w 



<fc — '/0 




5-7 




/7tf/7 



EI209 
Up// ft press 



-®- 



/375t 



Case MI rules 



Resu/fonf- +33 ffesulfonf -. +4.7 



Load 


Vert Horiz 


Arm 


Mo 


Mr 


A 




3,250 


12.0 


39. 000 




A, 




800 


35 


28, 00 




B 


- 406 




46.7 


13,000 




C 


-3)0 




3 €-5 


//,30O 

8/900 
26, 500 




D 


-3/0 




[Z8>5 1 
32-5 




Eriers 


-815 






F waj/ 


-180 




/6.7 , 


3,0/0 




M 


11,100 




4 050 


26.6 , 


338,000 




10,679 


IS.O 


135, 710 


338,000 


Slid/n 

Shear 


Fut 
9 - 038 e* 

• -40*/*" D: 

.50 U'r 


7 

4-5 /*/os 4 

1.53 £>; 167 

0.4/ U ■ 43 */ 


*/a" e- 


Empty 
3-/ /. 125 
0605 £ * 76 
/.335 U* 174 


202,230 
*/a u 
*/a" 



FILE NO. 
BP-A-15/: 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON >.C. 



Subject 



StabiV/tq of Power House 
£/. /S7.5 



Computed. 



& a. s 



Checked f-.W , "& 



PLATE 3 

Project StLaWre/lCe 

48 



File No. 



DATE /0-2S4/. 



Pace. 



_Page» 



Same s/refcft as for Stability at £1.209. 



Case 


HI rules 










Lood 


Vert 


Hori'z. 


Arm 


Mo 


&* 


A 




J, 6 SO 


15.83 


89&0O 




A; 




800 


465 


37>200 




8 


-406 




567 


23 > 00O 




C 


-680 




46. 5 


31 > 600 




D 


-760 




3d>$ 


29. 400 




£ Press 


-1.070 




4Z-5 


45. 500 




F 


-650 




24 3 


15, 800 




W 


13,330 




30/ 




582.900 




15, 7€f 


6 4 SO 


197 


Z7h $00 


58Z.90O 












31/ > 00O 



Full 



Sliding -- 041 
Shear z 5Z*/° 

Mb -ZJ4- 

A/ 



e -- 8.8 

D> L928 
U-- 0>07Z 
1*1*8 f** 

D* Z4t> */*" 
0*9 */a« 

Resultant +0*7 



Em pty 
e* /6 

D-- 0.83 

<7 = 117 

\ .- /S7*/a" 

D » ISO 
U ■" 184 

Resultant +79 



FILE NO. 
BP-A-15/3 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON S.C. 



subject Stability of Power House 
ZL 



J&£-5_ 



Computed. 



RAA 



r^n 'PW^ 



PLATE k 



project 5t Lawrence 

File No. 45 



date /0-Z3'4l 



Page. 



4 



-OF. 



-Pages 



B 



E/.Z56"? 



W 



Mom pjers extended. 






c 

( 




i y 



Uplift 



Cose I ru/es 



Load 



Vert 



Hor/z 



Arm 



Ml 



Mr 



9,760 



20-83 



Z04.00O 



6 



-490 



64.7 



31* €00 



C 



-750 



545 



40>900 



D 



-850 



46-5 



38,600 



E 



- 2.Q40 



Z9.5 



17,900 



^(Piers) 



- 2,05 O 



Gfaall) 



-1480 



w 



23 520 



5/idin & 
5 hear 
Mr 

fifo 



15 580 
= 0-625 

-- 70%' 
, I6S 



440 



90 > 1 00 



, '6 .67 



Z4 600 



360 



859 070 



S 760 
Fait 



22,5 



A 

u-- 



to.o 

/.323 
0.077 
III*/*' 1 

214 
9 */a" 



507700 

Empty 

3 5 

0.63 

t-3Z 

170 

//5 

221 



351 370 



e* 
o- 

A ' 
D = 



Re so /tan f- to>8 



Resultant* t^Jfile no 

BP-A-15 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



subject 5 fob/// ft/ of Power Mouse 
EL /45 



Computed. 



(feA^ CHECKED "PV/B 



PLATE g 



project St Lawrence 

File No. ^TU 



Date /Q-24-4/ *^ 5 



.Pages 



B 



/ 



Note i- 3 is on 2' overh any 

of curtain wa//- 
C is net 



! 



hi 




135' 



\ 145 80 




Cose I rules 



P/an of Base 



Up /iff 



Load 



A 



B 



Vert. 



Horiz. 



-240 



21 000 



Arm 



34-67 



J34- x 



No 



339 OOP 



32 OOO 



Mr 



C 



+ 4 300 



124,3 



535 000 



D_ 



-II 300 



88-67 



153 00 



-f6/ 884- 
48 644 



Z7 OOO 



74-3 
54.0 



siidin a 
Shear 

Mr, 



Full 



- 0.56 12. 5 

-34 D* /565 

= 2.05 u= 0.435 

%--/69*fo" 

D-- 264*/* 
U> 14 7'" 

Resultant-- tS.y' 



2501 000 

0648 
f.352 
216 */o» 

/tO*/ a" 

23 Z */a " 



4-556 500 
5131 500 
2630 500 



h 

0* 



Resu/fant: t /4.3' 



FILE NO- 
BP-A-15/5 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



PLATE 6 



s u B j ect Stabit/ttj of Power House 

51 / 00 -98-/03 



Computed. 



fl^> 



.Checked 



7VB 



project S t Lowr ence 

File No. 4o 

^^ 10-24-4/ 



.Page. 



6 



2L 



.Pag 



A . G 



r 



IH 



z 



'f£ units 




Cose lb rales for sliding 



Load 



Vert 



Horiz. 



B 



55 500 



760 



A rm(nel 



46-7 



M c 



-4.0 



ZGOOOOO 



Mr 



3 OOC 



c 



-53 200 



1/9.7 



3 380 000 



- 15 800 



583 



925 000 



£ 



-9 640 



183 



17 £ 000 



f 



-6780 



12.3 



-240 



/57 



fi 



4300 



W 



To/ok for lb 



L34 350 
79770 



43 480 



147-3 



dto 

'657 



S3 200 



37 700 



Sliding ;0.6Z 
Shear i J47 

H* :/67 

Mo 

CoseJc rul es for 



K 4 550 

To/o/srorJd 84 320 

Sliding - Q.586 
Shear as above 

Mr 

Mo = /.SO 



Fall 
e*/23 l=237 M /o" 
-DH4-72- D ,343 w 
U ,0.528 U */Z5 
Resa/tanf *t/£,7 
o verturn ing, add H 



7 7/8 700 

Ernfibj 
e -- /3 

D £ 05 

U -. 15 



G34_00L 
7Z23I I0O 



: 



iZ 95/300 
3232 600 



f* 400 

A * 20b 

U * 600 



Resa/tanf- f/3.0 



Fa// 



e ,141 
D --L542 

U s 0458 

tfesa/tont, +11.3 



353 
639 

)t = 250*/*" 
D =386 
U-JI4- 



+-- 



J63_00 t 

'5395 €06 



FILE NO 
BP-A-I! 



'6 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



Subject 



Stability of Power Mouse 



EUIS-98-I03 



Computed. 



(IU^ . CHECKED 2 * B> 



PLATE 7 



Project 



File No. 



St La wrence 
_4f 



pat, /Q-24-4/ 



Page. 



21 



.Pages 



4/<? /£ . - /fkf^ //<?/7 / /tf ckon e d 
from the nearest m/dd/e f /3 

Eccentric/ tu reckoned 
Prom middle, or base. 




Cose lb ru/es for s/fd/ny 



Load 



Vert. 



Hor/z. 



Arm 



Mo 



Mk 



A 



44 900 



56 -7 



2 550 00O 



B 



S 860 



SI 6 



18 500 



C 



-27 GOO 



1201 



3310 000 



D 



-15 800 



583 



915 000 



E 



S 640 



183 



116 000 



F 



-6 180 



1 2. 3 Net 



83 200 



G 



-240 



1570 



37 700 



H 



lAf 



4 300 

120 670 



Totals for Cos?lb.7l 690 



SI id/ no • 0.6/2 
5 hear -- 130%' 
s 161 



43 380 
Full . 



1473 

882 

60*2 



G34000 



JQ.QI3 iao_ 



e 
D 
a 



17-8 f- 213*/* 

1685 d -- 360 
Mo U -0.315 W 67 

Resultant --+81 
Cose Ic rules for over turning a<dd /f 



70/7200 

Empty 

e= 10.2 

D> 0.608 
U = 1-332 



11330 300 
4 313 100 



i--353*/°" 
D-217 4 /*" 

(J? 437*1°" 



Fes a/ton fa f/5-8 



K 



4 550 



lotah fork 76240 

Sliding =-0575 
Shear as 060 t/e 

Wo'' 1*3 



353 

Full 58 ' 7 

e* 133 u-- 227%" 
D' 174 Z 2?- 333 

U* 0258 U- 59 

Resu/tont ■- + 6.7 



163 00O 
4476 "100 



1 1 



FILE NO. 
BP-A-15/7 



PLATE 8 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON S.C. 



subject . Stab/l /ty dno//jsks 
Effective Earth Pr<s.s<;/jr<s> 



Computed / , LZ . R\ 



.Checked. 



A£. 



project Sf Lawr-jo/irc* 



File No. 



^_ 



nm '/^^/ p,« / 



Power House Ease El 100 - Data cose Ic from stability 
studies of //' 7-4/ p/afe 6 



20 */t 



20O0k 




-El 750 



P 
M 



-- £* 1000*50 * 25 ty - 2000 K/boy 
= 2000x13- 7 - 27, 400 'k/bou 



J37 



1000* 



Res u I font 



/bou 

_._,. 4$ 480 + 2 000 
St/dma = J3~77d = • o~> 



sf/703 _ 49,480+2 000 . /<9 w/ 



5,395600 -27,400 - 
64320 



€3.7 



Resultant sf/71 177' Inside middle third 
has been moi/ed .2' 



Power House Base El. 1/5 - See p/afe 7 

. 1 



930* 




£7 730 



El. 115 
.El 103 



P - £*700X35 -- 12.25 */,* 380 */bay 
M =980t23.7~- 23 t 200'K 

5//d,n 9 , 43 > 9 ^ f 9 9 8 ° = .63 

/5x /56 x /44 ' 



Reset/ fan f — ! — — r-rz - 58- 4 



76,240 



Resultant moves .3' but sfi// 
6.4' Ins/de middle fh/rd 



FILE Ni 
BP-A ■!! 



PLATE 9 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



Subject S)fah///fy Analysis - /Cf? i?/C/CG - 
JEhlZ&S. are nn n n& fhnt /enpt/j — 

M^f,^ CHECKED MM 



Computed. 



project t SY Lr?H/rfi>r>s?e> 

File No. 4& 



Date /2-/^-^/ p A c 



"3 feevis&d 
g 3-Z3-4Z 



o 

• O 



VI 



1 



$ 






<3 



x 






* 



M 



2? 






I 









^ 
>» 



2 



N 









o 



CM 



o- 












O 






<*3 

«s3 



o 



<5 



* 









CO 



u 



0s 






9 






K 

* 




o 

$ 


o 


■it 

? 

1 

o 

Q 
o 

1 

<3 




•oV. <o 
O o 05 

a Q: 




va 

■L 


03 


•>- 


<0 


5 

^4 




i 




N 
O 


% 

£ 


«0 


<N 
i 


■p 


> 





5 

! 

O 






FILE NO- 
BP-A-I5/9 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON 3.C. 



Subject .5/t3 D I '/ '/ fy Ana lljS/S - 



~ /Cft SUa^'cjR. - Ct^/J^ -T 



Computed 



J£ 



Checked. 



^ 



PLATE 10 



project 5V". LcLwr&ncc 



File No 



._^0_ 



Date f 2.-/2*4 1 p*°* 



A/ PV £L. 249 



EL.Z Zq 









TWELJ: 




£2.5 



^ 5 >(ao+ha+ht,-h c )~3 



FILE N( 
BP-A- 






PLATE 11 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON 9.C. 



Subject Stohl'll'-H/ SOjOU^SlS. ~ 



- /eg S lu'r.^ - Case, Z. 

Com puted ff^ 



.Checked. 



^5 



project St. Lawr&Lnc£> 

File no. 4& 



Date/^- / /- ^/ Page^Z- 



HW EL, 249 



EL. 229 



EL. 201-5 



4I.40 






62.58 



l&.f, 



3Q.33' 



EL/2QJ.5 



I9.&& 



20> 22' 



U 



41.4 



V 



Arm 



Mo 



M* 



G2.5& 

(9.£G> 

4 2 92 



9.49 



39?> 



_L— 



1&.77 I 
20,22 



I I74,S\ 






396 



791 



303.5" 



- &.<?4* 



H74S\ 

19 to 

33-5.5' 



42^71 



Slid, 



rvg ! 



% - 



■* 0,cf<b5' 



41. 4o 
42.. iZ- 

4i4oo_ y /6s/ . 



?>0.2>2> v M^ 
M*. _ 1 1 74.5 ■ m i 4& 



Ma 791 

. _ 42 -?2 



e=± /5",/fe- #.?4- £-22 
42.92v 6,22* & 



IO .*>*>i 



= 1.42 3fr /.74 

= -0.32 or t*. 5/G / ^ ? .^- 

= -2.2 or ^ 22' to/ • I 



FILE NO- 
BP-A-I5/II 



PLATE 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON 3.C. 



subject S-habilf+y Analysis — 

— Ice, Sluioe, - Qsl£& T. 

Computed fisg, Checked _^«_^j_ 



project StL L&M/rejnce* 

File No. 4&- 



Date / 'g.//» A I p age 2 



UW EL.24q 



EL. 1*99*5* 



EL. 229 




u 


i 1/ i 


Arm 


Mo 


M R 


64.1 




I2.&5 


3/1 






I07-& 


23,0 


— - 


2.474 

1 03Z 




25.0 


40.3 




- 34. Q> 


29.73 


X ~~io30 ' 






98.6 




1341' 


35 oe 



/. o caution of R&su l-kxnt : /&, 4 - 44-L6, _ 

o ' 
Sliding : & 4J 



134 I 
IC?G5' 

2,0 D.S.-inS/e 
m/tsl<J/c. 



^s = 



44. &<b * 144 

Mr. _ 35QC?'- 

/Wo 134/ 






A 9 



e-« 22.J- /£,<? '3.4' 



* 

_ 90. & + <?3 c»S.4^a _ ' 

44,G>G> 44. bO? 1 - ' 

= 4.2 



± I.ZO 
or 3 8>( ' S q^ 

sea 

FILE NO 
BP-A-I 



or 



PLATE 13 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



subject S-hahil/ty Analyst's - 

-/e g S/u /Qf: - C&t& I 

M/'S ; Checked A~ * -^ • 



Computed. 



project S+- LcLrtr&noe 

File No. 43 



Date 12- Il~ At p. ge 3 



.Pages 



HW EL.2A9 



46.1 t 



EL. 229 



EL J 51.0 




EL . 157 



N 


V 


Arm 


M 


Mr 


zio.'i 




27 i5 


13&2 






495.6 


4S.1 


-- 


22G>45 [ 




43.1 


' 7/.^ 

SI. 5' 


3499 




- 1 1 1.2 


5125 






413.3' 




IblOl 


2G> T44'\ 



12031 



- 30.I 



433.5- 
Location of RexulfGLnf; %0, 1 - 7 Z£5 - 

Sliding 



433.3. "" U,G?d 



13 tOl 
13 037 

4,4 ' T>,5.~ inside 



s* = 



21QIOO' ^ Z4 r lb*/ . 
11. ZS* (44 ° 'So. in . 



Ma 



2Q,I44 



S v = 



'J ioi- 

4$3.3> ; 



2,Q 



- 77 2^ 



•e = 



- 30J = Q;^ 



11 ZS ^ 11-Z5 1 - 



= S &*> ± 3. 7/ 

=, 1.91 or ?,VS /< ' / if.^ 

= /3. 3 or Q4. & i^/ 



FILE NO- 
BP- A- 15/13 



PLATE! 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON S.C. 



Subject S+KZ-Wl fftj AnaLijsis - 

- /o> Sl/jjce^ - Co re. 7 



Computed _JL^^_ 



.Checked. 



^5. 



Project ST*. LdPYr^nc& 
File No._j^S 



DATE /^.//'^/ Page ^ of 



NW EL.24? 



EL.UO.o 



EL.ZZ9 



61U 



T\Al ELI^O 







yoG,4 



it &55' 
Til 341 

£7 370 
4-5471 



FbsiVon of Resultant : 48,o - /2 -Z^ r « 3.35 f D.$- inside 

3 middle ± 



s _ 621 too 



Mr ^ III34I 

Ala 673 70 



= 33.7 ' b Vc~. 



C<f/n. 

C= /2 .ZJ? r _ 4&.o= I'd. 97 

2. • 



= I.Q? 



(Zl^sr 



IZl.fS' 



**. 



= 1.3' Or IZ.4 ^<=fff\[_E 

= /2.V or ££./ '^.c^BP- 



N( 
A-i 



.PLATE 15 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON 3.C. 



«.m..rer Stability -Analysis ■ Ice Gate 
. Piers - Casein- Forces on 1 5 Ft Pier 



Computed. 



}H.<r. 



.Checked. 



£2. 



Project 
File No. 
DATE IOJ3/J4R 



St Lawrence 



48 



.Pages 



.V. 

-** 

O 
> 

V. 
<b 
<o 
<b 

o: 

o 

c: 
o 

c 

<3 


LU 


to 


< 


c\i 


5 




O 


1 


00 

> 

CO 


CD 

~-4 


00 


00 


CM 


« 


<0 


jM 




R 


1^ 


c\j 




CM 


CM 


-Si 

si 




05 




a 


8 1 


Q 


0) 

*o' 


O 




U4 


c\i 






o 



6 
ft 

C 

o 
Q 



§ 

l.i 




I 

o 

o 



£ 
^ 



<0 

\ * 



o 



fc ^ U 



O 

c 



« 



to ^ 
C ^ «o 



C C 
0) o 



FILE NO. 
BP-A-I5/I5 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHAR LE9TON 3.C. 



Subject. 



Stability - fee Gate Piers 



Casein - E/ev 2/9- O 



Computed. 



7r£r 



.Checked. 



i& 



PLATE 16 



Project. 
File No. 



St Lawrence 
<43 



Date iO-JS/ -4/ page 



_PAGi 



o 

«0 



/ce244.0 ? 256.0 



HW.245 



o 






* at 



' ' |; t t ^T °"i 







2B9.0 



2f^: .8l5KS%i 



, 3I-0 ^ 


^17.5 m 


48 


.5 : 


r i 


i 


\^33-'7 - 




U 





9£0 

a/7 



\/ 



2 XlQOQ 

Mo- Pi 10,0^(75+15) 

P z ±£ /6X 75 
2 

J 2 

U QSt5 x3/x/5' "" 

2 

Mr. Wi 3GKl5*3nO-i$0- 
w 2 J 4^></£x37xO>l£0 - 

Reservoir Full 
Pesultaint 3330 x 16.3= 54-130 
Position of Pesuiidnf* /<S3-*#i*^oj $ *= 2 48.5-212 ~+52 



3000 
520 



Arm 

£5.0 
15.53 

8&7 
38-17 

30-5 
£.33 



MIC 
22 500 

9200 

2750 

1250 
41700 

31500 



Reservoir Empty 



3520x27.2 = 958 3 Q 



U Bd<$e 



Sliding 



sWer *** 



%- 



/8/7000 



= '*% 



w 



48. 5x/5x /44 

Mr/ _ 95&3Q _ 
'Mo 4/yoo 2.. 6 

S v = 333 O ± 3330x8.0 
4&5XI5 (485) 1 k'% 

- 468 + 4.S4 . 

, = 9,12 or 0.04 K /® 

- G4 or O H /® 



S « 85 ZO + 352QK3Q 
v 485x/5 ' &8.5) 2 % I 

= 4-84 ±1.80 I 

= £.64 or 3. 04- % J 

= 46J Or 2/-'%F\LE NO 



PLATE 17 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON S.C. 



Sl , BIECT Stability- Ice Gate Piers 
Casem-Elev* Z97-5 



Computed. 



#■*&: 



.Checked. 



_A£. 



Project. 
File No.. 



St Lawrence 
__^2 



D *r. /Q-3I-4I 



Page. 



■5_ 



EI.256. 




4Z5 y 62.5 . i.49_ 
2 1000" KSF 



Mo 



P, 10(15+15) 
P z LO (6X75 

P3 && 475X15 
2 

U L49 43XJ5 



H V 

900 - 
GOO 

1060 - 

— 480 



M> 



Arm 
46-5 
3G.83 

15.83 

5/67 



41150 
22/50 

IG&OO 

24850 



I05S50 



W, 36x / 5x58.5*0./50 — 4740 

YJ Z 3D xl5x 5&5X0J60 — I9V5 

2 



48-0 
20.0 



227500 
39500 



2Q700Q 
Reservoir Empty 



, G7l5x39:7* 2G7,0OO 

DEdge 



Reservoir Full 
Resultant G235x25.9 = /6J450 
Position of Resultenh 25.9-^=+3<9 9 * j£G>'397=4.3 uEdge 

e=&?~ 25,9 = 7.10 6*39.7-^*6.70 

Sliding = §f§§« o.4f 

S$ = 25GOOOO _- /£?% 

*M - ZG7QOO . o * 
W ° I0555O s 2 ' 6 



66X15 -(QL)i)(l& 
- <o.Z9 t 4. OG 
r 1035 or 2.23% 
= 72 b or /&"#/ 



3 



= 67/5 ■/• G7I 5x6.7 
' GGXI5 ~ (GG) z x !£• 

-G78±4J3 

//Z7 



- 10.9/ or 2*G5 

= JG u or 19 D 



*/ 
'm 



FILE NO 
BP-A- 15/17 



PLATE 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON S.C. 



SubjE ct Stability- Ice Gate Piers 
Case UL- Elev- / 745 



Computed. 



W^?r 



^Checked. 



A£ 



Project. 
File No.. 



St Lawrence 



-4-8 



DATE /Q-3/-4-/ 



A- 



±> 



IceEi 244.0 
HW.EI.245.0^ 



El.256.0 




I 


I o 




VS 




v, 1 






*Q 




o 


* 


N 


i* 




«o 



1000 -4'40/csd 
70.5_ G2^5 J 

iooo d ' d g s tS 



M H 

M ° - Pj IO.Ok(75H5) 900 

P 2 LOO /&X75 GOO 
P 3 <£& 70.5*/S H§£ 

(j Z.20 &I.O*/5 — 
~~2~~ 

c 2 iooo 

Resultant 

Reservoir Full 



V 



IOIO 

&G>IO 

44-iO 
(OOiO 



Arm 

£9.5 

59^83 

23.50 
G3 &7 

c&.oo 

3200 
36-0 



Mk 

&Z550 

359 OO 

547 50 
&42QO 



217400 



43&soo 

14-1000 



£11500 
3G0I00 



DEd Reservoir Empty 

Position of Resultant 3£-O-*&- r 8.0 y ^64-52.4 = +3,6 ° ' Ed 9 e 



3 



e=^-36.o = G .o D e=52.4-&hP- t0t 4u 

Sliding- v-3SSQ:- n zQ 

Mr /Mo = 5 77 5 °° = 2GG n 385,000 _ #/ 

2/7400 S^e4X/5x/44~ 2/ ^ , J 

84tl5~ 84 z xis: V S4k/5 - 84 *x^ 



= 7-95 t 3.41 

c ll.3G°or4-54 u k/ m 

^79 p or 32 u % 



= 8.73 t 6.50 



FILE NO. 
BP-A- 15/ 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON 3.C. 



Subject 



Sfebi/jry-IceGate Pter 



Case m-Elev. 110.0 



Computed. 



a^.jr 



.Checked. 



J2. 



PLATE 1? 



Project. 
File No.. 



5/ Lawrence 
<Z8 



DaTe /O-J/-^/ Page 3 of £ 



.Pages 



lce&.244>0 
HW.EI.245.0 




44.5x<iZ.S _ 7P f<-r 



Mo P, /0(75+/5j = 900 

P 2 JJ2/ 6X 75 = eoo 

P 3-&44- 135x15- 85G0 
2 



Mr 



Uf 2.78x180x15= 

VziM II3XIS « 
2 

W 36*15*61. 5x~- ^ 
Wz4g x j£x8/.5x ISO = 
Wi/80x/£x6<5 x°&o - 

fy^fV ^4.5x15 



75 2 O 

2400 

66/0 

4410 

2GI00 

930 



90.0 
142-33 

162. 

128.0 
90.0 

148 S 



Mon i K 
120,600 
74,600 

3 85 j 500 

675,800 

341,600 

1 ,598,100 

1,070,000 

564,000 

2,349,000 

1 3,75 O 



Reservoir Full 
Resultant 27200 X88-4* 2,398650 
Position ofResu/fanK 8&.4-l§0^ + 284 D£dge 
e * l$°-88 t 4- = 1-6° 3 

Sliding ■■ 



ReservoirEi 

37/20 X 107, 



'fErnpfy 
5 = 3, §83, 



-3,S9G } 750 



000 



272 OO Uv °^ 



I075-L80- /75 u 
2 



5e = 3130000 o^^/ 

'° '5981 oo ~ ^'^ 

5 V = 2 7 200 ± Z172QOXI.C 
180X15 I8Q£\ <& 

= /o. 08 ± as 4 fo 

= tO.G2°or 9.54 u r/y 



S v = 37/20 j- 37/2Q X 17.5 
f80x 15 

= 13.75 t 8. OS 



180 ^ x '% 



- 74° or 



--2>S0»or5JO»y mLEm 
*I52 U or 40»#/£BP-A-\5/\S 



PLATE 20 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON S C. 



Subject 



STABILITY ANALYSIS 



Design Assumptions 



Computed 



W.L.F. 



.Checked 



R.A.S. 



Project. 



St, Lawrence 



File No. 

10-29-ia 



U8 



Date. 



.Pagi 



A, - SYMBOLS. 

H = Horizontal force in kips 
V = Vertical force in kips 
M'K = Moment about toe in foot kips 
S s = Shearing stress in lbs. per sq. in. 
M^ = Resisting moment 

Mq = Overturning moment 



Sv = 



Foundation pressure in kips per sq. ft. and 
lbs. per sq. in. 

"Position of Resultant* 1 at base of section 
is shown as the horizontal distance in feet 
from resultant to nearest edge of middle 
1/3 of base. 

Forces and moments were computed as for one 
lineal foot of wall. 



B. -HORIZONTAL LOAD FACTORS. Horizontal loads due to 

earth pressure were computed on the basis of equivalent 
fluids, whose weight (=3/J* in lbs. per cu.ft.) were 
determined in accordance with the Rankine Theory as follows: 

(1) Dry Earth. 

$ = Angle of internal friction = 33° (Approxi- 
mate slope, 1 vertical on ljjr horizontal.) 

¥ = Weight of fill = 110 lbs. per cu.ft, 

W f = 110 x tan 2 (Ii5° - i 0)= 32.$ lbs. per cu.ft. 



FILE NO- 
BP-A-151 



PLATE 21 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAQO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



Subject. 



STABILITT ANALYSIS 



Design Assumptions 



Computed. 



r.L.P. 



.Checked 



R.A.S. 



Project. 



St. Lawrence 



File No. 

P 10-29-la 



1*8 



Date: 



.Page 



B 



.Pages 



- HORIZONTAL LOAD FACTORS (Cont'd.) 

(2) Saturated Berth, 

a 30°-0» (Approximate elope, 1 vertical on 
1-3A horizontal.) 

W = 110 - 0.8 x 62.5 =60 (Voids assumed at 20£) 

W 1 ■=» 62,5 + 60 x tan 2 (U5° - i 0) 
■ 62.5 ♦ 20 
= 82.5 

(3) Surcharge at Groundwater Surface. 

a 31°-0' (Slope 3 vertical on 5 horizontal) 

W = 110 

W' = 110 tan 2 (U5° - i 0) = 35.0 lbs. per cu.ft. 

C. - CONDITIONS - DOWNSTREAM WINO WALLS. 

(1) Tailrace empty. No groundwater. 

(2) Tailrace filled to Elev. 150.0. Groundwater 
surface Elev. 150.0 to 178.0 as indicated on 
computations. 

D. - CONDITIONS - UPSTREAM WING WALLS. 

(1) Reservoir empty. No groundwater. 

(2) Reservoir full. 

Case I - Headwater Elev. 21*9.0 

Groundwater Elev. 167.0 - no ice 

Case la - Headwater Elev. 21*9.0 

Groundwater Elev. 150.0 - no ice 

Case III - Headwater Elev, 2U5.0 
Groundwater Elev. 187.0 
Ice pressure equivalent to 10 kips per 

lineal foot of wall, applied at 

Elev. 2UU.0 









FILE NO. 
BP-A-I5/2I 



PLATE 22 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



Subject 



Stab///fcf Ano/y5/'s 



Downstream W/nyWo//-Fcr rp* &r& on 



Computed. 



y-tt 



One Foot 

Checked 



f Lenqth 



project St, Lawrence 

File No. 4-Q 



OkTk /0'29~4/ Pact / 



_£_ 



_Pag 



e* 






^ 



I 

l 
1 



w 



fa 









>> ! 



•Xj 



^i^l 



I'll 
1 1 






ki 



i 






3 



k 



\k 



§k 



^4 






T" 






*0 



<\1 



^i 



i- 
















r- 



*vj 



<3 









.6 



s 






s 



f^-l 













5f) 



X>x 






I 






^ 
v 






vo 



k 






<b 
kj 



FILE NO- 
BP-A-15 



V, 



PLATE 23 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



Subject. 



Stability AnatqxJs- Downstream 
Wmg Mt//- Farr^a/'^ on One Foot 



Computed. 



Project 



File No. 



St. Lou/ re nee 



_££_ 



Date /O •£ 9'4 / w* a * 2 



.Pages 



itev. varies/370 fofflS 



TIN. £/. /SO. 




Steve/ \ 




35.0 J) 2 */a 



/ Water taSie 



Earth §> f/ojcu.ft. 
Earth (§>//(T/ca ft. 
-Concrete @ /SO feu ft 



hsh/*//i 

6ZSh/f^ 
6ZS(/k+ nz-hi ]B- 





\5i 



UFP- 



'£ZS fo-h,) % 



Reservoir Fu/t 



3S.Ot72/ 73# 



gzs t?j 

—z 

3 



8ZSh 3 



Elev varie5 /370 to IS 7 




Varies 



Earth (£)//0%urt 
Concrete @/50fcufB 




3Z5h% 



Reservoir Emptu 



FILE NO. 
BP-A- 15/23 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON «.C. 



subject 3 fob/'/ J t(j o f Dnwnstreorn 
\A/m<] Wo//- Low End ^ 

/VT < ' ~f. checked VAAAj 



Computed. 



PLATE 2h 



project St. Lawrence 

File No. 48 



oat* /0-29-+/ 



Page. 



.P* 



m.Ei/soo 



wzy /6 * 5 3.<l^ 



Mr 



M R 



To// race Fa// 
H '' > V Arm 

3O0 30.3 *0 



2Z.8 9-0 

/€.Q5 9.15 

14.65 1735 

6Z-48 3-5 



Resultant 4Z-Z8 8-35 

S/j'd/'nc?- $2Q= 0,17 

5V MO* 



>S Z 



20-35X/44' ^y 

Mf/Mo = ^^= /.45 

5v* 4 7.7 A + 42-28x/.83 x6 

20.35 ~ [Z0-35)z 



ZD8± /1Z ■ 
3.ZO or 0.36 % 



22 or 7 



a 



J48S 




J SO.p To f /race fa// 
tt>8 7b/ /race empty 



M'K- 

270-0 
3/6.Q 

76 6-0 

205.5 
/54J 
258 

52/5 _ 
7735T/ 

353/ 



To/'/race Empty 
H V Arm M'K, 
f/6 9-0 /06.5 



/435 1735 
6/48 8.5 



76.33 6.8 



25Q. Q 
52h5 

773 

673- 



5 . 76-33 + 76.33aZ.4x 6 

°y " zo-35 - (mssf 



a 3,76 ± 1.55 



~- 53/ or 2.2/ ym 

, 37 or 15 */ a 



FILE NO. 
BP-A-15 



PLATE 25 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



subject Sfobi/jYcf of Downstream 



lA I/ng 



Computed. 



7ti??r 



.Checked. 



~0^~ 



pro j ect Sf. Lawrence 

File No. 43 



Date /0'29-4/ r^ ^ „ 4- 



12.33 



W*g /as* 



^Vlhter tobte £/ /6 ^ For £arfh H Pre5: 



/242** 




S5ure 



* - Reservoir full 
** - Reser voir emptu 



3.33 K ./a 



H 

Mo /&j 

183-7 



M* 50.0 



To i trace Full ^ 

/ Arm 

65 2 

21-1 

33 7 



/38< 8 



4873 
143 
3/. 5 



MX 
1130 
3370 

6353 



Tai trace Empty 

H V Arm 

/24.Z 29. Z 



m!k. 

36 Z 5 



13.33 
23.4 
43 € 
54.0 



Resultant 533, 22. 5 
5/id/ncf ; ,/g|;g * 023 

Sr - /52QOO /7*//&7 
°^ - 64.2 x/44 ~ /? /& 
Mr/ - 23554 . ? / 
'Mo' U4 Id 



1/4/3 

■£ff 

7/454 
6435 
4340 

-23554 

/2/ 36 



4373 23.4 

(430 43 6 

3/' 5 54 



7 2 7> 3 26.5 



t/454 

6495 

4340 

22889 

J 92 64 



5t 



_ 



. 539 t 533 k 2_6_*6 
■ 64-Z - (64Z) 2 
&3Q t 752 
153 or 0.86 K fa 
11/ or 6 *)® 



c 7273 + 7273^56x6 
Sv " 64. Z * (64 tj* 
~- //3Z t 592 
- 17-24 or 5.40 K /n 
s 120 or 37 # /tfFILE NO- 

'BP- A- 15/25 



PLATE 26 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON 8.C. 



Subject 



Analysis. 



Upstream JM/hg Wall 

K'5. Checked _j4^fL 



Computed. 



project 3t Lo\Alt*<*nrp 

4d 



File No. 



PAT E //- J-f* / 



.Page. 



J- 



2L 



-PAOll 




FILE NO- 
BP-A-15/2 



PLATE 27 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



subject 3/abi//hj Ano/yS/S 
Upstrea m lA/ing Wo// 



Computed. 



Kl^ 



.Checked 



^?^ 



proj ect 5t Lawrence 

File No. 48 



Date //O'y/ p»se_^ or / 



.Pages 



rCan ft/ere r wo/6 (w/ negligible) 



Orade-^ 



BJJ/SOjX 



'SZ,5/?c *// 

/m El 1870 




82.5 

62.5 'hd*fa 



^(ha+h b -h4B* 



btShdb^ 



Reservoir Full 

Case J HW EIZ49.0 
Cose HI HW El. 245. ± 
Ice pressure. 10, 000 plf- 

of £/ 2440 



/ El 4 56. 



Grade E/ 2/5.0 




yr Grade E//97-50 
u7 



h</'+ 



3Z.5 fL */a\ 
Reservoir Empfu 



FILE NO. 
BP- A- 15/27 



PLATE 28 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 

CHARLESTON S.C. 



Subject 



am Wi m jA/alL 



Computed. 



r. s. 



.Checked 



7&F 



project 3f- La wrence. 

File No. 40 



Date 



^M_P.e^. OF _Z 



.Pa. 



£/. Z56.0 



HW £/. 245- 



Eh Z30. 



/7 






Mo 

Mr 
ffesu/tan/- 






r 



ys-t 



. 2724 „ 




H 
17 



6 

roz 

36 



Arm 
/O.J 
18. Z 
13 I 

no 



175 
110 



235 
/J40 

1055 



5//c/mg - 
M*/ Mo i 

5 V r u //~ 



11 - 

9G 

/34Q 
Z85 = 

96 



■18 
4.7 

96 * Z6Z 



17000 



= J3Z - Z03 

= S5VO <?/490%' 

^33 4 10*/ a* 



* s - Z7Z4X/44 '■ / 



j7Z4 t 27-Z4*/<. 5 »ernpt<j 



IQZ + lOZx.5Z 
Z7Z4 " Z7.Z4 2 /c 

3,74- ± 43 
4(70 13310%' 

23 4 23*/a« 



FILE NO 
BP-A-lil'2 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON 3.C. 



PLATE 2$ 



Subject 



Upstream lAt/no Wo/7 



Case I EL 2/6 -0 

Computed v- — ^ 



.Checked 



^ 



-J?- 



Project Sf. L&tV£& flC& 
File No. -43 



Date /// ' 4/ PAGE 4 <>' 2 



Z7 ZJT6. £> 



/0K #2* 

34 


3-0 


|. 


/27 

* »■ 

f 


• 




, £8 ^ 














Mo 

Mr 
Resultant 

Sliding 
M *ko 



H 
34 



S» fulh 



' " 143 " 


23 


. 2230 

653 


3A 


J&2L. + J4& 


*362 



2344 ' 2344 z /& 

- 5 .20 ±3,38 
-- 3130 & 1220 */d' 
-" 64 & S%* 



V 

15 
/63 

/43 



J>c -" 



Arm 


At" 




/J 


374 




/3 


235 


653 


/3.7 




2230 


/0>G 




/57I 


34000 


-=8*/a" 




* 23.44 x/44 





160 +J60JJ37 
J y empty-- z 8 ^ 4 - z&,44 2 ^ 

- 5,63 ±103 

= ££60 Q 4600*/*' 
^ 17 & 32 */a« 



FILE NO. 
BP- A- 15/29 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON *C. 



u.jicT Upstream lA//ng Wal l 

1 CoseM ElJ/A.O 

icf. 3 ■ Checked _^2_Z=ZL- 



COMfUTEO 



PLATE 30 



project St Lowfe/ire 

File No. 43 



Date 



/t-3-4/ p». S 



Z- 



„p* 



£/. 256 



HW El 245-0 



JjL 



Zw3A 



£12160 W 



i 



28.44 



Mo 

Mr 
Re^u/font 

Sliding ~ 




Y 

IS 
163 

150 



56 , 
/50 



24 



5 V full 



223Q 
777 * Z'9 

ISO + /5Q*4S2 



2d 44 " 23-44 */e 
* 5.Z7 t 5.02 
« t0. 290 $250*/n 
= 72 $ 2*/o» 



5 S 



Arm 
14.7 
13 
13 7 

3 7 

3 6 OOP 
28-44^144 



530 
247 



777 
2250 

1453 



sS +/i 



a* 



FILE NO. 
BP-A-15 






PLATE 31 



\ 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON S.C. 



Subject. 



C ase 

Computed 



Ups±£&am Mne. Wa// 

fa* 7 FI/65.& 

, 3 • Checked STAjJ ■ 



project 5f. La wre nce 

File No. ^3 



Date ///-^/ 



.Page. 



2. 



.Pages 



HWEU4S.O 



£/. 2 5 CO 



245 



5l 




Mo 



Mr 



Re sultan f 



H 


V 


Arm 


M K ' 




Z45 




26>9 


€600 






753 


370 


5670 


/ 2,270 




. 579 


33- G 


22900 




30 




3.4- 


282 


23,182 




4Z6 


2S5 




10,312 


.5/ 


Ss % . 


2/50OO 


**3*/e* 





=■ 1.9 



12270 



65 



6S 2 £ 



655 + 4, Z 3 

10*780 j 2320*1 a' 
75 f /e*u. ' 



566 t 566 x 63 
S v empty* 65 - 6 5 2 / 6 

-- 8.70 1 5.07 

* /3770f3630*/ a ' 

: 96 425*/a" 



FILE NO. 
BP-A- 15/31 



PLATE 38 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON ■ C. 



,„.,.., Upstrea m Win a WalL 
_ Co J* I £/- /Q5.d ~_ 



COMPUTID. 



Project 
.File No. 4~& 
Jl.S, r.Mtrtcp JIZ^Sm. Date ///r/ 



St Lawr ence 



.Page. 



z_ 



Pa 



HW £/• 243. o 



E/.256.0 



&.Z/G.O 



170^ 






BJJ05-0 ; ■ 



Resultant 
Sliding 

5v /<///• 




J## 



4 



JW 



6^0 



Arm 

4 £-3 

55 4- 

Z8-9 

534- 
35' + 



4Gi 

1003 



46 



5$ s 4GI00O . 3 , % 
3 105x144'^ f 



106530 ],5 
7I0OO ' 

1003 t 1003 * /?/ 
~ToT 



35400 7/OOC 
8930 I 



1 8300 f ZOO */* 
132 f 2 */a 



m 



< 4 1620 + 1620x38 

o K empty -- /^ !05 2 / 6 

-- 1540-J^ Ml 

= 1880 4 1 204* a 

= /50 4 84 "/a" 



FILE NO. 
BP-A-15/i 



W 



fri 



j 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON 3.C. 



*„*,.<* .SVv7 h I ' I lf\/ A H Q I V S f S 



U ps-hr&arn Wing Wall 



Computed 



13. 



.Checked. 



£lL 



project St. Lawrence, 
46 



File No. 



UK-re. IP- 5-4 I page Z_ 



Case: IQ. 



HWBL.24C? 



32.5 > 4J.§ = 1544 




G>Z.5*45 = 23lO 
62 . 5 7 <i44-r45 )= Sqcjq 



*4L=3>Jl3> 



FILE NO. 
BP-A- 15/33 



PLATE 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CMAWLE»TON 9 C. 



subj.ct Sfahj/ir'y /InaJyjsJS - 
Upstream IVina J^aM. 

rH cL Chicked /- .—> • 



COMrUTID 



project S/. Itfu/rerxie 

File No. 4S 

Uktw. /2'5'4/ paqi 2. of % 



Case la (con fd. ) 



H 



V 



Arm 



Mk 



M* 



P, f i« Z/2S x 34 



3G>.I 



Z2/.5 



438o 



R 9 - 2. /2S • no 



234.0 



55 



/29oo 



P$ z gx f. 075 X//0 



47*? 



3G»7 



J8B00 



Pjz /O. £ x! 34 « O. Q62S 



22. 3 



101. 8 



22: 



Aa |£j^gy j/o x O. // 



55.4 



104 



576 



P<2> - z* 5 7 8 * ?2.S>< 0. // 



214 



19.3 



SGI 



P 7 s 2 * /♦ 54-4 x? 47. 5 



-36.7 



60.8 



Z2i 



Pa = /£63 v ^5 



7*.<5 



2Z5 



/6<S 



P? r -^*4S* 3. 7/3 



-83. S 



IB 



/25 



U, - 2.8/ * /07 



-3ol 



53.5 



/G/OO 



&Z g £* 3.09* /07.O 



-/65. 5 



7/. 4 



// 8OO 



W, - 2 5 * /5/ « o- /S 



56G> 



81.1 



4<33i 



ftjgf gV/jVg x/5f* o./S 



142.6 



98.6 



I40i 



W$± i«67.4y///xc./5 



571. 5 



46.$ 



23 7 £ 



£74. 1 



111/. 3 



63 480 



77^773" " 35 ' 7 



/07 



Position of resullanl" : 35.1 — -y~ = 
Sliding; ;/ ^ A3 = 0.4 81 



<- 574 /oo _ *-7 >? lb> 

^s ' /07x ,44 *■'- * 



s<?. //?. 



106 O 
G5 4i 

42 52 



M% m /0GO2O 
Mo ~ £8430 



- 1.0,7 



e= 53. £-35.7 - 17. a 



5u = 



//gA 3 

/<?7 



//?/. 3 * /7.8 >< 6 

ioi z 



//, /4 ± //. /4 

22.28 or o *%+ ft. 
155. or /6 /^M 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



subject Design Data 



Computed. 



H.M. 



.Checked. 



PLATE 35 



Project. 



St. Lawrence 



48 



File No. 

8-23-41 



Date. 



.Page. 



.Pages 



1, SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS 



a a 

A * 
A s » 

Ag 3 

b - 

C u 

c = 
'd = 

e = 

t5 C = 
E S = 

Fb= 

^c= 

f c = 
fs= 

f 



v= 



h 

K 

k 



1 - 
L - 
M s 
M r » 

n - 

N.A. 
P = 
P f = 
P = 

r s 

R = 

a s 

t = 

u = 

V s 

V' = 

V s 

W s 
W a 



f aJ . coefficient used in A- s -S 



8 ~ 



ad 



12 
Area 
Area of tenail steel 

Area of compressive steel 

Width of rectangular beam or width of flange 
1 used in d - cJtt 

Depth of steel beam between flanges 

Effective depth of concrete beam or depth of steel beam 
Distance from extreme fiber to compressive reinforcement 
Eccentricity 

Modulus of elasticity of concrete 
Modulus of elasticity of steel 
Safe resistance of web to buckling 
Compressive stress in extreme fiber 
Ultimate compressive strength of concrete 
Tensile stress in steel 

Stress in web reinforcement of concrete beam or shearing 
stress in steel beam 
s Head in feet 

- l-l/3k ratio of distance between resultants of compressive 

and tensile stresses to effective depth 

- 1/2 fcjk used in M B Kbd 2 



1 
Ts 



Patio of distance between extreme fiber and 
neutral axis to effective depth 



Length of span in inches 
Length of span in feet 
External moment in ft. lbs. 
Resisting moment in ft. lbs. 

E s > ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to that of concrete 
E„ 

cNeutral axis 
Ratio of tensile reinforcement in concrete beams 
Ratio of compressive reinforcement in concrete beams 
External concentric load on columns or concentrated 

load on beams 
Radius of gyration 
End reaction 
Spacing of stirrups 
Depth of flange on concrete "T" beam or web thickness on 

steel beams 
Bond stress 
Shearing stress 

Shearing stress taken by web reinforcement 
Total shear 

Uniformly distributed unit load 
Total uniform load 



FILE NO- 
BP- A- 15/35 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON 9.C. 



PLATE 36 



subject. Design. Data 



Computed U.K. 



.Checked. 



H.M. 



Project. 
File No. 



St. Lawrence 



DATE 8-18-41 



.Page. 



1 



2. STRESSES 



a. Concrete 

The working stresses for use on concrete structures shall 
be as follows: 

% f' c -3400# f =3000$ V .2400 

Ult. Class A Class B Class C 
Concrete Concrete Concrete 



Flexure : 
f c for +M 
fo for -M 
fc for Tension 



35 


1225 


1050 


875 


40 


1400 


1200 


1000 


2 


70 


60 


50 



Axial Comp 

Tied Col. 22.5 785 675 560 

Spiral Col. 28 980 840 750 

Ped. Uhreinf. 

(Gross Section) 25 875 750 625 
Comp. Column 

(Short Column) 25 875 750 625 

Bearing 

Entire Area 25 875 750 625 

Partial Area 35 1225 1050 875 

Comb. Bend.& Dir.Str. 

Sp. Col. Comp. Only 35 1225 1050 940 

Sp. Col. Comp. & Ten 35 1225 1050 875 

Tied Col. Comp. Only 30 1050 900 750 

Tied Col. 1/r « 40 35 1225 1050 875 

Arches 35 1225 1050 875 

Shear 

v- flain 
v- Sp'l Anch. 
v- Web Reinf . 
v- Flat Slab 
v- Footings-Hkd.Ends 
v- Punching 

v- Flat Slabe, Torsion- 
al and shear, Web 
& Sp. Anchors 
v- Web & Sp. Anch. 

Bond 

Bms. , Slabs, Ftgs • 
U- Plain bars 
u- Deformed Bars 
Two-way Ftgs 
u- Plain Bars 
u- Deformed Bars 
Cold Drawn Wire 

u = 2 70 60 



2 


70 


60 


50 


3 


105 


90 


75 


6 


210 


180 


150 


3 


105 


90 


75 


3 


105 


90 


75 


7.6 


260 


225' 


190 


15 


525 


450 


375 


9 


315 


270 


225 


4 


140 


120 


100 


5 


175 


150 


125 


3 


105 


90 


75 


3.8 


135 


115 


95 



50 
FILE NO- 
BP-A-I 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON B.C. 



Subject. 



Design Data 



Computed. 



G.R. 



Checked H.M. 



PLATE 37 



Project. 
File No. . 



St. Lawrence 



Date 8-18 -41 



.Page. 



.Paou 



% 

Ult. 



Ult. Cone, Ten. for 
Circ» Tank Design 



8 



s 



Values of f 

Values of f y 
(Stirrups) 

Values of n 

f c * .35f J 

K 
k 

J 
P 
C 
a 

fc r .40f' c 
K 
k 

J 

P 
C 
a 

For Slabs or Beams b 
d . C %f~U. 



12" 



f c r 3400# 

Class A 
Concrete 



10 

1225 
215 
0.405 
0.865 
0.0138 
0.0682 
1300 

1400 

261 

. 437 

0.854 

0.0170 

0.0618 

1280 



f c s 3000# 

Class B 
Concrete 



10 



f^ -2400# 
Class C 
Concrete 



280 


250 


200 


18000 


18000 


18000 


16000 


16000 


16000 



12 



1050 


875 


169 


141 


0.368 


0.368 


0.877 


0.877 


0.0107 


0.0089 


0.0769 


0.0842 


1315 


1315 


1200 


1000 


208 


173 


0.400 


0.460 


0.867 


0.867 


0.0133 


0.0111 


0.0693 


0.0760 


1300 


1300 



3 



M 

a d 



Temperature and Shrinkage Steel 

0.25$ Min. (To a depth of 12" in heavy walls) 

Coverage - Not exposed 2" 
Exposed 3" 
Bottom of footings 4 n 

Splices - Min. bar lap 40 Dia. 



FILE NO- 
BP- A- 15/37 



PLATE 3 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON SO 



Design Data 

Subject " 



Computed ____!_ J! Checked. 



project St. Lawrence 



File No 

DATF 8-23-41 PAg . 4 or 7 



Classification 

Class "A* 1 concrete shall be used for floors, walls, 

beams and girders. 

Class "B" conorete shall be used for heavy piers and 

retaining walls. 

Class "C M concrete shall be used in mass sections 

such as dams. 

b. Plate Steel 

The working stress for use on steel plate work is as 
follows : 

f s e 16,000 x efficiency of joint 

c. Structural Steel 

The working stresses for use on structural steel work 
are as follows} 

Flexure - Tension f s - 18,000#/sq.in. 

20,000 
Compression f Q ■ 1 tl)% 

1 + yUUU ' (7) 
Max* f c e 18,Q00#/sq.in. up to ^ s 15 

Max. allowable ratio A - 40 



Columns - Compression 

f 18,000 



1 + 



Try 



18,000(r) 
Max. f c at i s 60: 15,000^/sq.in. 

Max. ± - 120 for main members 
r 

Max. .= z 200 for secondary members 
r 

Shear f v - 12,000#/sq.in. 

Max. when £ <^ 60 
t 

* v • 3 , 18> 1°° fc) 2 ^ f > 60 
■" 7200 (t) 



FILE NC 
BP-A-ll 



PLATE 39 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON S.C. 



s u bj ect Desi gn D ata, 



Computed jjf ^* Checked. 



project St . L awrenc e 

File no 



Date 8-23-41 Page 5 of 7 pagi 



Web buckling - f b . 18,000 % 

A ^ 6000 (t) 

fb a 15,000#/sq.in. Max. 

d. Power Driven Riveta and Turned Bolts 

Shear 13,500#/sq.in. 

Bearing S.S. 24,000#/sq.in. 
Bearing D.S. 30,000#/sq.in. 

©• Hand Driven Riveta and Unfinished Bolts 

Shear 10,000#/sq,in. 

Bearing S.S. 16,000#/sq.in. 
Bearing D.S. 20,000#/sq.in. 

f . Pins 

Shear 13,500#/sq.in. 

Bearing S.S. 24,000#/sq.in. 

Bearing D.S. 30,Q00#/aq.in. 

Flexure -f s = 27,000#/sq.in. 

g. Rollers and Wheels 

Bearings on plain steel roller or wheel Axle per 

linear inch, 600 times the diameter or the roller 
or axle in inches. 

Bearing on special heat-treated rolled steel wheels 
per linear inch, 1500 times the diameter of wheel 
in inches. 

h. Bronze Bearing 

The maximum allowable bearing on bronze shall be 
3000 #/sq.in. 



i. Steel Castings 

Max. unit stress f « 7500#/sq.in. Max. 

J. Iron Castings 

fs = 1800#/sq.in. Max. unit tensile stress 

f s 6000y//sq.in. Max. unit compressive stress 



FILE NO. 
BP-A- 15/39 



HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON ».C. 



PLATE U6 



SUBJECT. 



Design Data 



Computed. 



H . M. 



.Chicked. 



Project. 



St. Lawrence 



File No. _^ 

Date 8-23-41 PACE 



6 



k. Welding 



In calculating the strength of fillet welds, use 

11,300 #/sq.in. for tension, shear and compression. 
Values of 20$ to 30$ higher may be used when welds 
are made by the shielded arc process. 

The following table gives the safe working values for 
fillet welds in shear, in accordance with the 
Fusion Code, and also for welds made by the shielded 
arc process: 

Safe allowable loads for Fillet Welds in Shear: 



Size of 
Fillet Weld 

1/8" 
3/16" 
1/4 " 
5/16" 
3/8 " 
1/2 " 
5/8" 
3/4" 



Shielded Arc 
Process 

1250 #/lin. in, 

1875 " 

2500 " 

3125 " 

3750 " 

5000 " 

6250 " 

7500 " 



Fusion Code 
( Structural ) 

1000 #/lin.in. 

1500 

2000 

2500 

3000 

4000 

5000 

6000 



tt 
tt 
ft 
tt 



tt 



Approximately l/4" should be added to the designed 
length of fillet welds for starting and stopping 
the arc unless welds are continuous. The working 
strength of butt welds of 100$ penetration into 
the base metal is calculated by multiplying the 
net cross sectional area in square inches through 
the throat of the weld by 13,000 lbs. for tension; 
11,300 lbs. for shear; 15,000 lb3. for compression. 
These values may be increased by 20$ to 30$ when 
welds are made with a shielded arc and proper 
electrodes. 



1. Timbers 

Maximum unit allowable stress 
long leaf yellow pine. 

m. General Notes 



f = 1200 #/sq.in. for 



An increase of 33-1/3$ in unit stresses will be allowed 
for members taking wind load only or wind and other 
loads combined. 



FILE NO. 
BP-A-15 











PLATE la 


HARZA 

ENGINEERING 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO 
CHARLESTON S.C. 


Subject 


Design Data 




project St, Lawrence 




File No. 


Computed. 


H. M. 


Checked 


Date 8«»23«"41 page V of o^f. 



Other unit working stresses than those given herein may 
be used but must be approved by the chief designer. 
In all cases where working stresses other than those 
given herein are used, the designer shall Incorporate 
In his design notes complete specifications of the 
material used. 



3, WEIGHTS OF MATERIALS 

a. Metals 

Aluminum, cast or hammered 

Brass, cast or rolled 

Bronze 

Copper, cast or rolled 

Iron, cast or pig 

Iron, wrought 

Lead 

Steel 

Zinc, cast or rolled 

b. Various Solids 

Cork 

Glass 

Rubber 

Timber 

Concrete, Stone 

Concrete, Cinder 

Earth 

Sand or Gravel 

Pressed Brick 

Common Brick 

Stone, Granite 

Clay Tile 

c. Floor Finishes 



Quarry tile 

Hardwood 

Softwood 

Marble 

Composition 

Cement 

Terrazzo 

d. Roof Finishes 



2" 



thick 

IT 
tl 
Tl 
tt 
tl 
II 



Spanish tile 
Shingle " 
Slate " 
Composition 



165#/cu.ft. 

534 " 

562 " 

556 " 

450 " 

485 

706 

490 

440 



it 



ti 



15#/cu,ft. 
160 " 

58 " 

30 " 
150 
100 
100 
110 
140 
120 
165 

45 



Tl 
tt 



tt 
tl 
tt 
tt 

tt 



12#/sq.ft. 



4 
3 
13 
13 
13 
25 



tt 
it 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 



15#/na.ft. 
15 * 

6 " 
10 



Tt 



FILE NO. 
BP-A- 15/41 



APPENDIX II 



Drawing No, 
PR1 

PR2 

PR3 

FR4 

FR5 

FR6 
FR7 

fr8 
PR9 

FRIO 
PRll 
PR12 

FR13 
PR14 
FR15 
FR16 
PR17 

PR18 
FR19 

FR20 
PR21 



PRELIMINARY DRAWINGS 



Title 



Plans at Elevations 132.0, 150.0, 179. 0, and 197-5. 
U. S. BDwerhouse 

Plans at Elevations 209.0, 221.5, 227.0, 243. 0, and 
256.0, U. S. Powerhouse 

Plans at Elevations 275. 0, 2^2.0, Roof and Deck, 
U. S, Powerhouse 

Arrangement of Erection Space, Plans and Sections 

Location of Governor Equipment 

Elevators 

Heating and Ventilating, Sheet No. 1 

Heating and Ventilating, Sheet No. 2 

Generator Air Cooling 

Oil Purification System 

Water Supply Systems and Flow Meter Piping 

Drainage Cross Section 

Trash Racks 

Intake Stop Logs and Guides 

Main Unit Intake Wheel Gate 

House Unit Intake Wheel Gate 

50 Ft. Ice Sluice Gate 

75 Ft. Ice Sluice Gate 

Method of Handlin:;-; and Installing Intake 
and Ice Sluice Gates 

Draft Tube Gates 

Wiring Diagrams Main Single Line Diagram 



APPENDIX I] , Continued 



Drawing No* Title 



PR22 Single Line Diagram Station Power and Light 

PR23 Single Line Diagram of D. C. Station Auxiliaries 

PR24 Overhead High Voltage Towers 

PR25 Alternate Arrangements, High Voltage Cables 

PR26 (Electrical) Equipment Location, Elevations I32.O, 

150.0, I79.O, and 197.5 » U. S. Powerhouse 

PR27 (Electrical) Equipment, Elevations 209.O to 268.0 

Incl., U. S, Powerhouse 

PR28 Lighting Layout, Block C 

PR29 Lighting Layout, Blocks B and C 

PR30 Typical Lighting Layout 

PR31 Typical Control and Instrument Conduits 

PR32 Upstream Power 




El. 132. 



Scale 50 Feet 

i.i ...i .i .i .1 



1? G8 E L K5D Kfl A IS V 



STLAwneNCE pqw£_qijguie_ cml_ 



PLANS A TELEVA TIONS 

J320 I50.0J79.0 AND 1975 

U S POWER HOUSE 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 
ENGINEERS 



DAT* .S£AL=. 

l/iZ;42 



5S°- PR 



USED FILE NO 

BP-A-I/I 



Elevs. 243 0, 246 0, 248 and D. 5. Roof 



]. ED 

ErectionBay 




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cCitcS cci 



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cct cr^cri 



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IP 08 E \L OHO D Bfl A D8 V 



STLAIV_RENCE_ __POM?M&i?^.— QX!k 



PLANS AT ELEVATIONS 2090 
221.5, 2270, 24-3. AND 256.0 
US. POWER HOUSE 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 

luiEi flL£N4 " 



. PfiTF- 

1/22/42 



/"-60-0" 



5S G PR2BP-A-I/2 



Canada 



USA. H2 > 9 „ 2C? 

-Roof £/. 282.0 



Poof 
El. 302.0 



=d 



Roof 
El 274 



~/?oof£/..'79.0 



25 



30 



n 



Roof £1.279.0 



/Poof ove 



Deck. 



transformer 



Roof over 



Walk El 256. S 



'z! 256.0 



Deck 



spaces 



generator rot rn 



El. 179 



ifi 



Roof Eli' 7 9.0 



36 

Boof El 288.0 




' eoof El 288.0^ 



ff= 



Roof £1.293. 



m 



-Roof £1.279.0 



Z< 




Roof£T2c8.0 



Floor 
I et. 282. 



€ 



Roof £1 282. 



3 



Roof 
Gen orator room 



H 



^—£1 279. 



EL. 282.0 



ROOF AND DECK PLAN 

























■ 






El. 268. 





Roof 
El. 274.0 








— ■£/. 275.0- 
























Upper porlioi 1 
G, ?neralor rooi n 




















d 
































£/. 275 t 

























LP ® (E IL D KO D KD A 08 Y 



ST.uAWRENCE PC *«?«««£___ CML_ 



PLANS AT 'EL. 275.0, 
282 QO n F AND DECK 
U.S. FQViER HOUSE 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



7/26/42. r~GO<-0" 



BS°-PR3 



US.EO FILE Ntt 

BP^A-l/3 




SLOCK 18 



BLOCK H-l 



U.S. A 
BLOCK B 
CENTER ERECTION BAY 



BLOCK H-2 



BLOCK: IS 



BLOCK 3& 



BLOCK C 
6H0RE ERECTION S>AV 




Lifting beam^ [JpL_0 | ^Z^ 



El. 2C60 




Trans former, 



a. mis 



x: 



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7-0" C min.) 



-Transfer track. 



El I74.Q 



v-vi'A , " , A l 'J'V»:'' 



Wil'A"W ~ 

SECTION A- A 



' A" i r i A l ' '' A 'l' "A ' 



-30 Ton 
I- 200 Ton 




i 



A"'»l l 'lW"A' 



''y\»i ' A l ". |i A, l i | ' A. ' 
SECTION 3-B 



TJ^IIM^IIliftl'H'A 



I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

IP 08 E (L DSD D R3 A IS IT 



st lawrehce: power house. meo±._ 



ARRANGEMENT OF ERECTION SPACE 
PLANS 4 SECTIONS 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



.sua. 

/-/e-42 



.BUS. 

As Mottfi 



US.EJX FILE NOl 

S2 G PR4teW«5/l 




QENERATOP FLOOR PLAN 




TU&B1NE FLOOR PLAN 



4 house unit Hi 
(Actuator- 



\ 



El 174.0-1 




/Actuators 



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■ ■ t > ■ ■ ■ i f r ' ■ — m- 
nor equipment 



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El. g/f.<7) 



<?/ . >Q9.<7. 



\ Units 



■AilJr* 



l^ ■£l~/3i.4f 

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^El/790 
El. lti.0 



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SECTION B-6 



El.210.0 



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f 



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'Aciut for 



EII17-S 



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El.l74.0~j _ 



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El. ISO. 0\ 



•SECTION C-C 



Scale O 



20 Feat 



IP DB E L D Kffl D RI A 08 V 



LOCATION OF COVER NOR EQUIPMENT 



ST LAWBENCE _ fWWE2_HOUSE__ MEChL 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



1-6-4-2 /'=cO l O" 



US£D.FILE NO 



ST PR5BP-A-35/2 





E/.27S.O -MM. 




El. Z60.0- H.M- 




El. 24e.S-fi.M- 




El. 231. S- H.M. 




£l. 221. S - H- 




£/. 20$. o -H M. 




EI.l37.S~ti.Mr. 



U-S.A- \ \Caua 



£1. 26o- o- H.M- 





£1.244.5- MM- 




El. 231. B- H M. 




El. 22/. 5- K 




EI209.O- MM- 




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£Hr** 



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£/■ 251.5- H.M. 




El. 22 AS- K 




E/.2o9,o -H. A/ 




El. 137 S- H.M- 



C*>MAO/l 



E leva for a/c. I 

/Freight) 



E/ei/ator /Jo- Z 
(Employees) 



E~lerafer A/o. 3 
■ (Public) 



KEY PLAhJ 



SI2S6.S -H.M. 





El. 243, S - K. 




El. 227.0- MM- 




El. 2 IS. O - K 




EI209.0-K 




EI.I97.S-/C~ 




EI.IS3.S- K 




E/./74.0-K 




EI.I66-0-K 




El. ISO. o- X 




El 132. o -K 




£1. 118-o-K 



\ _. 



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El. 197- 5 - K 





El. 173. 0-K 




£1.166.0 -K 




El I50.O - *" 




El. 132 -K 



El. 256. S- MM. 





El. 243. 5 - K 




El 227.0- M. M- 




EI.Z09.0-K. 



r a 



05 no+ed "-- L 
C. I- threshold I 




S/ll 4 Heap Details fo/z. 

£ LEVATOR A/o. 4, 5, 6, 7, 3, 9, IO / / 



Car platform 
clearance line 

Metal -facia 

ffol/oi*/ me fa I or 
ija/amem doors 
as nofed /'lj \.i 



P/aJ* 




/ -rrssho/d 



£/. 248. o ■ K 





£1/97.5- K 




E/./79.0-K 




E/./66-O-K 




E/./So.o-K 




El 132.0 -K 



3/ii / /-IeAO DETAILS 
FOG. ELZYA70.Q5, fVo 2,5 El!. 



El 282 3- MM- 



zl 256. £- H.M. 





Elevarar Afo/I 
(Employees) 



S/e^a/or- A/o. 4- 
(Employees) 




Elei/a/ors A/a. 5^7 
(Employees) 

/Jers 

Typical dimensions 
oE all elevator Jfaaffs 



Elevafors Ale. 6,3,^/0 
(Employees) 



B/syator Afo. 9 
(Employees) 

/JotSS- 

A// e/ev^terl fer- passengers except as naled 
AH elevators 2 -thus 

L.EGEHO- 

rl. ,W - rlo/low mefo/ door 
<£ - /Za/amein abor- 



p ib ie ll d obd o em a C3 v 

ST. LAWRENCE MM^!^ VECM 



ELEVATO.Q.5 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 
ENGINEERS 



_ Q*Tt_ 

12- 3c- 41 



N. ' 5 ■ 



DWG. D r-> , 

no. rn lo 



USED. FILE NO. . 

BFA35/3 










S.A1 



-L- t 




BLOCK C v 

BLOCK A OPP. HAND 

PLAN AT EL. 275.0 
Scale ZO Feet 



BLOCK C 
BLOCK A OPP. HAND 

PLAN AT EL. 260.0 
Scale ^ $CFeet 




BLOCK 30 
3L0CK 6 SIM. 



BLOCK 31 
BLOCK 7 SIM. 



BLOCK 32 
BLOCK 3 SIM. 



BLOCK 35 



BLOCK 36 
BLOCK I OPP. HAND 



BLOCK C 
SLOCK A OPP. HAND 



BLOCK 18 



BLOCK H-l 



BLOCK & 







-Faf Uo.3 
^-Surfoc, } cooler 



BLOCK H-2 3L0CK 13 

PLAN AT EL. 243. £ 
Scale 20 Feet 



BLOCK 24 
BLOCK 12 SIM. 



BLOCK 25 
BLOCK 13 SIM. 



BLOCK 2Z 

Block 14 sim. 




fi.A- 



■ G.A /FA. 




'S.A- F/irvater 



Fori No. /' 

\ Surface cooler 



Openings in 
ceiling 




Fan No. <2 FA. openings, 

in ceiling 



JSuHace oxler— Kite. 
V»/> Mb. I 



FA. opg. 
in ceiling 




El. 231. S 



E/en rfor. 



m 




El. 231.0 



i& it 



BLOCK 30 
BLOCK 6 SIM. 



BLOCK 31 
BLOCK 7 SIM. 




BLOCK 32 
BLOCK 6 SIM. 



" Genera lor room 



BLOCK 36 
BLOCK I OPP. HAND 



a. a. 



<-Fon No- 1 
^■Surface cooler 



BLOCK 18 



BLOCK H-l 



CANADA] U.S. A 



BLOCK B 



Elevator 



FA. opg. in Openings in 
ceiling^-^ | ceiling ^. G:a]-^RA.' 




Fan No- 1 
Surface cooler 



■Fan No. 2 



BLOCK C 
BLOCK A OPP. HAND 



G.A.^ r-F.A- 



Openings in 
ceiling ^ 




BLOCK H-2 BLOCK 19 

PLAN AT EL. 221.0 



BLOCK 20 



Fon No-T I ^-Filte, 

Surface cooler 



SLOCK 24 
BLOCK 12 SIM. 



Surface cooler 



BLOCK 25 
BLOCK 13 SIM. 



\n \b. 2 



BLOCK 2o • 
BLOCK 14 SIM. 



Scale 



20 Feet 







3000-^-3000 



z/so-yziso 30O0-y~-30C 

~ I VO to 6000 R.A. 

to 3000X ^^0. 3 LJ ^ ^^No.4- 



^Uo.3 
-10300 RE- 



UNITED STAT£S POWER HOUSE. 
PLAN AT EL. 197.5 



Scale 



60 Feet 



El. 243. S 



10000 
2700 



10000 



to 10000 \ 



to loooo 



-10000 



1950- 



HH§£7 




■0 to 6000 R.A- 
to 6000 6. A- 



&' 



2400 



-I9S0 



I? D8 IE 0= KID D R3 A G3 IT 



Fan 
No. 2 



El. 227. 



-4800 R.A. 



-2400 
El. 209. 



DIAGRAM 
12 GROUPS THUS 

Fan No. 4 supplies fate heist 
machinery space 

Fan No. 3 supplies all other 
spaces at El. 243, S 



LESSfJD ■■■ 

FA,- Fresh air 

S.A - Supply air 

S. A. - Generator air 

R.A.- Return air 



-0 to 25000 G. A. 



■6000 to 19000 R/a. 



El. 197. 5 



ST LAWRENCE 






HEAT/ NO $ VENTILATING 

SHEET 2 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



1-/4-42 



As notes' 



DWG. 
NO. 



PR8 



USEOi RLE NO 

BP-A-35/5 




El. 179.0- 



A — , 




TURBINE FLOOR PLAN 



GENERATOR FLOOR PLAN 




SECTION A-A 



51.2030} 



dud 



Hot air 
plenum 

EI.l37.S-j 



^A- 



-B.4. duct 



SECTION 3-8 



I esevo : 

G.A.- Oeneralor air 
R.A- .Return air 



\P 08 E 0= D OBD D Kl A IB Tf 



ST]_LJWREHC:E__' _jPOWE&.JiOMS£___ VEfJZ: 



GENERATOR AIR COOLING 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



i-?e- 42 



i"* i : °" 



DWG. 
NO. 



PR9 



USED FILE MO 

BP-A-35/6 




5 10 

CANADIAN POWER MOUSE 



IS HI 6 



H2 IS) 26 



23 30 

UNITED STATES POWER HOUSE 



35 3d 



KEY PLAN 

Scale 200 Feet 



^t Units 9 and 26 

-300 G.PM Purifier Gos.ctLub. Oil 
r75GPM Gov. $ Lub. oil pump 

r?-250GPM Tronsf.Cll Pumps 




7800 Gol. Got 
Hub. Oil tank 
(Unfiltered) — I 



10-6* 
Ki! L 0' 



ll-O"0x 25'-ti 
j Vpnfilteced) 



^ISOOO Gol. Tronsf. Oil tonk- 



U>-6'*k25'-o- 
(Filtered) 

(—16000 Gol, Transformer Oil tank* 



^ s s\ % ss s s^S 



-4h- 



~-12cX>GPH Transformer 
Oil Purifier 



'••.w* SS' ■ S\S ', 



f— 7800 Gol <5oiiernor£ 
L ubricaf/.nq <Oii ton/r 
(Filtered) j 



1 



^ir- 



-?S^ 



PLAN 
Scale O 20 Feet 



-*^~ 



|-y-ff r El 137.5 



El. 179.0 



£1.166.0 



El.150.0] 



rQ 



El 132.0 



■A I 



SECTION A- A 

Scale 20 Feet 
I I 



Pro in s 



To vr.t 



Oehydrotor 



Unfit, -tdoil tor* I Unfiltered dl tank 
leonnSal LiJ IBooo Gol. 



To drain 



i. odd numbered units 




h 

€1 



I m 4' supply heoder 

„ <£ * drain heoder 



Pressure fonks 



tf5?T 



^Purifiers 
2-1200 G PH 



> 



OPS RATION DIAGRAM- TRANSFORMER OIL SYSTEM 





Fill box 



Unfiltered oil tank 
7SOO Gal. 



To drain 
Oi-erflofiiJ I 

Dehydrotor 



To Vent, — | 



f 



\0verftew 



**' * Turbine 
j beoring '. 3' supply heoder 



4' drain header 



--, I . 



2' 



Purifier 
t pumps 
30O GPU 



Pump 
75GPM 



Filtered 
oil tonic 
7800 Goi 



OPERATION DIAGRAM- GOVERNOR AND LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM 



LP OB E LL M R3 A 08 Tf 



ST. LAWP£NC£ POtV'.'? HOJSS 



MEC.i. 



Ok PURIFICATION SYSTEM 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



.OS'S- 

PS -42 



As-wrec 



no q PRI0BWV35/7 



USEiX FILE NQ 



2- 1200 GPM raw water 
pump6 & 20H.P.-\ 



J± 




2-S"roW water intakes in 
downstream' pier noses 

1-1200 GPM fire pump 
SO HP. 



^Twin basket sjromers 



It 






-tS"ra*v waier header 
for -transformer cooling 



^ife^l 



6* fire service header 



Treoied wafer header 



PIPE AND EQUIPMENT GALLERY EL I50.0 



B^^^-Q- QQQQQQQOQ 






fyq$pfyi[isj!qifytip 



^6' row wafer intake 




^O 



¥ ? 



V 



- Ttvin filters, ireoted 
pumps, pressure tank. 



■ Twin basket strainers 



- S" raw woter intake in 
scroll intoke roof for 
generator coo/ing 



- £ odd numbered 
f Units 



i even numbered 
Units 




PLAN-FLOW METER PIPING 
Scole O 20 Feet 



DIAGRAM WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS ' UNITED STATES 
CANADIAN SYSTEMS SIMILAR 



/n 



Generator bearing 
Vacuum -^doctor 




S'infakr in scroti 
case ror-F 



On instrument 
y\ pone/ 



DIAGRAM GENERATOR AND TURBINE WATER SYSTEM 



r 



Discharge in nose of 
downstream pier El. 149.0* 



T 



Transformer 
oil cooler 



h 



Transformer 
oil cooler 



Transformer 
oil cooler 



t—o 



F 



f-6" cooling water header 



oo-o 



s 



T55~a? 



water /ntoke 



V- Twin bosket L-t Units 4. 17, 22, 

strainers 21 and 34 

Pipe and equipment t Unit 10 
Gallery El 150. (opposite hand) 



.ML 



PLAN AT D0V/N5TRE AM RAW WATER INTAKES 
Scale O 20 Feet 



'£" generator cooling 
water line 




DIAGRAM TRANSFORMER COOLING SYSTEM 



SECTION THRU GENERATOR 1 COOLING WATS? INTAKE 



Scale 



. 20 Feef 
i i .... i 



SECTION A- A 

Scale 20 Feet 



El. 183. 5- 




6'rovJ mter intone 
El 147.5-} 




j 'Flow meter 
piping 



B lei 5 ■} 



SECTION B-B 
Scale 20 Feet 



LEGE Nip 

□ Indicating flow mater ond alarm 

□ Sight flow indicator ana o/orm 
da Motor operated no-'ve 

*i Lock, shield valve 

txj-c Hose connection For compressed j/r 
X Gate vol ire 
(D Pressure gage 



[PtSIECLD K5D □ RD^tSV 



ST. LAV/ZENCE 



POWE? HOUSE 



M.ECP. 



WATER 5UP r LY 5Y3TFM5 
AND FLOW Y"fR PIPING 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINUftS 



.MIT. 

1-7-42 



_,DWG. 00 

as not:c\ no. rn 



US.E.D. FILE NQ I 

flB F-A-35/8 1 



d roof drain 
approx SO'-Oac 
at penthouse j 



Elevator 
penthoust\ 



4drain--%~ 
SO'-O'ce 



Mi n.H.W E I.Z3S.O 




5 "roof drain 
80'-0"o.c. 



■5" roof drain 

eo-o"ac. 



' 4'roof drain 
,80*-0a.(;. 



,<Z'drain 

each cubicle 

/Trench d 4' drain 
\§0-0"aa. 



6 'drain 
SO-Ooe- 



&" header 



LP ® (E L KD D R3 A IS V 



wrsENCs .__.£SMESJiQUS£__ M&Ltfi 



DPAINAQz C20SS SECTION 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 
ENGINEERS 



/■W As noted. NO* PRI2BP-A-35/9 



US£i>. FILE NO. 




t 143.50-. =M = 




_Oj>erung for 
alignment lug o 



^f C 77<9A/ 55 

Scale $"• 1-0- 



TRASH RACK TRZ 
Scale i"'l-6' 



TRASH RACK TRI 
Sca/e £~*/-'o: 



1 **3 



TRASH RACK LOCA TION £1106.50 
Scale A'- IW 

/S ljte nfp/, 




ij'vi'slrap anchors 



IS' c+rs git. 



SECTION DD 
Scale f-IJO- 



P" stiii>Ct3.9S 



IJ'A si rap anchor 
Te^itrs alt 




9 shi p C231* 



4-4-Ji 



t-4jL 



S-2'tt 




SECTION FF 
Scale l-l-O'' 









£1 256.0' 


\\ 








-v- 
















< 




f-8- / btnt pi. 


[-D^ 


| £1 Z06-50' 




\ 




L D 




: 


; ■ 




"■ 


M 

T ** c 


r 
E 


f 

E 












r-Si-Zi-U 


r F 


i £/ /-f« ' 








V-P 


ti 



n-t- 

GUIDES 

Scale j'-l-o" 



Openi^e ?o suit lifting r 

device 



/>/-. 




Use sanre 'i ff:nf de/ice 
~3s7or -"slop 'oyf 



2 p!- Use same hook a? 
for stop IO}S 



S-4-si 



/-£(. I49J0 



//"',! strap anchors 

IS " ctrs 



Note: 

Details of racks for hou5t unit are 
zrreroen cu racks for hou=? unit to be 
permit handling by gantry 
we d all racks throughout 



SECTION &,&, 
Scale /"-/JO" 



IP DS (E 0= D ffiffl D R3 A D8 Tf 



77 >o sections ^-j 



SECT/ON EE 
Scale I"' 1-0" 



ST. LAWR£NC£ rOW£R_JiOUSt_ MECM_ 



TR± "H RACXi 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



I-IZ-42 As r:oted 



So" 3 ' PR 13 



U.SE.Q FILE NOl 

BF 



I9--IO" 



• ip" 



El. 24 6.0 -j 



10 * IO timber 





Slot beam 
web and ^" it. 



SECTION C-C 



Symmetrical 
about C.L. 



*■!? 




Scale /" = /'-<?" 



SECT/ ON D-D 
Scale J"*/'-0" 



-<MH> 




I 



£ 



3*6*g"Z 



SECTION G-G 
Scale /"*/'-0" 




anchor 
bolts -3'-0"o.c. 



Roof of intake 



DETAIL J- 
Scale l"*l'-Q" 



\P DB E D. D K5D D R3 A 08 Y 



STOP LOG GUIDES 
Scale l"=r-0" 



ST^LAWR_ENCE _POW£R_HQUSE._ MECH 



/.-/TAKE 
STOP LOSS AND GUIDES 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY • CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



1-9-42 



.tote. 

As shown 



BS B "PRi4BP*4<yi 



US.E.& F1LENQ 





(El. 


Id 3.5 


,LG 


X ~*H 




r\ 


\. 


A 


& 








SECTION E-E 



SECTION C-C 



[PtSEL 



maost? 



STL4jW?£AJC£ PQW£3_±iOUSE___ MECh 



DOWNS TREAM ELE VA T/ON 



SECTION A- A 



GATE GUIDES 



Sco/eg"=l'-0' 



MAIN UNIT 

INTAKE WHEEL GATE 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



/- G-J£ \At s'-own 



™ G -PRl5|8PA-4<y2 



US£.a RLE NO 



EI.Z4Z.0 



t_ 




Skm /£ j ■; 



J 



PLAN 




Skin f &j-f 



T 



-$- 



-4- 



> 



SECT/ON B-B 




r 







% tit JjL it H 1 



It" It 



Web f£34ix%< 
Fig f£4x$ 



-■4— 



H 



Web ftMti 
fig £ d,i 



Ts im 5*4 k/5.£ 



\ Web' IE 3d*j 
[Fig £ I?kI 






± 



f Hi — $ 



-H" — - % 



X L il, 



it 



L 



I M = """ ^ 



. UlJ__ 

1r 



—K 



**- 



hh h" 4H HH 



Lmz 



|f»Ve£ /£ 3dxt 
\F/g £ 10x1 



!3'-6" ■ 'c c wheels 



J 



ELEVATION A- A 



Scale f=/'-0" 




SECTION E-E 




EI./SC.S 








_F/ow 



SECTION C-C 




t?:::; z 



"W^izj 



£/ /5G.5 


.^CxC,! 


?] r 


T^ 


» 


< 


*♦ 


f 




i - 


. 




> i'i 



SECTION H-H 



IP 08 E IL M IS) A 08 V 



5co/f £"• l-O" 



ST.LAWREMCt 



POWSR 



MECH, 



HOUSE UNIT 
INTAKE WHEEL GAT E 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



:-IO-42 As shown NO. 'PR I 5 



USED FILE NO. 

BPA-40/3 



A *l rOftino detail 



3^± web s tiff s top t b ott 



i jMbars NS 



£ diaphrefms 



3l"3i"Tia9 .?* 



4-i stiff bin 




{^"ۥ8 oak timber 



B 



*\ 



1 



/ ■ - ■ ' ■) 



34MF344-' 



do 



H.S. 



FS. 



do. 



rrr 



do- 






do 



5 "^ 






V-<S '8 oak timber 
4 spaces a 3-f-m /Z-4 " 



i8-e" 



J'j stiffs 



3£ 'j bar- 



3hX ri 
« Zltt 




-+ 



3-i stiffs 



/ 



Springs 4»J'' 



A.SCf 80* rail 
12'lg-J-pltopi bott ., 

C.i.beeir>\ 



3-Z" 



,BJ 




SECT/ON A A 



ELEVATION BB 



VIEW CC 



UPSTREAM ELEVATION 
Scale £'*l-0~ 




to- 



face of draft tube opening 

Gate in stored 
position 




4-4- §i~- 



4" 



~8"CI!S* 
*S/-2*2 bdr on bm 





HEADER DETAILS 
Scale f*l-0" 



strap anchors 
- Ifctrsdlt 



SLOT DETAIL 

Scale f "*/•'«" 



£1 lOV.Qi 



GATE DOG 

Note: To set dog pull up and catch chain in 

piste notch. When (fate is in place release 
chain and drop cover into place Dog will be 
retracted automa'ically bu counterweight 
when gate is lifted 

Scale l"'l'-0 




a "1184* with 
X, $" bearing pis * 
•? $"*anchor bolts 



v ' ',1 



SILL DETAIL 
Sx.ale /"-/-'C" 




fl 110-0 



-a 



5 



El. 137.0 



IP- 



ft A720* J_J_ 



GATE GUIDES 
Scale fc't-O" 



18 gates required for Canadian side 

18 •■ if " United States side 



GA^i ASSEMBLY 
Scale ,l"-i-o" 



pcaELOiisiorciAGa-Tr 



57T LAWRENCE^ _PpW_f.R__iOUS_£_ 



DRAFT TUBE. OA'ii 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGINEERS 



.^= — UK.. D -5 0,-1 

3-24-42 Asrs*ed NO. frdZJ 



USED. FILE NO 

Be-A-40/7l 



H5& FbTheads 
rhreefij u/indinj & J 
rrontfs- 136- IIS K* . J. ' 



IsipeoKuo 



ari 



cpmnerator' 

ACB-'I5KV- 



/3-atv- to~ 

Generators 




fiairu Bus 



r~i5^-wi — [ 

J A A J 

4 J- 

f t 

th 



//3K* Cobl es 



A 






i ww I r w w 1 

} \ ) } 

f t * 






I 7b Outdoor 
SuoSrotion 



noKv Cobles 






W 1 



-A 












i i 



A 



E3 



'23' 



Stat '/on- DiOQrarn. 



i- 600/300-5,1 
tvV — vi^- 

< /eeocfor 
3-;^ Transfi ■ 
Z3o*r/-5rbr'-/35oo#- K*a 
/3.&K' Oejlo / 
/3 g ** D&lfo 



Trips • 



'fcir.vif A.fA fA fA. / A {A 



^k-i^o— - nSHiCir litr: 



To adjacent <$roup Bus 

i *, (g »rr,ps 

2- ISBKrTrans-ACBUrs 






5<3oCM 75*V L.Ll 



3- (*ooo/5A 
I3S /CV &U5 -n 



7~r iP s- 
0- F/e/d-A C&rcaK.er I 

d-Gjen S o Solenoid ■ 
e- Gen-AirSroJccS 1 




fo odjoc<sn1~ 









» A 



<*?) 



i 
I 






\ 



32 



T 

3; 



3<r 



r /o Suu s^oT ri 



/ yp/cot Group- O/ag ram 



' 1 From ST°' i ~l on - 

'Transformer; 




H5Ks underground 

Cobles 



•HllhA> 

v> ^ Paf-n&oos 



|~~T . . ft : r 5«,s 



~~r us 
Z- //5^- -ECS 

1 



- 



5-/3.S*'- 
Sta+ion Service 
^ro nsf- 



— <jf-m4t 



1 

T 



np 

/ 



<!)-«-> 



\ - £:*g ^/r 



.5 IV < ^p 5-o 



! t t 



-0- 






: I 1 



//5KV- SUbStatlOn D /a^rxirn . 



i 



I 



J f i 



1 

35 



t ,Ci J^ 5-5 SunchrSoiji nj 5u)/~ch 

-. C" 7 "' Ccirr&nt Irons-former 

*i) fii J ...ar-jEe.la^ pt .e*>ten-t-,o, ■f-rvnsyurme.r 
■ x ■ Differencial Zeiau- 
. — -» O *r Curnsnt gejou 



£0. Elec/nca/ly Op 



PD8EL 



K1^[SW 



5t£0cure/7ce 



BJect. 



Wieinq Diaqea.ms 
MainSin^lz Like. Dia^isam 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY - CHICAGO 

ENGtNUM 






rloos,- 



S^-PR2 



O.S.E.D. FILE NO. 

BP4-I60/I 



StCTIONAA 



£l 5700 -, 



CEI 540.0 r- 

0*1 



SECTIONS5 



c 


. K c . 




"1 

c 


" C 'J 


r « 


"1 

c , 


* c . 


r K 


J 

1 

Scale o 


rr/o/v c 


c 

fee 1 




Mfcorner) 



Wind on cab/es //%* -£'' /ce. 

h n tower 40*/*i on $* projected erne 
Tension on one. cable 23570* 


Force 


Wind 
Upstrearri 
5 cables 


Windnght 

Looking p. 5 

5 cables 


MndD5 
No cobles 


A 


9700* 


7200* 





3 


12450 


13900 





C 


29000 


£000 





D 


10400 


27500 





£ 


19500 


19500 





F 








I2&000 


C 


126000 








H 


4B0500 


430100 





H, 


309000 


33400 





J 





O 


174 J 00 


■K 








21000 


L 


22&gO0 








M, 








I06I0O 


M 





I1&500 





N 


■ 


VlfOOO 


o 




LOCATION PLAN 



Scale 



50OFeel 

_1 




DDD DDQOT DDD DDD DDD ODD DDD DDD DDD DDD DDD DDD DDD DOD DDD DDD DDD 



D 



DowrssrfiE4M Face of Powcrhouss 



Scale 100 Feet 
' 



P 08 ELL 



MY 



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ENGINEERS 



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USED. FILE NO 



PART IB 

REPORT OF HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
JUNE 21, 1941 



Appendix 111-24(3) 



LEPHONE RANDOLPH 3451 



Harza Engineering Co. 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
CH I CA GO 



205 W.WACKER DRIVE 



Chicago, Illinois 
June 21st, 19^1 



United States District Engineer 



Massena, New York 



Dear Sir: 



Pursuant to agreement entered into with the United 



States of America dated January 13> 19^1> we transmit herewith 



our general report on the proposed Barnhart Island Power House 



and appurtenances of the proposed hydro-electric development 



of the International Rapids Section of the St. Lawrence River, 



Yours very truly , 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 




resident 



APreside 



Chief Engineer 



CONTENTS 



Pages 



SYBOPSIS OF REPORT a to g 

INTRODUCTION . 1 

HYDROLOGY, INSTALLED CAPACITY, HEAD AND POWER 1 
POWER HOU3E LOCATION AND TYPE 

Locations A,B, and C 3 - Plate 1 

Dimensions Assumed 3 

Power House Types 3 

Important Considerations Entering into Choice 4 

Depth of Excavation 5 

Stability Criteria 5 

Wing Walls 6 

Highway and Rail Approaches 6 - Plate 7-C2 

Electrical Circuits to Switchyard 6 - Table 8 

Dikes 6 - Plate 7-C2 

Other Equipment 6 

Cofferdam, Cut and Fill Balance 7 

Unit Prices 7 

Summary of Comparative Costs of Locations 

A, B, and C and types "D" and "U" 8 

Conclusions as to Location and Type 8 

GENERATING UNITS 

Size of Units 10 

Number of Units 10 

Capacity and Output as Related to Number 

of Units 11 - Plate 26 

Earnings per Unit 12 

Overload Output 12 

Capacity and Water Consumption of 3& Units 13 

Type of Hydraulic Turbines 13 

Speed of Rotation 14 

Fundamental Criteria (a) to (g) 14 

Factors Favoring High & Low Speed for 

St. Lawrence 15 

Experience Chart of Common Practice 15 

Manufacturers Opinions 16 

Range of Recommended Speeds 16 

Procedure of Selection, Tests and Purchase 16 



FOUNDATION GEOLOGY 



Rages 



Description from Massena 18 

Teats at Massena 18 

Power House Loadings 18 

Independent Intake 19 

ICE CONTROL 

Criteria from Consulting Meetings, Confer- 
ences and Correspondence 20 
Ice Gates General Discussion • 20 
Short Gate Types 21 
Stop Logs 21 
Lowering Flat Leaf 21 
Combination Gate and Stop Logs 22 
Long Gate Types 22 
Drum 22 
Hammer Head 23 
Conclusions as to Type 23 

SPILLWAY GATES BETWEEN POWER HOUSE 

Purpose 2k 

Relative Costs 2/j. 
Tail Water Fluctuations with Rejected 

Load of 115,000 cfs 25 
Head Water Fluctuations with Rejected 

Load of 115,000 cfs 26 

ELECTRICAL FEATURES 

General 28 

Transmission System Problem 28 

Distribution of Local Energy 29 

Long Distance Transmission 29 

GENERATORS 

Number of Units 29 

Rating of Units 29 

Power Factor of Units 29 

Frequency of Units 30 

Voltage of Units 30 

Speed of Units 30 

Transient Reactance of Units 30 

TRANSIENT REACTANCE ASSUMED TRANSMISSION SYSTEM 31 

TRANSIENT REACTANCE CANADIAN PLANT 35 



Pages 



■m 



OTHER GENERATOR FEATURES 35 
TRANSFORMERS 

General 35 

Location 3& 

Types 3^ 

Rating 36 

Application 37 

CIRCUIT BREAKERS 40 

HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES 40 

AUXILIARY POWER SUPPLY 41 

PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

American Power House 41 

Canadian Power House 42 

SYSTEM OF ELECTRICAL CONTROL 43 

WIRING DIAGRAMS 43-Plate 100 

ESTIMATES i-4 

APPE.MDIX A, Description of Power House and Equipment 57 

APPENDIX B, Short Circuit Analysis and Circuit Breaker Duties 67 

APPENDIX C-l and C-2, Log of A.C. Board Studies 79 

APPENDIX D, Report of A.C. Board Studies 93 

APPENDIX E, Report of Planning Section, Ontario Hydro 

Commision 101 



LIST OF TABLES 

Page 

1. Summary of Costs U7 

2. Estimate of Power House Substructure 1+S 

3. Estimate of Costs of Wing Walls, Highway Approaches and 
Cofferdams *+9 

km Estimate of Cost of Dikes 50 

5. Comparisons of Costs of Power Houses for Various Locations 

and Types 51 

6. Estimates of Cost of Power House Equipment 52 

7. Estimate of Cost of Power House Superstructure and of Yards 

and Grading. Balance of Excavation Yardages 53 

g. Summary of Electrical Estimates 5^ 

9. Estimate of Cost of Ice and Spillway Gates 55 

10. Comparison of Stability Studies. 97 



LIST OF PLATES 

Plate Number Description 

1 Alternate Locations A, B and C 

2-A-l P.H. Layout Location A, Scheme 1 

3-B-l P.H. Layout Location B, Scheme 1 

*J--C-1 P.H. Layout Location C, Scheme 1 

5 -A -2 P.H. Layout Location A, Scheme 2 

6-B-2 P.H. Layout Location B, Scheme 2 

7-C-2 P.H. Layout Location C, Scheme 2 

8-A-3 P.H. Layout Location A, Scheme 3 

9-B-3 P.H. Layout Location B, Scheme 3 

10-C-3 P.H. Layout Location C, Scheme 3 

Ik Type D Power House - Cross Section 

15 Type D Power House - Turbine Floor 

16 Type D Power House - Generator Floor 

17 Type U Power House - Cross Section 

18 Type U Power House - Turbine Floor 

19 Type U Power House - Generator Floor 

20 Power House - Longitudinal Sections 

21 Spillway Gates - Cross Sections 

21A Ice Gates and Wing Walls - Cross Sections 

22 Head Duration Curve 

23 Tail Water Duration Curve 
2k Specific Speed vs. Head 
25 Turbine Efficiencies 



Plate Number Description 

26 Power Duration Curves 

27 Tailwater Conditions and River Gradient on 

Dropping of Load 

28-55 Headwater, Tailwater, Head and Powergraphs 1860-1939 

36 Downstream Elevation 

37 St. Lawrence Waterway - International Rapids 

Section. Canadian Dept. of Transport. 

100 One Line Diagrams and Suggested Transformation 

and Switching Schemes 

101 Transmission System. New York State 

102 Stability Curves. A.C. Board Studies, Sheet No. 1 

103 Stability Curves. A.C. Board Studies, Sheet No. 2 
10k Stability Curves. A.C. Board Studies, Sheet No. 3 

105 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. k 

106 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 5 

107 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 6 

108 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 7 

109 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 8 

110 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 10 

111 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 13 

112 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 15 

113 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 17 

114 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 19 

115 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 23 

116 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 25 

117 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. k2 

118 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. kf 



Plate Number Description 

119 Power Flov Diagram, Study No. ^9 

120 Power Flow Diagram, Study No. 66 

121 Impedance Diagram, Study No. 1-2^ 

122 Impedance Diagram, Study No. 25-66 

123 Power House Arrangement of Electrical Equipment 
124- Typical Substation 



SYNOPSIS OF REPORT 

Summary of Estimate for Location C, Electrical Scheme 2, 

Power House Type "U" 
(See Table 1 for greater deteil) 

See 
Description Table American Canadian Total 

Power house substructure 5 $14,478,505 $15,828,600 $50,307,105 

Major power house equip. 6 30,520,000 27,892,000 58,412,000 

Minor power house equip. 6 2,056,000 2,056,000 4,112,000 

Power House superstructure 7 3,000,000 3,000,000 6,000,000 

Yards and grading 7 223,000 241,000 464,000 

Ice Gates 9 223,700 223,700 447,400 

Spillway gates 9 147,7^0 147,740 • 295,^80 

Electrical 8 8,503,500 9,785,400 18, 288, 900 

$59,152,445 $59,174,440 $118,326,885 

Eng.Int. & Cont. App. 20% 11,827,555 11,845,560 23,675,115 

$70,980,000 $71,020,000 $142,000,000 
Hydrology 

Normal initial head 8l ft. 

Initial range of heads 71. 3 to 83.8 

Possible ultimate normal head 83.5 ft. 

Ultimate range of heads 71.3 to 87.3 

Mean flow 242,000 cfs 

Minimum monthly mean flow 180, 000 cfs 

Maximum monthly mean flow 310,000 cfs 

Maximum headwater with idle power plant . . 249 



-a- 



Maximum operating headwater .•••»•••• 245 

Initial controlled headwater •••••••• 238 

Normal corresponding tailwater • •••••« 157 

Minimum tailwater • . • . . 154 



Installed Capacity 



36 turbines Q 61,100 hp, 81 ft, head . . . . 2,200,000 hp 
24 generators 60 cy, 55*000 leva %% pf • • • • 1,320,000 kva 
12 generators 25 cy f 58,000 kva 90^pf. ... 696,000 leva 



Expected Output 

Firm capacity available with 36 units 

95% of time, Plate 26 1,150,000 kw 

Firm mean annual energy with 36 units 

as recommended, Plate 26 ••••••••• 10»11 billion kwh 

Total mean annual energy • •••••••••1 2. 6 » * 

Type of Turbines 

Francis turbines are recommended in preference to propeller type tur- 
bines because of flatter and higher efficiency curves, permitting more ef- 
ficient operation if plant is operated in sectionalized units, and because 
the existing available head is such that more satisfactory performance is 
assured. 

Speed of Rotation (Plate 24) 

Large annual output per unit at high load factor, and need of high ef- 
ficiency at reduced winter head favors careful selection of speed, based u- 
pon relative earnings and justified differential costs as between individual 
available developed units, with upper limit of 72 rpm. 



is 



Selection of Turbines 

Initial selection for relative model study to be made from existing de- 
signs established by model and prototype tests. Best selected design or de- 
signs to then be tested in model of proposed intake, scroll case, and draft 
tube. All manufacturers to adhere conditionally to uniform hydraulic design. 

Power House Location and Type 

Following table shows comparative costs of variable items only in con- 
sidered locations and types of power house arrangement. 

Location Type »D« Type «U« 

A $31,048,000 $31,105»000 

B 3lt05lt000 30 r 6l4tOOO 

C 30,797,000 30,307,000 (recommended) 

The «U" type of power house, Plates 17 t 18, and 19t distinguished by lo- 
cation of transformers and electrical equipment upstream from generator room 
between same and intake structure is recommended. 



-b- 



The farthermost downstream site. Location C. Plate 1 and Plate 7-32. at 
extreme east end of Barnhart Island with Canadian end swung eastward to reduce 
tailrace excavation and avoid disturbing Cornwall Canal is recommended . 

Geology of Foundations 

At the above site rock is slightly lower than at other sites but this cost 
is more than balanced by reduced excavation of overburden. 

Foundation consists of l ami nated beds of dolomite, limestone, sands tone , 
and shale. Shale is cemented, not subject to slaking with alternate wetting 
and drying. Strength ample unless for sliding and shear in case of independent 
intake. Further investigation needed at Location C. 

Scheme 2. Type of Electrical Exit to Switchyards (Plate 7-C-2) 

Consisting entirely of underground oil filled or oil-o-static power cables 
in tunnel without overhead lines for power or control is recommended. 

Ice Control (Plate 21 -A) 

Two - 75 ft. by 17 ft. leeways to be kept thawed out and ready for instant 
use are recommended with stop logs or lowering flat leaf gates at shore ends of 
each power house, with sill at 229 aad crest at 2^6 designed to pass ice with 
3 ft. depth of water at pool 232, assumed minimum elevation when ice discharge 
will be needed. Power house superstructure to span across apron of leeways to 
provide erection, storage and office space. See Plate 19. 

Spillway Gates 

Two - 50 ft. by 50 ft. fixed roller, flat leaf gates, with individual hoists 
and counterweights to be located in center of structure between power houses, one 
gate on each side of international boundary. To be kept thawed out and ready 
for instant use, to quickly restore flow of river for navigation purposes below 
power house or prevent breaking up of ice in forebay in case of interruption of 
load equal to one half station capacity or 115,000 c.f.s. at Elev. 238. Building 
superstructure to span across apron of spillway to provide erection space, see 
Plate 19. 

Wing Walls (Plate 21-A) 

Have been designed as gravity walls carried to sound rock, stable during 
construction with reasonable program of backfilling and after completion sub- 
jected to saturated fill and water pressures. 

Dikes (Plate 7-C-2) 

Will be constructed from necessary excavations for which an excess of ex- 
cavated material exists unless more economical to borrow locally for remote 
western portion. 

Cofferdam 

Cofferdam for power house is to be built of earth fill from power house ex- 
\ cavated material to sufficient height, (elevation 190) to avoid flooding from 
extreme winter elevations of river caused by ice jams. 



-c- 



Highway and Rail Approaches , (Plate 7-C-2) 

Not approaohable from the American side except by water until cofferdams 
of Long Sault Dam become available, and thence down Barnhart Island. 

Approaohable from Canadian side during construction, both rail and high- 
way, by construction of a subway under the Cornwall canal and switchbacks for 
railroad to reaoh grade after emerging from subway. 

Surges from Load Changes 

Immediate tailrace surge resulting from interruption of H5tO(X) cfs in 
flow is 2.5 ft. not remedied by spillway gates. Duration of surge only is 
affected by gates, Plate 27. Surges at entrance to Cornwall Canal, and pro- 
bably about same at entrance to new American canal, will be in the magnitude 
of 0.5 ft. 

Rejection If 115.000 cfs by Ameri-can power house will cause sudden up- 
ward wave of about 1.5 feet to spread over the fore bay, a delay of one -half 
hour to equalize and then a rise of about 0.8 ft. per hour. 

Architecture (Plate 36) 

The downstream elevation of the proposed power house in shown in Plate 
36. Architectural treatment of a building so long and relatively low is dif- 
ficult. To break up the roof line, as well as to provide useful space, re- 
latively massive features at the ends and at the middle are indicated, with 
the intervening building treated largely by horizontal lines to make it ap- 
pear lower and more obscure by contrast. 

The large end and center masses also break up the length and make the 
building appear shorter. They span the end iceways and -the middle spillway 
where a different s true tural treatment is needed in any event and to which 

4 

this design lends itself. The international boundary thus passes through 
the center of the middle feature. 

RECOMMENDATIONS AND DESCRIPTIONS FOR UNITED STATES POWER HOUSE 

Distribution of Energy in the Vicinity of the Project 

As present large "blocks of power are delivered in the local district at 
115 kv, we recommend that the voltage for looal distribution, local trans- 
mission, and interconnection with local transmission systems shall be 115 kv. 

Long Distance Transmission 

It is recommended that provision be made so that power supply for long 
distance transmission oan be brought to the substation at either 115 kv or 
230 kv; that the voltage for long distance transmission shall be 230 kv, un- 
less later information on marketing of power is available before starting de- 
sign, 'warranting the use of 287 kv; and that, if 287 kv is to be employed for 
long distance transmission, such voltage shall be secured through transformers 
in the substation. 

Generators 

The alternating current generator capacity has been determined by the max- 
imum output of the recommended water wheel capacity under maximum head (Pages 
16 - 21). 

-d- 



It is recommended that these generators shall be 55tOOO kva, I3.8 kv, 3 
phase, 60 cycle, *)% power factor, with direct connected main and pilot ex- 
citers, and with standard characteristics; and that the transient reactance 
shall be normal. However, provision has been made in the layout and esti- 
mates for reducing the reactance to $5% before starting design, if warranted 
by later information on the marketing of power. 

Transformer Location 

Location of the step-up transformers in the power plant proper on either 
the upstream or downstream side of the power plant is governed entirely by 
the advantages obtained in improved hydraulic intake and draft tube condi- 
tions. Some advantages from the standpoint of operation and protection can 
be obtained in the upstream location somewhat more readily than in the down- 
stream location. We therefore recommend •that the transformers location be 
on the upstream side (u Type) of the power house, unless defense and operating 
agencies prefer otherwise. 

Circuit Breakers 

Air breakers for I3.8 kv, 5»000 ampere, 2t500,000 kva are fully developed 
and are standard equipment with the manufacturers. Air breakers for 110 kv, 
230 kv and 287 kv are in progress of development. Standard oil breakers for 
these voltages are available with interrupting capacity up to 2t 500, 000 kva, 
although higher interrupting capacity has been used on a few existing 28' 7 kv 
breakers. We therefore recommend that circuit breakers shall be capable of 
interrupting a circuit in an overall time of .1 of a second or 6 cycles, and 
that the short circuit kva of the outgoing transmission circuits and buses 
shall be limited to 2»500, 000 kva unless breakers of 3,500,000 kva become a- 
vailable. 

Cable for High Voltage 

High tension cable of ihe oil filled type is a standard product with oab- 
le manufacturers in voltages up to 132 kv. 220 kv cables have been used ex- 
tensively in European installations and are now being developed by our manu- 
facturers. We therefore recommend that cable shall be employed for conduct- 
ing the power fro- the power house to the substation for all voltages up to 
230 kv. 

Auxiliary Power Supply 

A hydraulic unit of small size and capacity has been included for auxil- 
iary power supply for the cranes, gate hoists, governor equipment, sump pumps, 

and other power and light necessary in the power plant, substation and sur- 
rounding yards. We recommend that the exact size and voltage of the house u- 
nit be determined at a later date when more information is available; that 
the energy supply for control of substantion equipment be located in the sub- 
station area; and that reserve auxiliary power supply, interconnected with the 
house unit supply in the power plant, be furnished through transformers con- 
nected to the high tension bus. 

Substation Location 

Studies of several substation locations for the American side - on Parn- 
hart Island, on Hank in 8 Point, and south of the ship canal - result in oi:r 

-e- 



recommendation that the substation be located on Barnhart Island. 

Information Required 

Additional information is necessary to complete out studies for final re- 
commendations on such items as generator and transformer reactance, breaker 
capacity and substation voltage, which are functions of the ultimate marketing 
conditions. V. r e therefore recommend that the decision governing the voltage 
or voltages at which the power leaves the power plant be made at a later date 
when more information is available; that to secure maximum performance of the 
generators and the transmission lines throught installation of the proper re- 
actance in generators and transformers, more information on the marketing po- 
wer be obtained; and that more data be secured on availability of circuit 
breakers of 3,000,000 or 3,500,000 kva interrupting capacity and further stu- 
dy be made of their application to the proposed project. 

The following appendixes are included: 



APPENDIX A. 



Description of Powor House and Equipment, 

This contains description of the power house, and major equip- 
ment including turbines, governors, air compressors, generators, 
erection facilities, switchboards, auxiliary power and light, 
gates, stop logs, gate hoists* trash racks, cranes, and auxil- 
iary mechanical equipment. 



APPENDIX B. 



Short Circuit Analysis and Circuit Breaker Duties. 
This appendix discusses magnitude of short circuit currents to 
be expected with the proposed connections and transmission sy- 
stems and the circuit breakers required to interrupt -these cur- 
rents. 

The normal impedances, etc., of the standard apparatus are 
considered and possible changes therein to improve conditions 
are discussed. 



APPENDIX C-l Log of A.C. Board Studies, March 17-28, 1941. 

This is a record of the studies made on the board at the "West- 
inghouse Electric amd Manufacturing Company's plant during this 
period. 

APPENDIX C-2 Log of A.C. Board Studies, April 14-28, 1941 

This is a record of studies during this period and on the same 
board. 



APPENDIX D 



APPENDIX E 



Report of the A.C. Network Calculator Studies for the New York 
State 60 Cycle System. 

This is a discussion of the source of information used to de- 
termine the conditions to be set up on the board, the loads to 
be expected, and the results of the studies listed in appendixes 
C-l and C-2. 

This is a copy of an internal report made to the Commission by 
Planning Section of the Engineering Department of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario and is not an official re- 
port of the Commission since no official action has been taken 
thereon. 



-f- 



It includes data on and a discussion of, the study of the 
transmission system of the Hydro-Electric Pov;er Commission of 
Ontario with the Barnhart Island Plant included, which study 
was made from February 17 to 28, 194li on the same board used 
for the studies given in appendix C-l and C-2. 



-g- 



BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENTr 

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

To: U. S. District Engineer 

St. Lawrence River District 
Massena, New York 

Introduction 

Several general schemes of development of the International Rapids 
Section, involving different power house locations have been proposed in 
connection with the previous reports on the project by international boards 
and by the State of New York. Subsequent to the last published report of 
the "Joint Board" of 1926, the Canadian engineers have continued to pursue 
the problem and at time of beginning of the current studies, late in 1940* 
they had arrived at a scheme of development based in general upon utiliza- 
tion of the main channel south of Barnhart Island for spillway and the north 
channel for power house forebay. This scheme is shown on attached plate 37 1 
the last chart in this report. 

In our current studies the Canadian scheme in general was adopted, 
namely, that the power house should be located in the region of the foot of 
Barnhart Island, which is at the lower end ot the Long Sault Rapids, and 
that the power house should consist of two independent structures divided 
at the international boundary, the location otherwise to be governed by con- 
sideration of economics, suitability, safety, appearance, convenience of lo- 
cation of outgoing electrical circuits, operation, maintenance, limitations 
to construction imposed by local conditions, and ability to bring railroad 
spurs into both Canadian and American power houses. 

All field survey information used in analyzing the proposed power 
site has been supplied by the Massena District Office of the U. S. Engineer 
Department. This material from previous and recent surveys and porings, in 
addition to much other data, comprises contour maps of the ground surface and 
of the river bottom and of the rock surface. Hydrographic information has 
been largely obtained from Mr. Guy A. Lindsay, Chief Engineer of the Depart- 
ment of Transport, Ottawa. 

Hydrology, head, and power 

The St. Lawrence River forms the outlet of Lake Ontario and the 
flow and head available for power are influenced by both natural and arti- 
ficial regulation at points in the Great lakes system, such as at Sault Ste. 
Marie, Chicago Drainage Canal, Niagara Falls, and by the regulation of Lake 
Ontario itself at the proposed control dam at Iroquois Point, forming a part 
of this project. 

The Canadian Department of Transport, under Mr. Guy A. Lindsay, 
has given long and detailed study to this problem and has arrived at a pro- 
gram of regulation of Lake Ontario at Iroquois Point, taking cognizance of 
natural and artificial regulation above this point described as "Method No. 
5" embodied in a set of rule curves included herewith by reference as Depart- 
ment of Transport drawing No. 2191. These rule curves have as their objec- 
tive the regulation of level of Lake Ontario, navigation depth in Montreal 
Harbor, and the maximum dependable flow throughout the year for power opera- 
tion, in addition to other requirements directed toward this end. 



-1- 



The construction of a dam at Barnhart Island will not convert the 
river valley between Lake Ontario and the dam site into a true lake, but 
merely change the hydraulic conditions of the river which will be subject 
to some three to fifteen feet of fall under different conditions of flow, 
lake level and ice. No fixed relation curves are possible between flow, 
head water level and power, and it therefore became necessary to apply the 
rule curves to monthly mean conditions throughout the entire period of ex- 
isting records, i860 to 1939* This has been done to the extent of head wa- 
ter and tail water elevation and regulated flow by the Department of Trans- 
port in their drawing No. 2324 in eight sheets attached hereto as Plates 
28 to 35» Upon these we have added curves of resulting regulated head and 
turbine consumption under various assumptions. 

In Plates 28 to 35 head water elevations above 238 are shown by 
dotted line in view of tne intention to first use the Iroquois Point Dam for 
regulation to this maximum elevation unless and until it is proven by opera- 
ting experience that it can be satisfactorily regulated at higher elevations 
either at Iroquois Point or at the power house itself. 

As a result of this plan, two duration curves for head are shown 
on Plate 22, copies from Department of Transport drawing No. 2334* The ini- 
tial curve shows a head ranging from an extreme minimum of 71. 3 feet to a 
maximum of 83.8 with a normal of about 81 feet. The ultimate curve shows a 
maximum of 87.3 and a normal of about 83 ..5 • Plate 23 is a duration curve of 
tail water elevation derived from Plates 28 to 35* 

The Department of Transport has determined that Regulation Method 
No. 5 would result in: 



Mean flow 

Minimum monthly flow 

Maximum monthly flow 

Mean lake level (Ontario) 

Minimum monthly mean lake level 

Maximum monthly mean lake level 



242,000 cfs 

180,000 cfs (Nov. 1939) 

310,000 cfs 

246.43 

244.03 (Nov. 1934) 

249.10 (May 1870) 



The following are assumed for design purposes: 

Maximum head water with power plant idle El. 249 

Maximum operating head water 

Initial controlled head water 

Corresponding normal tail water 

Normal range of tail water 

Normal head for turbine rating 

Maximum head for turbine rating 

Estimated maximum possible head 

Maximum head for generator rating 

Plate 26 is a power duration curve based upon the curves of pro- 
posed ultimate regulated head and flow from Plates 28 to 35 • 

These curves show a firm capacity of 1,150,000 kw available 95 
per cent of the time and a maximum or optimum output of 13 billion kwh if 
all water were to be used, and an actual output for different installed 
generating capacities at best gate. 



El. 


245 


El. 


238 


El. 


157 


El. 


154 to 162 




81 feet 




87.3 feet 




90 feet 




85 feet 



-2- 



POWER HOUSE LOCATION AND TYPE 

By so locating the two power houses as to form a 
straight line normal to the natural direction of flow, there 
is provided the most ideal water entrance and discharge con- 
ditions, also favoring rail communication between power houses 
and joint use of cranes in emergencies. 

Sites have been considered along a considerable 
range near the lower portion of the north channel which have 
indicated that cost estimates tend slightly downward for loca- 
tions farther downstream toward the extreme foot of Barnhart 
Island because of reduction in tailrace excavation, even though 
higher rock levels would be available and consequently less con- 
crete would be needed if located farther upstream. 

Having adopted the straight line relative position of 
the two power houses, three different locations A, B, and C, as 
shown on Plate 1 have been selected for detailed analysis. Loca- 
tion A is across the north channel approximately at right angles 
to the line of the Canadian ship canal. In location B, the Cana- 
dian end is swung downstream about the American end as a pivot. 
Location C is parallel to location B but is moved 35® feet down- 
stream. Comparative estimates of these three locations are based 
upon the following uniform assumptions. 

Dimensions of Power House 

Total length of power house made up as follows: 

36 main units @ 80 ft. spacing 2880 feet 

2 - 75 ft. ice sluiceways at the 
outer ends of each power house 
including piers 35° feet 

2 - 50 ft. center spill ay gates, 

including pier 115 feet 

2 - units for house service 80 feet 

Total Length - - - 3425 feet 

Width of Power House ----- — 146 feet 

Power House Types 

Two types "D" and "U" of power house arrangement have 
been considered which are distinguished largely by the fact 
that the former provides a platform on the downstream side of the 
power house for the transformers, sane to be handled on adjacent 
transfer track with electrical equipment underneath as in Plates 
14, 15* and l6» whereas in the latter or "U" design, the trans- 
formers are on the upstream or intake side and are depressed into 
cells from which they can be removed by travelling overhead gantry 
crane, Plates 17, 18, and 19 . 



-3- 



The space occupied by this equipment on the upstream or 
HT J" design is needed in any event for stability under the design 
assumptions. On the downstream or n D n design, transformer and 
electrical space is obtained by increasing the length of draft 
tube 30 feet v:hile only reducing the intake width 3 feet, which 
is much less than it. might be narrowed (18 feet), to maintain the 
same degree of stability. However, we have provided erection space 
by spanning over the ice ways and these must be flush with the up- 
stream wall of the powerhouse (or even downstream of same) to per- 
mit ice to be pushed along the intake wall into these ice ways. A 
sufficient width for erection bay would not be available if the 
intake width were to" be further narrowed while keeping the ice ways 
flush. 

It has been found to be substantially as cheap, because 
of the deep foundations, to provide erection bay over the ice ways 
even with the added intake width than to extend the power house in 
length for erection bay at the end to be founded on rock and serving 
as a section of dam, as it would need to do. The "IP design there- 
fore naturally harmonizes with requirements otherwise necessary. 

Hydraulic studies indicate that the longer vertical draft 
tube leg in the *U* type power house should improve the turbine 
efficiency about 1/2 per cent valued at $40,750 P er unit annually 
(page 27) • As the costs of power houses do not differ materially, 
all location studies have been based upon the "U" type power' house 
shown in Plate 17 . 

There are five important cons ide rat ioiB governing power 
house location .as follows: 

(a) Economy of excavation, structural and other 
costs of power house and appurtenant struc- 
tures. 

(b) Convenience, costs and influence on type of 
exit from power house with outgoing electrical 
circuits. 

(c) Convenience and cost of access to site by 
railroad and highway during construction and 
subsequently, 

(d) Balance of cuts and fills for cofferdams, 
dikes, switchyard, etc., and disposal of 
surplus. 

(e) Influence upon need of relocating Cornwall 
Canal before construction. 

The above considerations have resulted in the prepara- 
tion of nine general layout drawings applicable to locations A, 
B, and C, each with three subscript designations and numbers as 
follows: 

1. Overhead outgoing lines - Plates 2-A-l. 
3-B-l, and 2j.-C.-l. 

2. All exits to be underground cables on both 
sides of boundary. Plates 5-A-2, 6-B-2, 
and 7-C-2. 

.4. 



3. Underground cables on American side for A 
and B locations overhead to Hawkin's Point 
for C location. 

Underground cables on Canadain side for 110 
kv, and overhead lines for 230 kv or higher. 
Plates 8-A-3, 9-B-3 and 10-C-3. 

All of the above layouts contemplate relocation of the 
Cornwall Canal ahead of construction. This does not appear neces- 
sary for location C, but the possibility of omitting or postponing 
this work arose too late to prepare additional drawings for this 
report. This scheme is included by reference as locations D, Plates 
11, 12, and 13, to be supplied later if detailed study justifies. 

Depth of power House Foundation 

The depth of power house foundation is based upon an. 
assumed average excavation five feet deep over the whole rock 
surface to reach sound rock. This can only be verified by final 
excavation, but is based upon the best present knowledge of the 
rock from core borings. The foundation elevation for location C 
has not been as fully developed by borings as for locations A and 
B, and needs further verification if adopted. 

It is assumed that the high areas in the entire forebay 
approach to the power house will be levelled off to maximum eleva- 
tion of 190, sloping downward to the foot of the trash racks at 
elevation 150 on the slope of 1 on 6, and the tailrace excavation 
again sloping upward from the discharge end of the draft tubes at 
elevation 110, with the same slope of 1 on 6. 

The Stability Criteria of Power House 

The governing conditions were supplied by the Massena 
District Office, U. S. Engineer Department from which we quote as 
follows: 

Headwater Tailwater Ice pressure 
Case Elevation Elevatio n (10.000 lbs, lin. ft.) 

1 249,00 150,00 Nil 

2 245.00 154.00 Nil 

3 245.00 154.00 244.00 

"Case 1 is for maximum possible head water. 

Case 2 is for maximum operating head water. 

Case 3 is for the worst winter condition 

with full ice pressure. 

"Uplift pressure at the toe equal to full static 
tailwater pressure and uplift at the upstream 
face equal to full static tailwater pressure 
plus 50 per cent of the differential between 
headwater and tailwater pressure. The pressure 
across the base is to be uniformly graduated be- 
tween these upstream and downstream values." 



-5- 



The above is assumed to act over the entire base area of 
the structure* It has been assumed by us that the concrete will 
weigh 4000 lbs. per cubic yard dry weight • 

* 

Wing Walls 

Wing walls have been assumed of gravity design carried 
to solid rock with 3 feet of excavation below the rock contour* A 
different type may prove more economical when sufficient borings 
and excavations have been made to determine whether such walls 
would all need to be carried to solid rock. The estimated cost 
of wing walls is shown in Table 3, and it is seen to increase as 
the power house is moved downstream. 

Highway and Railroad Approaches 

The highway and railroad approach to the American end 
of the power house would be nearly identical in each of the three 
locations and for this reason does not enter into comparative costs* 

On the Canadian side it is believed that traffic is so 
frequent in the Cornwall Canal as to preclude satisfactory depen- 
dence upon a drawbridge across the canal for access to the construc- 
tion operations in summer and that an under-pass becomes essential 
for this purpose. 

This underpass would be at so low elevation as to neces- 
sitate special means to again reach power house entrance level. 
Location A requires a loop for entrance whereas locations B and C 
use switchbacks. Railroad maximum curvature as set by Massena 
office is 10 degrees, and grade 3 P er cent; highway minimum radius 
200 feet and maximum grade 6 per cent. 

If the Canadian canal is abandoned after completion of 
the American canal, an earth fill should then substitute for under- 
pass and bridge. Estimates are in Table 3» 

Electrical Circuits to Switchyard for power and control 
are shown by Table 8 to vary but little in cost for different loca- 
tions of power house; thus the comparative estimates do not include 
this item. 

Dikes 

For the purpose of comparative estimates of power house 
locations, the earth wing dams or closure dikes which extend from 
the power house abutments at each end in the westerly direction to 
high ground on the south or American side and to the lock walls on 
the Canadian side, have been included in the estimate, Table 4* 

On the American side, the dike has been estimated for 
comparative purposes from the power house westward until it ends in 
suitably high ground. On the Canadian side, the closure dike has 
been estimated only to the site of the, proposed new lock on the 
Cornwall Canal. 

Other Costs such as Superstructure, Machinery, Gates, Ice 
Sluices, Spillway Gates, and Hoists are identical for all locations; 
hence the cost of these items has been omitted in the comparison of 
power house locations above described. 

-6- 



Cofferdams - Balance of Earth Quantities 

The C location requires the maximum length of cofferdam 
and yields at the same time the minimum earth excavation of the 
three locations. It has been found as shown in Table 7 that even 
for this location there is excess excavation in the amount of 
872,600 cu. yards after construction of the cofferdam without 
borrowing or without relocating the Cornwall Canal (which would 
yield and equal surplus) and after deducting backfill for structures, 
for dikes and for substation fills, provided the saturated material 
taken from below ground water level is of suitable character. Indi- 
cations are that the material can be used for cofferdam by the fol- 
lowing expedient: 

Sufficient earth above ground water in the power house 
area of free draining character is assumed to be immediately avail- 
able for the construction of a pilot cofferdam to Elevation 160. 
As the power house excavation is then carried below tail water in 
dry excavation the area surrounding the power house will be further 
drained out and partially dried by pumping down the ground water 
elevation permitting the cofferdam to be carried to its ultimate 
completion by building onto the inside of same eventually reaching 
an elevation to protect from periodic high water due to ice jams 
which may occur during the winter months. Thus the cofferdam should 
be started well ahead of the approach of winter conditions. 

The volume required for the cofferdam as in Table 7t has 
been supplied by the Massena District Office, U. S. Engineer Depart- 
ment* The required earth for the fill in the dikes may be reduced 
if it is found more economical to borrow in the vicinity of the 
dike rather than haul the material from the power house excavation. 

No consideration has been given to the possibility 
that a portion of the earth may be unsuitable for dikes, due 
to nature of material or its saturated condition when removed 
from below ground water elevation. With the surplus available 
it is believed that enough material for all purposes can be had 
by selection. 

Unit Prices Used in Estimate 

The following table of unit prices essentially covers 
all major items of work and materials entering into our estimate 
as given in detail hereinafter in this report: 

Earth Excavation - Stripping $0.15 per cu. yd. 

" H - Structural . O.60 " " ■ 

" " - Channel 0.60 " " " 

• » Wing wall includ- 
ing backfill ...... O.60 " " " 

" " - Tunnel including 

backfill 0.75 " " " 

Rock Excavation - Structural 2.50 " " " 

w n - Tunnel 10.00 * " " 

Earth Fill - Compacted dikes 

including imper- 
vious cutoff 0.40 " M » 



-7- 



Concrete - Mass - Power House ...... 10.00 per cu. yd. 

■ - " - Wing Walls ...... 12.00 ■ " ■ 

" -Class A- Power house 25*00 " H " 

" " - Other structures . . . 30*00 " " • 

" " - Tunnel lining 40.00 " " " 

" " Tower foundations, 

including excavation 

and backfill . . . 50.00 " ■ " 

Gravel Blanket 4.00 " " " 

Rock Bip Rap 5*00 " " " 

Tower Steel, Erected .......... .180*00 per ton 

Gate Steel, Erected ..»*•*....... 220.00 " " 

Comparative Costs 

Detailed comparative estimates of the "D" and "U" power 
house substructures for locations A, B, and C, are shown in Table 
2, and summarized as follows: 

Location Type "D " Type "U" 

A $26,778,000 $26,734,000 

B 26,077,000 25,641,000 

c 25,391,000 24,902,000 

Likewise in Table 5» are shown detailed comparative esti- 
mates of the "D" and "U" power house substructures with wing walls, 
dikes, highway and railroad approaches and cofferdams included, but 
omitting the items common to all designs or locations. 

These costs are summarized as follows: 

Location Type "D H Type "U" 

A $31,048,000 $31,105,000 

B 31,051,000 30,614,000 

c 30,797.000 30,307,000 

Conclusions 

The obvious conclusion from foregoing estimates is that 
the two types are essentially equivalent in cost and the choice 
between them must be reached from the other considerations as 
mentioned here and elsewhere. 

One such important consideration arises from the possible 
necessity of furnishing navigation service ahead of completing the 
power house. If foundation material is found satisfactory, the "U" 
design of intake would require about 6 per cent or 84,400 cubic yards 
of additional concreted by widening the base in an upstream direction 
to make the intake structure stable independent of the power house, 
whereas the n D M design of intake would require about 7 per cent or 
100,000 cubic yards of additional concrete. This will permit rapid 
closure of an initial structure across the river, and consequent 



-8- 



earty raising of water level for the beginning of navigation. Com- 
pletion of the balance of the power house structure and equipment 
could follow later. This conclusion is subject to further study of 
foundation material as mentioned under foundation geology on page 
30, and further analysis of the time element in completion of draft 
tube structures to elevation 150 or above. 

Likewise the three sites A, B, and C differ too little in 
estimated cost to be of determining significance and the selection 
of the site might well hinge upon other considerations than cost 
alone. The chief variables are earth excavation and concrete quan- 
tities, and any change in assumed unit prices for these items may 
change the relative status. Location C offers the advantage that 
it would not be necessary to find disposal space for 4t500,000 
cubic yards of common excavation, an obvious advantage which may be 
evaluated in dollars when the spoil areas have been established. 

The C location also offers an advantage not shared by 
locations A and B in that the Cornwall Canal need not be relocated 
for construction of the power house and need be relocated only if 
and after the new locks for this -canal are constructed* 

The preferred locations of outgoing power and control 
circuits in cable tunnel are equally convenient in each locations. 

The C location of power house with the upstream arrange- 
ment of electrical, equipment or type "U H power house is therefore 
recommended as being slightly the cheapest and offering other ad- 
vantages mentioned on pages 7» 14 a ^d 15* 



-9- 



GENERATING UNITS 
Size of Units 

It was recognized at consulting board meetings that the large size of 
this station would demand either many units or very large ones; that the 
size should be within the limits that all of the four large American and 
three Canadian manufacturers are equipped to build; should not be so large 
as to introduce new and unproven bearings or structural requirements; and 
should fit the prospective load demands. It is concluded that these re- 
quirements are best met by hydraulic units as follows: 

Capacity at 81 feet head and point of best 

efficiency - • - - _ 61,100 hp 

Generators, rated at 95^ P.f. for &0 cycle units 
and 90% p.f. for 25 cycle units, sufficiently 
large to absorb the output of these turbines, 
when running at 1Q£ above their point of best 
efficiency at 85* head - - - - - 60 cycle - 55.000 kva 

25 cycle - 58,000 kva 

Number of Units 

Economic studies have been made as to the annual output per incremental 
unit of the above size based upon recorded stream flow of the past 79 years 
on condition that the river is to be regulated as proposed by the Canadian 
Department of Transport. The table on the following page shows the primary 
and excess capacity and energy output of the station with a varying number of 
units up to 3& Q nd the latter both at best gate and 10 per cent over-gate. 
The same information is shown graphically on Plate 26. 



-10- 



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-11 



It will be noted that there is practically no increment in firm energy 
beyond 32 units. Units beyond this number must be justified upon the basis 
of excess energy and their value as reserve units to permit inspection, 
maintenance and repair. 

The full value of firm energy will, -of course, carry its share of cost 
of land, dame, and other river improvements, but, since these costs must be 
incurred regardless of power plant capacity, the number of units to be in- 
stalled should be determined largely by the question of whether the incre- 
mental output of a given additional unit will justify its incremental cost. 
The incremental value of energy applicable to justification of the cost of 
the last increment of installed capacity of power house will not be less 
than the coal saving value of the energy, or about 1.75 mills per kwh at 
generating station plus its value as reserve. 

The annual earnings per unit, all on coal saving basis, at 1.75 mills 
per kwh thus obtained would be alike for each unit up to and including the 
28th, but would decrease for additional units. Units are assumed to oncrease 
in pairs to be equally divided between the two plants; 

• Annual Earnings 

@ 1.75 mills 

1st to 28th unit 386,000,000 kwh per year $675,000 each 

29th & 30th units 327,500,000 * ■ ■ 573,500 each 

31st & 32nd units 258,500,000 • * • 453,000 each 

33rd & 34th units 192,000,000 " " * 336,000 each 

35th & 36th units 123,500,000 • » » 216,000 each 

Average output 350,300,000 kwh 

Average earning @ 1.75 mills per kwh $612,000 each 

The approximate incremental installation cost per unit, excluding abut- 
ments, ice and spillway sections, roads, railroads, and other features com- 
mon to all units, is about $3,400,000 including excavation, structures and 
equipment. Assuming that an annual return of 7$ per cent is required for all at 
annual charges, it is necessary that each unit be capable of earning $255*000 
annually. The 33^d and 34th units more than earn the incremental installation 
charge and leave something to apply on the charges common to all units. The 
35th and 36th units would earn 6.3 per cent on the incremental investment and 
are, therefore, not completely justified on an earning basis, but their value 
as reserve described later does warrant their installation. Additional units 
beyond 36 is not justified on an earning or reserve basis. We therefore recom- 
mend 18 on each side of the international boundary. 

For a considerable portion of a normal year 36 units operate at 10 per 
cent overload would be able to generate surplus power. This would amount to 
240,000,000 kwh in the average year, as shewn by the preceding table, if all 
units were in service throughout the surplus water season. Also the possib- 
ility of sectionalizing the stations into groups of units operating on indep- 
endent lines may cause variable load operation at lower than assumed efficiency, 
for which loss this excess energy would assist to compensate, as well as 
provide for station service losses. Therefore, reliance should not be placed 
upon excess energy obtained in this manner except as reserve production to 
compensate for present uncertainties. 

Study of actual outages, for the year 1929. of 189 vertical reaction 
units averaging 18,628 kw each was published by the National Electric Light 
Association. It was shown that, on the average* the units were out of service 



-12- 



1.02j.£ of the time uhen in demand and 3 .08£ when not on demand, making a 
total of 4 -12? of the time during the year that the units were not available 
for power production. The outages were distributed as follows; General 
hydraulic conditions, such as ice and headgates caused 7.14& °f "the shut- 
downs. Water wheels and auxiliaries caused 53-5&Z of the shutdowns of which 
runner (18%) inspection (8.65%) and overhualing (7*68%) are the major causes. 
Generators and appurtenances caused 39*3^ of the shutdown of which inspection 
(10.13%) s nd amature (8.29%) are tne major causes. 

It is evident that additional yjVa and 3 D units which are not wholly 
justified on an incremental earnings basis, do justify themselves on the basis 
of furnishing 5»9% reserve machine capacity which is slightly more than the 
N.E.L.A. report indicates as necessary. 

The only large hydro-electric installations now operating on the St. 
Lawrence River are in the Canadian section of the river downstream from the 
locations discussed in this report. It is understood that the present policy 
of the Canadian Government in the regulation of these plants is to require that 
the natural flow of the river shall not be increased nor decreased at any time. 
Such regulation precludes the ponding of water for the development of an in- 
creased amount of power during the hour3 of peak demand and the foregoing 
analysis has been based on the application of such a policy to the Internat- 
ional Rapids Section of the river. Otherwise, the installation recommended 
would be sufficient to permit the utilization of the ordinary winter flow of 
the river at the winter head at 80 per cent load factor. 

Thus it would appear that 3& units are justified on an earning basis at 
a minimum energy value of 1.75 mills per kwh, with further justification as 
reserve. This installation is therefore recommended. 

Thirty-six units of the size specified would have capacities under the 
several conditions as follows: 

At 81 ft. head and point of best 

efficiency (36 units @ 6l,100 HP) .... 2,200,000 HP 

Under the same conditions, these units would use • 

7200 c.f.s. each at 92% efficiency, 

resulting in a total use (36 units 

at 7200 c.f.s.) 259,000 c.f.s. 

Type of Hydraulic Turbines 

its shown inPlate 22 from the Canadian Department of Transport, the 
turbine will operate under a range of heads from about 72 to 87 feet with 
an initial normal of about 81 feet and possible ultimate normal of about 
83.5 feet. 

For this range of head any of the three types of turbines could be used 
with reasonable success, namely, reaction, fixed blade uropellor, and ad- 
justable blade propelloi*. 

In general it may be said that the large number of units to be installed 
(assuming that they will operate on a common bus, or without many sections of 
bus) will minimize the inportance of the chief advantage, namely flat efficiency 
curve over a v.ide load range usually advanced in favor of the adjustable blade 
type. 

The head is slightly above the common range of fixed blade propellor type, 
To avoid possible instability and cavitation, this type would need to be well 



-13- 



submerged below tail water and the peak efficiency would not be as high as 
in the reaction type. 

Both the adjustable and fixed blade propeller types would involve deeper 
excavation to secure good draft tubes than would the reaction type because of 
lower turbine elevation. The saving in cost of the generator resulting form 
the higher speed of either of the propellor types is thus minimized, as well as 
by the additional structural cost of the generator itself to resist higher run- 
away speed and thrust. 

Detailed studies have confirmed that there would be little or no saving 
in first cost, considering the power house as a whole, by using either fixed 
or adjustable propellor types, as compared with reaction turbines. 

At a meeting of the consulting board held in the office of the Chief of 
•Engineers, Washington, D. C. on December 5th, 194°. the consensus of opinion of 
those present was favorable to adoption of the reaction type, in which opinion 
we concur. We believe this type would give the best satisfaction for this in- 
stallation and it is recommended. 

Speed of Rotation 

The problem of selection of turbine speed for a given installation is 
fundamentally an economic problem within limitations of satisfactory per- 
formance derived from operating experience. 

Certain fundamentals of the problem can be stated as follows: 

(a) Low speed turbine types have flatter load curves, 
hence better efficiencies at part load and overload, 
as shown in Plate 25-B. For this reason it 
follows that high speed units function best only 
when the load can be held near the point of best 
efficiency or when load variations are small. 

(b) Best part load efficiencies occur at a specific 
speed from 4° to 50, as shown on Plate 25-A, due 
to inherent hydraulic reasons. Peak efficiency 
is best for specific speeds between 50 and 60 

or even 70 (on the Barrows curve) regardless of 
head, as shown in the curves of Plate 25-A. Below 
this value, the efficiency drops off primarily 
because Of greater hydraulic disk friction of 
hub and band and greater leakage losses. As the 
specific speed increases above 60 or 70, the peak 
efficiency falls off due to hydraulic vane fric- 
tion and draft tube losses. However, the curve 
of variation is broad and the sacrifice in peak 
efficiency is much less pronounced than for part 
loads for a reasonable range of speed, as shown 
by Plate 25-A, especially by the Barrows curve. 
These curves are intended to represent the best 
attainable at each specific speed, but individual 
turbines are erratic and may not appear to confirm 
the trend. Slection for a given installation be- 
comes the selection of an individual turbine com- 
paring its characteristics with relation to other 
available individual turbines. 

(c) Draft tube throat diameter decreases and draft tube 



-14- 



velocities thus iacrease with increasing speed, there- 
by requiring lower turbine setting to prevent cavita- 
tion, and also causing increased draft tube losses 
unless the draft tube is made correspondingly long in 
the conical portion. This would increase excavation 
and expense because of both length and lower turbine 
setting. 

(d) The proper elevation (i.e. the higest permissible 
elevation) of a given model of turbine can be deter- 
mind only by cavitation tests with reference to the 
expected range of tail water elevations. For Barn- 
hart Island, tail water duration curve is known in 
Plates 23 and 2?. 

(e) Smooth operation and freedom from pitting and vibration 
are encouraged by high efficiency and hence by slow 
speed. 

(f ) The cost of a turbine varies only slightly with speed, 
tending to decrease with higher speeds, but subject 

to the foregoing qualifying disadvantages, whereas the 
cost of the generator decreases rapidly with increasing 
speed without any qualifying disadvantages for Francis 
turbines only. For this reason the speed shall be as 
high as economically justified by prospective earnings 
based upon relative turbine efficiencies, or as high as 
satisfactory mechanicall operation and maintenance will 
permit, whichever criterion may prove to govern. 

(g) The economic test for varying conditions can result 
in widely varying speed selections regardless of the 
limit of physical practicability represented by the 
points on the chart. Thus a peak load unit operating 
on a load factor of perhaps 25 per cent is idle much 
of the time with fixed charges accumulating. This 
would argue for a low capital investment and conse- 
quent high speed unit at lower efficiency, with due 
consideration given to the greater value of peak load 
energy. Consideration of economics would also call 
for high speed unit for pr ducing low priced sur- 
plus energy as compared with one feeding a high priced 
retail market. 

The factors favoring relatively high specific speed for this installation 
are the probability of operation near point of best efficiency because of 
large number of units and possible low sale price of energy, whereas the fact- 
ors favoring low specific speed are the high annual energy production per unit 
because of high load factor and consequent need for maximum reliability and 
freedom from maintenance for continuous service and the unusual importance of 
high efficiency at low winter heads. 

The range of expected satisfactory performance is best judged by attached 
" experience chart". Plate 24. showing the relation of specific speed to head 
for a large number of modern representative installations. These points largely 
represent published data at time of installation, which does not insure that all 
installations have given satisfactory service. Field inspection would be re- 
quired to verify. 



-15- 



There is shown on this chart a shaded band of best obtainable efficiencies 
50 to 70 specific speed. There are also plotted thereon certain short curves 
indicating the range of specific speed for heads from 72 to 85 feet., for se- 
veral 60 cycle synchronous speeds from 60 rpm to 75 rpm. These are for' com- 
parsion with the plotted points to indicate how these several speeds compare 
with existing practice. The points on Plate 24 are most dense in the zone of 
69.2 rpm downward to 64.3, with more scattered points above and below this range 

The manufacturers have been canvassed for speed recommendation, the 
answers ranging from 60 to 75 rpm. the lower portion of this range predominat- 
ing. We would recommend that turbines be considered at any speed between 60 
and 72 rpm, on the basis of economic analysis of individual units under con- 
sideration. This is equivalent to saying that if any two units of unequal 
speed are being considered-, the slower speed unit to be justified must have 
sufficiently higher efficiency to pay a return on the increased cost of its 
generator reduced by the increased installation cost of the higher speed unit 
because of lower turbine elevation. 

It is highly desirable that the turbines of all the manufacturers be as 
nearly identical as possible to facilitate construction, installation, main- 
tenance and operation. It would, in fact, be desirable to have them mech- 
anically identical if this were possible. 

For the above reasons, we recommend the elimination of nearly all of the 
experimental work for development of turbines by several manufacturers appli- 
cable to this installation and the adoption of some uniform design, based upon 
a study of the best available tests at any speed above £>0 and not higher than 
72. This study should include only units which have been tested and substant- 
iated both in model and prototype and ^hich can be made available to any or all 
of the manufacturers. Highly developed turbines with both model and prototype 
confirmations are now known for several speeds in the proposed range and others 
may come to light in the meantime. 

Selection would then be made on an economic basis of comparison between the 
best of these turbines, based upon model and prototype tests already available, 
keeping in mind that one per cent of efficiency is worth not less than It of 
$612,000 (the average annual earning per unit) capitalized at 7»5 P er cent, or 
$81,500 per unit for the production of excess power alone and still more for 
prime power, if a higher rate can be obtained for such power. 

The existing model tests and reliable prototype tests in the field would 
thus take the place of labortary tests in the initial selection of preferably 
one, or not more than three types to be given special additional study in a 
model of the proposed ultimate scroll case and draft tube for selection of one 
ultimate turbine design. All companies would then be requested to build the 
same hydraulic design throughout the water passages, subject only to individual 
design of mechanical and structural details not related to efficiency. 

As this is liable to meet with some opposition because of the natural and 
justified pride of each manufacturer in his own product and in his own 
ability, we recommend that the preferred design be offered to each manufact- 
urer subject to his ability to produce something equally good. If he cares 
to enter into a test program at his own expense to develop his own design of 
turbine rather than using the one furnished him, he should be permitted to do 
so, subject to the payment of a penalty sho.ild his turbine not equal that of 
the one offered him. 

The recommended procedure then is: 

1. Issue call for best existing designs by each 



-16- 



manufacturer at any speed between 60 and 72 rpm, 
the design selected to be made available to all 
manufacturers . 

2. Designs only to be considered which have been 
fully demonstrated by model and prototype tests 
by uniform method and with a record of success- 
ful service and reasonable freedom from pitting 
at comparable specific speed. 

3. Select not more than three, but preferably one, 
to be checked in model for this specific appli- 
cation and call upon all prospective bidders to 
reach an agreement on scroll case and draft tube 
designs for same. In the selection as between 
two alternate speeds, the slower speed unit to 
warrant consideration would need to earn a re- 
turn on its increased cost . 

4. Make model or models for verification w ith about 
16 inch throat diameter to be tested at Holtwood, 
using selected turbine or turbines and agreed 
draft tube and scroll case and make final selec- 
tion of design, considering the economics of 
speed if tests are made on turbines of more than 
one speed . 

5. Call for bids on a basis to permit distribution 
of order among several manufacturers. 



-17- 



FOUNDATION GEOLOGY 

Boring has been in progress for several months at Barnhart Island, 
the following results of .'/hich are quoted from "Analysis of Design, Long 
Sault Dam 1941 "i Pages 13-1 and 13-2, District Engineer, Massena: 

"The bedrock at the site, as shown by cores recovered from drill- 
ing operations, consists of dolomite interbedded with relative thin 
beds of limestone, sandstone and shale. From fossils found in the 
drill cores, it is believed that the rock is part of the chazy for- 
mation which is Lower Ordovician in age. Tentative correlation of 
the strata from drill cores shows that the bedding is almost horizon- 
tal conforming to the general , very gentle northerly dip of the strata 
in this region 

"The rock is apparently quite sound and entirely suitable for 
structure foundations. Specimens of dolomite, limestone and sand- 
stone did not show any deleterious changes during the freezing and 

thawing and si aking tests 

In all tests, the shale specimens broke into numerous wafers and flakes 
but there was no tendency to disintegrate to their original silt and 
clay. The shale in nature is extremely hard and is believed to be 
entirely satisfactory as a foundation material. There is one shale bed 
near the right abutment at about elevation 130 which is approximately 
six feet thick. All other shale beds at the site are in general less 
than 6 inches in thickness. 

"The results of the compressive strength tests on specimens 
obtained from drill holes were as follows: 

Compressive 
Material Hole Elev. Sample Strength p.s«i. 



Shale 

Shale 

Dolomite 

Limestone 

Limestone 

Sandstone 



D-1016 
D-1016 



7 
3- 



7900 
6950 



D-101.6 15 5750 

D-1016 15 7450 

D-1026 16 13200 

(Power House Site)" 

In comparison with the foregoing strengths, the maximum foundation 
loads of designed structures are as follows: 



Foundation Loads in p.s.i, 



"U" Power House 

BTQB II It 

Wing falls 

Spillway 

leeway 



153 

83 

218 

110 

95 



Sl iding factors 

75S 

.68 

.18 

.69 

.67 



There is evidently a very large factor of safety in the compressive 
strength of foundation material. 

Shear tests are not available to satisfactorily establish horizontal 
shearing and sliding strengths. The extremely laminated character of the 
material is unfavorable. However, with the sandy and non-slaking nature of 

the shales this is not believed to present a problem unless in the event of 
building the intake prior to and independently of the remainder of the power 



-18- 



house, thus requiring the intake to rest close to the edge of the subsequent 
draft tube cut. More borings are needed and careful study of the material 
along the line of this cut. 

If sliding and shear safety of an independent intake built in 
this manner is questioned it v/ould be possible, although -with loss of time 
to excavate and build the draft tube structure a fe.v feet above the eleva- 
tion of the intake foundation to furnish additional sliding resistance. 



-19- 



ICE CONTROL 

It is probable that the forebay pool will freeze solid in winter 
and permit water to be drawn from under the ice without introducing any op- 
erating problem as long as the pool level does not fluctuate rapidly to 
break up the ice. 

However, in case of alternate freezing and thawing in December 
and at time of spring break-up, drift ice may require control. 

Ice Sluices 

As a result of board meetings, conferences and correspondence, 
the following design criteria have been established; 

1. Surface ice may exist and provision must therefore be made 
for handling it at all elevations from a minimum pond ele- 
vation of 232 to a maximum pond elevation of 244» 

2. Not less than 3 ft* depth of water over the crest of the spill- 
way section to be provided, thus establishing the spillway 
crest at elevation 229. 

3« Gates or stop logs to be designed to take ice pressure at all 
elevations from 232 to 244 inclusive. 

4> Ice pressure to be 10,000 pounds per lineal foot of gate or 
stop-log, distributed over 4 feet of gate height or 2500 pounds 
per square foot at an allowed 2$% increase in stress. 

5. Provision to be made to keep all gates or stop-logs free to oper ; 
ate under all weather conditions.. 

6. Provision to be made for proper repair, painting and general 
maintenance of the gate grooves, wheels and hoisting equipment 
for both gates and stop logs. 

7* Ice gates to be located at the opposite ends of the two power 
houses in the belief that floating ice will be driven by north 
or south wind to either shore rather than to the middle of the 
river. 

8. A minimum of two 75 foot ice gates or equivalent to be provided 
at each shore end. 

9« One gate 125 feet long in lieu of two at 75 feet to be studied 
as an alternate. 

Ice Gates General 

The above conditions fix the spillway crest of the ice gate section 
at 229 and crest of gates has been placed at 246 thus giving one foot of free- 
board above the maximum operating pool elevation 245* This results in a gate 
with total height of 17 feet. 

Long gates offer the advantage of passing larger ice floes without 
the necessity of breaking them up with dynamite or other artificial means, 
gut long gates would also waste more water than equal length of spillway made 
up of shorter gates at times when only smaller sizes of ice are running and 
only one gate might need to be opened. Length from standpoint of wasted water 
should be no more than needed to pass the largest probable ice pieces. The 
consensus of opinion seems to be that 75 feet would be satisfactory and was 
therefore adopted as the minimum length to be considered with two such gates 
at the shore end of each power house. 



-20- 



If, however, larger ice flows are to be expected, perhaps one 
gate of 125 feet length might be considered as the equivalent of two 75 
foot gates which would save in the total length of structure to the extent 
of one pier thickness plus 25 feet or about Zj.0 feet. Because of the neces- 
sary deep foundations, this would result in a credit of $7,500 per lineal 
foot in substructure and superstructure to offset gate cost. 

Comparison will therefore be made between two 75 foot gates or 
-one 125 foot gate at each shore end, including substructure and superstruc- 
ture differential. Plates 1^ and 17 show in section the position of the ice 
gate discharge underneath the erection bay for the "D" and "U" type power 
houses respectively. Plate 21-A indicates the alternate types of ice gates 
which have been considered,. 

If the gates span horizontally from pier to pier, the weight per 

lineal foot increases very rapidly with the span which favors gates of the 

minimum length of 75 feet assuming the total length of gateway to be fixed. 
Three types of horizontal span gates have been considered for this 

use illustrated in Plate 21-A: 

(a) Individual stop logs 

(b) Lowering type of solid gate 

(c) Combination of gate and stop logs. 

Stop Logs 

Five identical and interchangeable stop logs are provided for each 
opening, 3 feet 4 inches high by 75 feet net length, with wheels at each 
end. The proposed gate hoist is of the screw stem type arranged to lift any 
number of logs desired at one lift and provision has been made so that any 
number of logs may be held in the open position while handling additional 
logs. Provisions have been made for removing any or all stop logs for main- 
tenance. All stop logs have been designed and estimated upon the basis of 
an ice pressure of 2500 pounds per square foot. Heating is provided for the 
stop log guides and arrangements have been made so that excess heated air 
from the power house generators can be passed through the crest of the spill- 
way to pr^ent formation of ice on the spillway crest behind the stop logs; 
also suitable steam boiler equipment is provided, as well as an air bubbler 
system, to prevent ice formation on the upstream side of the stop logs. 

The operation of the ice sluices does not require high speed. With 
the equipment proposed for operation and for keeping the logs free from ice, 
any operation of these log3 can be performed within reasonable time limits. 

The only objections to stop logs would appear to be the fact that 
the spillway lip elevations must be made in steps in this case of 3-33 feet 
and cannot be closely regulated to requirements as in other schemes, and that 
there are more joints for leakage and accumulation of ice. 

Extra stop log grooves and one extra set of logs for the four gate- 
ways for maintenance access are provided. Stop logs are recommended as wor- 
thy of consideration for final design* 

Flat Gate- 



The only flat gate suitable for ice passage is one which lowers 
down the face of the dam as shown on Plate 21-A. Such gates have been fre- 
quently built in smaller size and used with complete success. 



-21- 



It would be almost exactly the equivalent in construction and weight 
as one set of stop logs except that it would be handled as a unit. No greater 
hoist capacity would be needed since the stop log hoist is intended to lift 
all logs at once. 

It offers the advantage of close adjustment in height to the needed 
depth of overflow at any time rather than in 3 feet 4 inch steps as in the 
case of the stop logs. 

It would require less maneuvering than stop logs and would not be 
subject to leakage at joints between logs with consequent accumulation of ice. 

It is subject to the disadvantage of requiring total removal as a 

unit for maintenance or otherwise providing stop logs downstream from same 

while removing to avoid wasting water. One set of stop logs for the four 

gateways has been provided for this purpose. This gate is recommended as 

worthy of further study before reaching a conclusion for final design. 

* 

Combination of Flat Gates and Stop Logs 

On our drawing No. 21A is a cross section of a combination of three 
3 ft. 4 in. stop logs sealing to a 7 ft* superimposed gate which moves in a 
groove downstream from the logs. The highest crest of the gate is at eleva- 
tion 21|6, and is variable dependent upon the number of logs in use. The pro- 
gram calls for removing one log at a time as the water lowers and seating the 
gate on the next log. Thus the gate will be lowered in steps of 3 ft. k in. 
The disadvantage of this arrangement compared with the stop log scheme pre- 
viously discussed is that, unless provision is made for lowering the gate to 
a position behind and overlapping the stop logs, the depth of water when dis- 
charging ice at the maximum elevation of 2kk will be five feet. Likewise to 
remove any of the upstream stop logs in order to lower the operating gate re- 
quired a seal which will permit moving the gate down behind the stop logs, 
otherwise the gate would need to be lifted out of its groove to remove a 
stop log and then be replaced. To provide a seal of this type will involve 
considerable difficulties especially as it must fit around the guides. It 
appears to be quite difficult to remove the ice below the gate created by 
leakage of such seals. Keeping ice from forming on the upstream side of the 
logs and the top gate may require additional provision for heating of the gate 
proper. Heating facilities must be provided in both grooves. This type is 
not considered equal to plain stop logs. 

Long Gates 

Any type of gate which is supported along its length in whole or in 
part without complete dependence upon end support is more appropriate for the 
125 foot span. Of such, two have been considered as shown in Plate 21-A» 

(c) Drum type (considered only for the American side) 

(d) Hammer-head type 

Drum Type Ice Gate s 

This hinged type is self sufficient for each unit of length and in 
fact the cost per unit length decreases for longer gates because the fixed 
costs of ends, seals and operating valve are spread over greater length. This 
gate has been fostered in this country by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, who 
have many gates in service of this type. All of such gates in operation to 

date have been in localities where ice is of no consequence. However, they 



-22- 






are now being built for Grand Coulee Dam for ice conditions somewhat simi- 
lar to those which will be encountered on the St. Lawrence. The Reclama- 
tion Bureau has made a thorough study of winter operation and have adopted 
this type of gate equipped with seal heaters and crest heaters. 

All gates of this type thus far installed are on reservoirs where 
water is drawn down periodically for use of storage often enough to expose 
the gate for maintenance. As this is not the case on the St. Lawrence, stop 
logs or needles become necessary for access. The former would need to span 
horizontally the entire 12_5 feet and this would defeat any value otherwise 
presented by this design* 

These gates also increase the thickness of the spillway crest as 
appreciable distance thereby reducing the erection floor space to a point 
where the value of this space is lost and an erection bay must be provided 
elsewhere. For this reason drum type gates have not been considered further* 

Hammer Head Gates 

This gate is the result of an effort to minimize the increase in 
cost with increasing length. It consists of a flat gate supported at the top 
by a large horizontal girder running between piers, and at the bottom by the 
spillway crest itself, the beams all spanning vertically between the girder 
and the concrete crest. The crest of the gate must be regulated to an eleva- 
tion at or near head water level, so that the top girder carries the ice 
load. It is necessary to keep ice sheets from forming and getting under the 
top girder thereby preventing operation. This is objectionable. Objection 
can also be offered that the gate cannot be lifted out of its guide to the 
platform for maintenance without step logs to remove the load or the gate and 
these stop logs must span the entire horizontal length. This type was there- 
fore rejected* 

Conclusions 

Of the types studied the stop logs and flat lowering gate offer the 
best prospects and at the same cost. Other types are still being developed. 



-23- 



SPILLWAY BETWEEN POWER HOUSES 

Purpose to Prevent Surges 

In determining the maximum tail water fluctuation, it has been as- 
sumed that the combined discharge of the two power "houses is 230,000 cubic 
feet per second and that one complete power house is shut down instantly, 
thereby reducing the flow to 115,000 cubic feet per second. The gates at the 
Long Sault Dam could be opened to pass this rejected flow, but it has been con- 
sidered desirable to pass water at the power house where a full operating crew 
is available at all times and where heat is more conveniently available to keep 
the gates thawed out in winter ready for instant use. The assumption of full 
rejected load of one power house or equivalent at one time is severe, and one 
not to be expected except as an extremely remote possibility. But should it 
occur, it is important in winter to maintain pool level to avoid breaking up 
of ice sheet and in summer to maintain tailwater in the interest of navigation. 

Estimates 

Flat leaf fixed roller gates have been designed and estimated of three 
alternate sizes, all of 115,000 cfs total capacity as shown in Plate 19, and 
Plate 21. The power house superstructure spans the gateways furnishing erection 
space and permitting cranes to traves through both power houses for emergency 
use. All gates have a crest elevation of 246 and are counter-weighted over 
sheaves and hoists on elevated concrete towers. The alternate designs are as 
'follows: 

Two gates each 5° feet by 5° feet with sill at Elevation I96 
Four gates Z|0 feet long by 38 feet high with sills at ■ 208 
Four gates 5° feet long by 54 feet high with sills at ■ 212. 

Stop log grooves are provided ahead of all gates and one set of stop 
logs for maintenance of gate guides. 

Comparative costs are given in Table 9 from which the gates, hoists, 
stop logs and guides are seen to vary as follows: 

2 - 50 x 50 $295,480 

4-40x38---- 346,640 

4 - 50 x 34 --.- 411,320 

Only the last two are comparable on the basis of equal number of gate; 
indicating that the gates increase in cost with increasing length. 

The increasing length also increases the cost of the supporting dam 
much more rapidly with following resulting comparable costs of gates and dam: 

2 - 50 x 50 with dam omitted $295,480 
4 - 40 x 38 with incremental 

cost of dam 1,021,640 

4 - 5° x 34 with incremental 

cost of dam 1,386,320 

Thus we conclude that the 5° x 5° gates are much the cheapest and are 
recommended. 



-24- 



r 



SURGES FROM LOAD CHANGES 
Data for Computing Surges 

The study of headwater variation has been based upon data and 
drawings furnished "by the Department of Transport, Dominion of Canada. The 
study for tailwater variation is based upon data furnished by the Department 
of Transport, Dominion of Canada, and by the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. 
The hydraulic levels and gradients have been based upon the assumption that 
shoals will be cleared and river widened between the power house and Lake St. 
Francis in accordance with requirements which produce the least drop between 
the two points. 

Plate 27 shows that if one half of power house capacity or 115,000 
cfs is interrupted, the tailrace will drop suddenly reaching 2.5 feet below 
normal in one hour, 2.7 feet in 3 hours, and 3 feet in 5 hours. When flow 
is resumed again the elevation picks up rapidly from this curve to near nor- 
mal. 

The initial drop occurs so suddenly that no elimination of surges 
by opening of gates is possible unless they were to be synchronously operated 
with the dropping of load which is impracticable and unnecessary. 

In arriving at the above conclusions, it has been assumed that the 
elevation of the water surface at the foot of Corawell Island, near the 
western end of Lake St. Francis is 0.5 feet higher than that at Coteau Landing, 
at the east end of Lake St. Francis. Gauge heights at Lake St. Francis, 
Coteau Landing have been taken from Department of Transport, Dominion of 
Canada drawing X 74. The tailrace level at the lower end of Barnhart Island 
was taken from their drawing X 76. 

The power waves of hydraulic bore, which occur, have been computed 
by the formulae of Jules Calame in his "Calcul de l'onde de translation dans 
lee canauz d ! usine8." The river discharge during a readjustment period 
before conditions have stabilized has been taken to be the discharge from the 
power house rating curve for the power house tail water elevation times the 
square foot of the actual river gradient divided by the river gradient for 
the stabilized condition. 

In the computations it has been assumed that the Long Sault Dam 
gate 8 will not be operated. Also, the available pondage area of the south 
Barnhart Island channel has been ignored as its effect is only to slow down 
the change of tailrace level at the power house. 

A set of curves has been computed to illustrate what may be ex- 
pected in the tailrace due to loss and re- establishment of load. Referring 
to Plate 27, the tail race initial level is shown to be at elevation 156.1 
for a flow of 230,000 cubic feet per second. When the discharge from the 
power house is reduced instantly to 115,000 cubic feet per second, the tail 
race drops to elevation 154.5. This negative power wave travels down the 
river at the rate of 15 to 20 miles per hour and disappears in Lake St. Francis. 
The tail race at the power house is still too high for the new flow in the 
river. Daring the time when the river between the power house and Lake St. 
Franc is stabilizes itself for the reduced flow, the tailrace drops rapidly 
for the next 32 minutes. Following this stabilization, the tail race at the 
power house will drop at the rate of about 1-1/2 inches an hour in sympathy 
with the drop which will occur in Lake St. Francis. 

The drawing also shows how the tail race level may be expected to 
react when the flow of 230,000 cubic feet per second is re-established in the 



-25- 



river. The first thing which will occur is an immediate rise in river level 
of about 1.4 feet at the power house and this power wave will proceed down- 
stream, raising the river level. For the next 28 minutes the tailrace will 
continue to rise until the river flow is stabilized. Sallowing this, the 
tail race will rise slowly until Lake St. Francis is again stabilized for the 
new river flow. Curves for re-established flow heve been drawn for opening 
gates at one, two and three hour intervals. 

In order to determine what occurs along the entire stretch of river 
from the power house to the foot of Cornwall Island, another curve has been 
drawn for river elevations along this stretch of river. Owing to the lack 
of complete information, these curves are approximate only, but are reasonably 
close to the conditions which are to be expected. The curves shown in full 
lines are for shutting down conditions and the dotted lines are for starting 
up. The full line curves show the hydraulic gradients: 

1. Before shutdown 

2. After the negative power wave has passed 

3. 11 minutes after the power wave has passed, 

4. 32 minutes after the power wave has passed, at which 
time the new flow conditions have been established. 

The dotted line curves show the hydraulic line gradients for: 

1. Stabilized flow one hour after shut-down 

2. After the positive power wave, caused by starting 
up the plant or by passing 115,000 cubic feet per 
second through the central spillway gates, has 
passed, and 

3. 28 minutes after opening up the turbines or spill- 
way gates, which is for a flow of 230,000 cubic 
feet per second. 

Any shut-down of one of the power houses causes a rapid drop of 
tailrace level at the power house of about 2.5 feet. Even if the spillway 
gates are opened within a very few minutes, the power wave will cause a tail 
race fluctuation of over 1.5 feet. The effect of sudden stoppage of flow 
reduces rapidly going downstream somewhat as a parabola. The variation of 
pond level at the outlet locks of the Cornwall Canal at Cornwall is roughly 
half a foot. The variation of Lake St. Francis is affected only by the 
draw- down occasioned by a greater outflow than inflow. This variation starts 
initially at 1-1/2 inches per hour and tapers off until stability with the 
inflow is reached. 

Headwater Surges 

The headwater fluctuation due to the sudden shut-down or rejection 
of 115,000 cubic feet per second has been computed in the same manner as for 
the tail water fluctuations. No attempt, however, has been made to compute 
back water curves. 

The American side of the forebay is shallower than the Canadian side 
and this condition will create a more severe wave than will occur on the 
Canadian side. The assumption has been made that the American power house 
rejects 115,000 cubic feet per second of the total of 230,000 cubic feet per 
second. Assuming the initial pond or forebay level to be at elevation 238, 
it has been computed that the pond will suddenly rise 18 inches. This wave 
will spread across the full pond in a minute or less, during which t ime the 



-26- 



wave front will drop to 5 or 6 inches. This power wave will then t revel 
upstream at the rate of about 25 miles per hour. 

The pond area upstream of the power house for about 8 miles is 
38,000,000 square feet, so that if the rejected flow is impounded over this 
area, the rise will be about ten inches an hour. 

Ibllowing the passage of the pressure wave, the pond will rise no 
further for the first half hour, after which it will rise about 10 inches 
per hour. 



-27- 



ELECTRICAL FEATURES 

1 . General 

In order to determine the most suitable equipment and arrangement 
thereof for the power plant, studies were made of several combinations of 
generators, high and low tension buses, transformers and transmission lines. 
Prices and technical data and advice were obtained from manufacturers of 
electrical apparatus. The results, conclusions and comparative cost esti- 
mates based on these studies are discussed in the following paragraphs, and 
in the appendixes forming a part of this report. 



2. Transmission System 

(a) The data on probable markets as of 1945 was furnished by the 
Federal Power Commission and The Power Authority of the state of New York. 

The Federal Power Commission's estimates as to deficiencies in 
1945 are as follows: 

Minimum Maximum 

Niagara Area 
Massena Area 
Rochester Area 
Syracuse Area 
Rotterdam Area 
Binghamton Area 
New York City Area 

For New York City, reserves of 212,000 kw for minimum conditions 
and 5H»ooo kw for maximum conditions should be provided by 1945* 

The Power Authority of the State of New York estimates probability 
of power markets and locations as follows: 



118,768 kw 


173.768 kw Deficiency 


248,000 kw 


358,000 kw • 


4.525 kw 


N 


68,598 kw 


Excess 


136,010 kw 


Deficiency 


81,150 kw 


■ 


55,560 kw 


Excess 



Massena Area 

Syracuse, Utica, Schenectady 

Binghamton Area 

New York City Area Primary 

New York City Area Secondary 



250,000 to 300,000 kw 

175,000 to 225,000 kw 

75,000 kw 

150,000 kw 

175.000 kw 

875,000 kw 



Technical data covering the transmission systems in New York 
State was secured from the Utility companies. 

Two transmission systems, one of 287 kv and one of 23O kv, 
(Plates 100 to 122 incl.), were devised to supply power from the St. 
Lawrence power plant to the markets and locations given in the above table. 

The studies of transmission lines are incomplete and beyond the 
scope of this report, but they are sufficient to form a guide in the selec- 
tion of equipment for the power plant. 

The transmission systems and the St. Lawrence power plant were 
set up on an A.C. calculating board and studies made of steady state and 
transient stability under various conditions, including the grouping of 
genera to rs* combination of transmission lines, transformers, buses with 
and without reactors and with different speeds of circuit breaker operation. 

The results of the A.C. calculating board studies for the Canadian 
side and the U. S. side are given in the appendix. 



-28- 



(b) Distribution of Energy in the Vicinity of the Project . 
There now exists in the Massena area, as well as in the areas south of 
Massena, a 115 kv system. Between Syracuse-Utica and Water town-Taylorville 
there are four 115 kv lines and, for part of the way, eight 115 kv lines. 
Between Waterto-m-Taylorville and Massena there are two 115 kv lines supplying 
service to Massena and the immediate area. This system could, through few 
additions, have the capacity to absorb as much as 100,000 kva from the 
project at 115 kv. This is a desirable voltage from a transformer and con- 
ductor capacity point of view for bringing energy from the power house to 

the substation for further delivery. The industrial , developments in the 
vicinity of the site may extend over a considerable distance upstream and 
downstream along the navigable waters. 115 kv is, therefore, an economical 
voltage for use in distributing the power over such an extensive local area. 

It is our recommendation that 115 kv be used for serving the 
Massena area and it is, therefore, the voltage used in the tentative plans 
and estimating figures in this report. 

(c) Long Distance Transmission . There does not no .7 exist in the 
market areas designated in this problem any voltage systems higher than 
115 kv except the 132 kv circuits from Pleasant Valley south to New York 
City. 115 kv, as proposed for local distribution, is not high enough to 
transmit the required amounts of power to the proposed market centers. In 
our studies and calculations of what voltages would serve, we have deter- 
mined that either 230 kv or 287 kv can be used; as to which one is the 
more desirable depends upon the amounts of energy to be distributed, the 
location of the markets, and the method of marketing. 

To meet the problem that has been presented, the comparative cost 
estimates and the load studies embodied herein show that 23O kv is the more 
economical voltage to employ. 

We appreciate that the future cannot be predicted and that this 
energy may have to be marketed under conditions differing from the presented 
problem. 

The tentative design and estimates have been made up for 230 kv 
and 287 kv transmission and a decision to use either voltage can readily be 
determined in the future when more definite dat; may be available. 

3. Generators 

(a) Number of Units . The selection as to the number has been 
treated in the hydraulic section. 

(b) Rating . The size of generator has been selected at 55 i 000 kva 
to fit a 6l,000 hp turbine and capable of absorbing the power of the turbine 
at maximum gate and head. 

(c) Power Factor . The power factor of the generators has been 
based upon the characteristics of the load to be served and the* relative 
cost of kva in condensers or in the generators. 

The loads that have been used in the studies call for approximately 
one-third usage of the power in the vicinity of the plant, and two-thirds 
usage for long distance transmission. 

As to the po.ver factor of the energy in the vicinity, we believe 
that the most likely industries to be attracted are those in which electric 
po.ver is a major factor in the cost of their operations. The managements 
of such industries realize the importance of a high power factor and are 
generally favorable to making provision to that end. Where electrolytic 
reduction is employed, equipment of a high power factor is used. There are 
other industries which use large amounts of power where correction of power 



-29- 



factor is essential. Condensers can be installed by these industries or 
payment made for additional kva capr ;ity by the consumers. 

As to the power factor on the transmission lines, it is essential 
from cost, efficiency, and regulation points-of-view that the transmission 
lines be operated at high power factor and that condensers be employed to 
maintain the power factor best suited to meet the immediate load and trans- 
mission characteristics. 

For the distribution of energy that has been set up for this 
project, it is our recommendation that generators with a 95# power factor 
rating should be provided for the U. S. plant. 

It is shown in the report by the Planning Section of the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission of Ontario (Appendix E) that %% power factor is 
satisfactory for their 60 cycle generators and <)0% for the 25 cycle generators. 

(d) Frequency . 60 cycles is the frequency that is used to the greatest 
extent in the market areas designated in this report. A frequency of 60 
cycles is reconmended for the U. S. power plant. The Ontario Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission recommends that 12 of their units shall be 25 cycle and 6 
of their units 60 cycle. 

(e) Voltage . The amount of power that has been designated for local 
distribution is 250,000 kw to 3 00 * 000 kw* The amount of power and the dis- 
tance of the plant to any conceivable industrial centers preclude the trans- 
mission of power from the plant at even highest practical generator voltage 
and requires that transformers be located in the powerhouse adjacent to the 
generators. 

13.8 kv, which is standard and has proven to be reliable, is selected* 
for the voltage of the generators. 

(f ) Speed . The speed has been treated in the hydraulic section. 72 
rpm has been selected for these studies. 

(g) Transient Reactance - U. S. Plant. One of the major character- 
istics of the generators to be decided upon is the transient reactance. 

In general an extensive transmission system connected to gener- 
ators with lower reactances will have more stability or can transmit more 
energy over the same lines than would be the case if the generator reactance 
was higher. The decision, however, to use lower reactance generators is 
usually governed by the first cost of the machines as compared with the line 
or lines necessary to supply the particular market. 

Since the development of oil switches which will clear faults oc- 
curring on transmission lines in much less time than formerly, together 
with improved and faster relay operation, the advantage of low reactance 
generators has been materially reduced from standpoint of stability. 

The system studies heretofore mentioned and appearing in the 
appendix were supplemented by analytical calcaulations covering the suit- 
ability of the power plant and substation layouts to meet the delivery of 
power in amounts and to the anticipated markets with standard and reduced 
reactance in the generators. These studies are the basis for the con- 
clusions expressed. 

The deductions from the studies that apply directly to generator 
reactance are as follows: 

(1) For serving all loads in Massena area, standard 
generator reactance is satisfactory. 

(2) For serving the Syracuse area, standard generator 
reactance is satisfactory. 

(3) For serving the long distance transmission loads 
from the project in the Syracuse, Rotterdam, Bing- 



-30- 



ham ton and pleasant Valley areas, standard gener- 
ator reactance is satisfactory. 
(4) For serving New York City 150,000 kw of primary and 
175,000 k.v of secondary and 150,000 kw in Rotterdam 
area, with proper additions to the existing inter- 
connected system, satisfactory and economical de- 
livery can be made with standard reactance genera- 
tors. 
It is our opinion that generators with standard reactance should 
be employed if the energy is to be disposed of substantially in the manner 
used in these studies. In this report our design and estimates have been 
based on generators with standard reactance. 

(h) Transient Reactance Non-Pool Operation . We appreciate that 
the proposed delivery of power in amounts, destination and method of market- 
ing may differ from what is now anticipated. To indicate how generator 
reactance may effect different transmission systems, calculations have been 
made of power limits with different generator reactances and with 230 kv and 
287 kv transmission. One, two and three lines have been used with one and 
two intermediate sectional izing stations. Power limits under steady state 
and transient state are included. 

The following tables show the amounts of energy that can 
be transmitted direct to separate markets under different conditions. 






-31- 



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The following are extracts from Tables A, B and C, arranged to 
show the amounts of energy that can be delivered under transient and steady 
state conditions and with different number of lines and different amounts of 
reactance in the generators. 

Rotterdam 

Steady State 230 kv 

1 line - k generators - 44f£ reactance - 180,000 kw 
Transient State 23O kv 

2 lines- 4 generators - ^Itf, reactance - 173,000 kw 
2 lines- 5 generators - kl$> reactance - 193 » 000 ^n 
4 lines-lC generators - h,\g reactance - 457 »000 kw 

It is probable that if lines are run direct to Pleasant Valley or 
Mew York City, only two lines would be run to Rotterdam and therefore the 
following comparison with lower reactance generators should be made with two 
lines : 

Transient State 230 kv 

2 lines- 5 generators - 35% reactance - 203,000 kw 

With the large expenditure involved in securing lower reactance in 
alloragroup of generators and the large expenditure necessary to build a 
transmission line if required, definite recommendation other than to use 
standard reactance generators for the tentative design and estimates as they 
appear in this report cannot be made. From all standpoints other than the 
economics involving the transmission system as well as the power plant, such 
generators are entirely suitable. 

The following increase in cost for each of the generators is in- 
volved in securing lower reactance. These costs are made up from the aver- 
age of the estimates secured from three of the large generator manufacturers. 
The average cost of each generator with normal reactance of h,\tf is $835,200. 
The price increase for lower reactances is as follows: 

Increase in Price 
Reactance Over Standard 

35% $107,900 

30^ $190,600 

(i) Transient r eactance - Canadian Plant . For the 23 cycle gen- 
erators, normal reactance has been selected. For the 60 cycle generators, 
normal reactance is satisfactory to meet their conditions. 

These values are derived from the report of the Canadian planning 
board, Appendix E. 

(j) Cther Generator Features . Standard construction and charac- 
teristics are contemplated for all other electrical features of the generators, 
and detail description of these generators appear in Appendix A. 

U . Transformers 

(a) General . In view of the impracticability of transmitting 

-35- 



energy from the power house at generator voltage, as previously mentioned, 
it is necessary to install transformers in the power house to step up to 
some voltage or voltages which will be suitable for supplying the market. 

(b) Location . Studies have been made of two alternate locations 
for the transformers, one on the upstream and one on the downstream side of 
the power house. Typical cross sections of the plant for each location are 
shown on Plates 14. 17 » and 123 . The size and voltage of the transformers to 
be chosen will have little effect on the size or arrangement of the plant. 

(c) Type . The following is a short description of the different 
transformers that have been considered for the project: 



Two winding 

Two winding 

Two winding 

Three winding, 2 on low side 

Auto- transformers 

Auto- tra nsf ormers 



13.8 kv to 115 kv 

13.8 kv to 230 kv 

13.8 kv to 287 kv 

13.8 kv to 287 kv 

115 kv to 230 kv 

115 kv to 287 kv 



The transformer studies and estimates cover transformers that are 
of standard classifications as to voltage class and characteristics. They 
will be of the outdoor, oil-immersed, water cooled type equipped with inert 
gas and with all the' customary auxiliary devices for their safe operation and 
handling. One spare transformer of each type used is included in the esti- 
mates. 

The water for transformer cooling purposes will be taken from the 
forebay, using gravity flow through cooling coils. 

(d) bating . Investigations have been made to determine the most 
desirable capacity of* transformers for the various transmission and switch- 
ing schemes. 

For the transformers to be installed in the power house, the fol- 
lowing capacities appear to be most suitable: 





Number of 




Generators 




Interconnected 


Scheme 


on lj«8 kv 


Individual 




Unit 




Cperation. 


1 


Z-l and 7-2 


2 


Y-2 


2 



Y-l 
X-2 



X-l 



18 



18 



Voltage 



I3.8 - 115 kv 

I3.8 - 115 kv 

I3.8 - 230 kv 

13.8 - 287 kv 

( 13.8 - 230 kv 

( 13.8 - 155 kv 

f 13.8 - 287 kv 

( I3.8 - 115 kv 



Bank 
Capacity 



55,000 kva 
110,000 kva 
110,000 kva 
165,000 kva 
135,000 kva 
135,000 kva 
200,000 kva 
200,000 kva 



Single or 
3- phase 



3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Nomenclature X-l to Z-2, inclusive, refers to wiring diagram, Plate 100. 

For tho auto-transformers to be installed in the substation, the 
following capacities were selected: 

Bank Single or 

Scheme Voltage . Capacity 3-P na se 

Z-2 115 - 230 kv 125,000 kva 1 

Z-l 115 - 287 kv 16$,000 kva 1 

(e) Characteristi cs« The reactances of these transformer? 

-36- 



are as follows : 

Size Voltage Normal Reactance Type 

36,7:0 kva lj. 6- - 115 kv do 2 winding 

36,700 i.va I3.8 - 230 kv 11% 2 winding 

55,000 kva 13.8 - 287 kv 1% 2 winding 

41,700 kva 115 - 230 kv 6i r ' Auto- trans former 

55,000 kva 115 - 287 kv 8.7% Auto- trans former 

Normal Alternate 
45,000 kva ( I3.8 - 230 kv 12 - 18 25 - 37 3 winding 

( I3.8 - 230 kv 12 - 18 25 - 37 

( 13.8 - I3.8 kv 4-8 5Q ~ 84 

66,7 r :0 kva ( 13.8 - 287 kv 14 - 21 28 - 34 3 winding 

( 15.8 - 267 kv 14 - 21 28 - 3k 
( 13.8 - 13.8 kv 4-6 60 - 74 

(f) Costs 

Number of Cost of 

Windings E^nk 

2 $165,000 

2 267,000 

2 /|25,000 

3 390,000 
3 735.000 • 

Auto 318,000 

Auto 525,000 

(g) Application , There are two ways that transformation can be 
made at the project for long distance transmission. One is through direct 
step-up to the transmission voltage, the other is through direct step-up 
to a common bus at the substation and then through auto-transformers to the 
transmission voltage. 

The first arrangement, designated as the single transformation, 
is illustrated on Plate 100 as Schemes Y-l and Y-2. This arrangement has the 
following disadvantages: 

(1^ Since 115 -^ must be provided for local distribution, this means 
that : 

(a) Transformers of two voltages must be 
installed in the power house and requires 
power cables of two different voltages 

(b) A means of transferring capacity bet..een 
230 or 287 kv and 115 kv bus must be pro- 
vided at additional cost. 

(2), It requires higher voltage switching with higher 
costs, partially offsetting advantage of lower 
transformer cost. 

(3X The single phase-to-ground short circuit duty is 
high and limits the number of generating units 
that can be interconnecte ' . (See short circuit 
analysis in Appendix B.) 



-37- 



Size 


Voltage 


36,700 kva 


13.8 - 


115 kv 


36,700 kva 


I3.8 - 


230 kv 


55,000 kva 


13.8 - 


287 kv 


45,000 kva 


13.8 - 


230 kv 


66,700 kva 


13.8 - 


287 kv 


41,700 kva 


115 - 


230 kv 


55,000 kva 


115 - 


287 kv 



(4) Is less flexible in its adaptability for changing 
transmission requirements. 

The same arrangement has the following advantages: 

(1) Has lower impedance from generator voltage to transmission 
voltage, and therefore somewhat higher power limits can 
be realized for long distance transmission. 

(2) The total transformer capacity required is about 
half as much as other schemes exclusive of 115 kv 
local transmission, and therefore is more economical. 

(3) Transformation is more efficient with a minimum of 
losses and less operating cost and maintenance. 

(4) Is accepted as the standard method for long distance 
transmission and is most suitable when the amount and loc- 
ation of loads is definitely defined. 

(5) Eliminates transformers in outdoor substation, as 
all transformers can be located in the power house. 

The double transformation scheme, illustrated on Plate 1G0 
as Schemes Z-l and Z-2, has the following disadvantages: 

1. This scheme requires two transformations in series 
and therefore a higher impedance from generator 
voltage to high tension voltage. This has the 
effect of reducing the maximum power limit .of the 
transmission system, or, conversely, reduces the 
maximum distance a given amount of power can be 
transmitted. 

2. A transformer capacity equal to nearly twice generator- 
capacity is required because of the double transform- 
ation, and therefore is more costly. 

3»* It has a high short circuit duty on the 115 kv bus, 
which must be reduced by addition of impedance in 
the high tension neutral of the first transformation, 
as pointed out in Appendix B. 

The double transformation scheme has the following advantages: 

1. Fermits use of identical intermediate voltage transformers 
in the power house itself and provides the most econcmical 
and symmetrical power house design. 

2. It is the most flexible of all arrangements considered 
in that it permits utilization of 115 kv voltage to 
supply any transmission voltage required by any 1 ^ad 
location independent of power house design. 



-33- 



j. Permits convenient transfer of power from one volt- 
age system to another, and permits transfer of power 
between the local poiwer system and the long distance 
transmission system without the use of special ar- 
rangements such as low tension buses or interconnect- 
ing, transformers on the high tension buses. 

Zj . It permits orerating generators or lines in groups 
or in units, as msrket conditions require. 

5. It provides complete facilities for isolation of cir- 
cuits for operation and' maintenance pur puses. 

6. If a universal bus voltage is used, it permits a greater 
utilization of gene ret ing capacity to meet all possible 
load conditions. 

7. It does not require an immediate decision as to the 
voltage that should be adopted for the long distance 
transmission. 

Another single transformation scheme, also illustrated on Plate 
100 as Schemes "X-l nnd X-2, provides for busing the generators together thru 
the trasformer low voltage windings and thus securing the reactance of the 
transformers between paralleled groups of either two or three generators 
each. This arrangement is referred to as the cross connected scheme. 

The advantages of this scheme are as follows: 

1. The short circuit kva is not excessive, being within the 
limits of available circuit breaker capacities. This applies 
to the 230 kv scheme with standard transformers and 

also to the 287 kv scheme if special transformer im- 
pedances are used. 

2. 77hen a transmission circuit serving a single system 
is interrupted there is no loss of generation, inas- 
much as an exchange of current takes place through 
the cross connections provided the system is operated 
as a unit. 

3. Higher transient stability can be obtained on the trans- 
mission system. 

The disadvantages of this scheme are as follows: 

1. Requires that the plant be connected to a single 
system with uniform synchronizing characteristics. 

2. Is incapable of supplying varying voltage levels 
for lines of different lengths, transformer capa- 
cities, impedance characteristics, and load power 
factors . 

3. Requires unit operation of the transmission and 
generating system. 

-39- 



L, . Lines in trouble and under test cannot be operated 
separately with minimum of generators so as to 
detract the least from the power house performance 
and capacity. 

5« Will not permit some lines to be used at ull times 
with minimum of loading or from time to time under 
static stability conditions while other lines are 
operated under transient stability conditions. 

6. Requires the use of a maximum amount of wiring or 
busing and number of switches at genera tor voltage 
inside the power house with resulting increase in 
hazard of short circuits. 

7. Requires other than standard transformer and excess 
transformer capacity to permit of exchange of energy 
between generators. 

8. Unless high tension busing and switching is used, 
this scheme requires that 6 lines at 230 kv or 4 
lines at 287 kv be provided for transmission of 
power to an interconnected distribution system* 

5 . Circuit Breakers . 

(a) Short circuit analyses have been made of the different 
schemes and seme short circuit studies v?ere made on a calculating board. 
The results of these studies aprear in Appendix B. 

(b) For the purpose of this report, air circuit breakers have 
:een used in the power house of the 15 kv class and oil circuit breakers 
hae been used in the substation for the 115 kv, 2j0 kv and 287 kv services. 
All circuit breakers will have an overall clearance time of.l of a second or 
6 cycles. 



Costs. 



Type 


Voltage 


Aii- 


I3.8 kv 


Air 


13.8 kv 


Air- 


lj.8 kv 


Oil 


115 kv 


Oil 


115 kv 


Oil 


230 kv 


Oil 


287 kv 



Rupturing 

Ampere Capacity Cost 

4,000 1,500,000 $ 26,000 , 

4,000 2,500,000 33,000 

5 ..ooc 2,500,000 40,000 

400 '1,500,000 20,200 

400 2,500,000 28,000 

600 2,500,00c 60,500 

400 2,500,000 12^,000 



(c) Increased Rupturing Capacity . A material gain can be secured 
in a fuller utilization of generator capacity and a higher transient stab- 
ility in the transmission system through the grouping of generators. Further 
study should be made of the feasibility of securing switches with a rupturing 
capacity higher than 2,500,000 kva. 



6. Cables for High Voltage Leads 

-40- 



There are two distinct types of cable commercially available for 
the high voltage leads from the power house to the substations: the "Oil- 
ostatic" type and the "Oilfilled" type. 

The "Oiiostatic" cable consists of three single phase paper in- 
sulated cables installed in one steel pipe. This steel pipe is filled with 
oil and held continually under a pressure of approximately two hundred pounds 
per square inch by an automatic pressure pumping outfit. A storage tank is 
connected in the steel pipe line to cushion the pressure changes. "Oii- 
ostatic" cable has been used on a few projects in the United States on vol- 
tages as high as 115 hv. 

.The "Oilfilled" cable has been used quite extensively in the 
United States for voltages as high as 132 kv and consists of a hollow con- 
ductor which is filled with oil at a pressure of approximately ^0 pounds, 
which is continually maintained. The conductor is insulated with paper. 
A lead sheath forms the outer ring around the paper insulation. 

Estimates from manufacturers of both types of cable shew little 
difference in the cost for the required service. The type of cable selected 
is subject to detail analysis and further tests. 

7. Auxiliary Power Supply 

It is proposed to install in each of the two power houses an ind- 
ependent hydro-electric unit for supplying electrical energy for the operation 
of the auxiliary apparatus in the power houses anc gates throughout the pro- 
ject. 

These units will be of sufficient size so that if the main gen- 
erators are shut down, the hydraulic parts of the project can function in- 
cluding the starting of water wheels and generators and indoor and outdoor 
lighting and power circuits. 

The unit in the U. S. power house and the unit in the Canadian 
power house will be interconnected and thus eliminate the need of two such 
units to each power house. 

In addition to these two units, further provision will be made 
by a connection to an external supply from the substation so that an aux- 
iliary power supply will be available if for tiny reason electrical energy 
is not being generated in either of the power houses. 

Provision has been made in the design and estimates so that these 
units can be as large as J3»°C0 kva . The voltage of the units has not been 
determined. It will be the intention, however, to hold the voltage of these 
units to the 2,3CC volt class in order to gain a higher safety factor against 
short circuits and grounds, providing the 2,300 volt class is feasible from 
an economical point of view. Complete analysis as to exact size and voltage 
of the units has not as yet been made . 

8 . Physical Arrangement of Electrical Equipmen t 

(a) American Power House . Plate 1?3 shows the physical arrange- 
ment of the major electrical equipment in the power house. Sufficient stud- 
ies have been made to determine that space is available for similar arrange- 
ments of all proposed s.chemes . The drawing shows two different methods of 
connection between the power house and the substation, one by cable in a tun- 
nel, and one by overhead transmission to Lh< substation. Each of these is 
shown with the electrical equipment upstream and downstream from the gen- 
erators . 

Tunnels, marked "Power", are provided through the building struc- 
ture. These will be continued underground to the substation. The tunnel lay- 

-lil- 



out will provide so that each of the cables of a three phase unit can be 
placed closely together with phase separation if oil filled cable it use. 
Each three phase unit will be fully isolated from adjacent three phase units. 
These tunnels will not be used should the overhead lines be installed . 

Another tunnel, marked "Control", will be used for Control, cables 
from the generators, cubicles, transformers, etc. to the control roan and 
from the control room to the substation. The control tunnel has been used 
in all schemes . 

Each of the tunnels above described will be large enough to per- 
mit working space and will be separated from each other. At frequent points 
there will be properly protected passageways from one tunnel to another. 

At several points throughout the length of the power house, 
entrance to the tunnels will be provided by stairways from the floor above. 
These will lead into isolated rooms arranged between the cable racks and 
having fire doors opening into separate sections of each tunnel. Additional 
entrances will be provided in the underground sections outside of the power 
house . 

Space is available throughout the length of the power house to 
mount the cubicles and reactors, if used, within the power house structure. 
Within estimating limits and considering electrical equipment only, the cost 
of mounting this equipment on the downstream side of the generators is the 
same as on the upstream side. 

Where power transformers are located in individual cells, using 
outgoing cables to substation, it is planned to use transformers with direct 
connections to the high voltage cables and so avoid the conventional large 
bushings and the resulting additional space required for bushings and ground 
clearances. This method has been discussed with some of the larger manufact- 
urers and they feel that no difficulties will be encountered in designing 
such connections. 

Provision is made for handling this equipment during construction 
and for moving them to and from the erection bay within the power house. 

For those schemes using overhead leads to the substation, study 
hae been made of the required towers. In order to maintain 70 foot clearance 
above head water or tail water at all times, as required by the U. S. Engin- 
eer Department, it will be necessary to mount dead-end towers on the power 
house roof and at the shore end of these leads. Spans vary from approximately 
£00 feet to about 2100 feet for the upstream leads, while for the downstream 
leads they will all be' of approximately 2300 feet length. 

The towers on the power house roof must extend approximately 10C 
to ISO feet above the roof, as otherwise excessive towers will be required at 
the shore end. 

Two locations of substation have been considered; one on Barnhart 
Island which will be used with the power cable Scheme C-2 and with the over- 
head upstream Scheme C-l ; and another on the mainland at Hawkins Point, 
downstream from the power house, which will be used with the C-3 Scheme, 
overhead downstream. Estimates of those schemes appear on Table 6. Typical 
type of substation arrangement and structures are shown on Plate 12Z, . 
Variations in this arrangement are requireu for the different switching and 
busing schemes. 

In order to make fair comparison in the costs of the several 
schemes, our estimates are all based on delivering the power to the outgoing 
transmission lines on the south shore of the spillway channel, the river 
crossing costs being included in those schemes with the substation on Barn 
hart Island, 

(b) Canadian Power House . In the Canadian plant it is planned to 

-,'P2- 



install twelve 25 cycle and six 60 cycle generators, each of capacity and 
speed as shown in the attached Appendix E, the report o; the planning sec- 
tion of the Ontario Power Commission. 

The physical arrangement of a major electrical equipment and the 
control system in the plant will, in general » be similar to that in the Am- 
erican plant. 

Three locations of the substation and three means of carrying 
power to them are considered. Plates 2 to 10 inclusive shew those schemes, 
and Table 8 gives the estimated costs, exclusive of grading, draining and 
fencing of the substation site. In Table 8, the schemes A-l , B-l and C-l 
are for the use of overhead connections for all circuits; schemes A-2, E-2 
and C-2 are for the use of cables for all circuits; and schemes A-5. B-j and 
C"3 are f° r overhead circuits for the o cycle power and cables for the 6c 
cycle circuits . 

Only one arrangement of busing and switching has been estimated 
for the Canadian plant. For the 25 cycle portion this censistsof two 2j0 kva 
ring buses with two generators connected to a bank of three winding trans- 
formers. For the 60 cycle power, three ljjB kv ring buses are used, with each 
generator connected to a three phase transf orrner. The generators are tied 
together at generator voltage through reactors. 

9 . System of Electrical Control 

The scheme for electrical control consists of a main control room 
with proper switchboards containing all equipment required to permit the 
operators to synchronize the units, regulate the speed, voltage and load on 
each unit, control all high and low tension circuit breakers and field break- 
ers, and to have proper indication of the operating conditions of equipment 
and system. In addition to the main control room, local control boards will 
be installed en the generator room floor, between groups of generators, to 
permit the operator on this floor to start and stop generators, read temper- 
atures on windings and bearings, watch cooling water flows and otherwise be 
responsible for the mechanical portion of the operation of turbines, governors 
and generators. In addition to a comprehensive telephone system, a signal 
system will be provided between the operating floor and the main control ro. m 
and between the control room and the ' substation. All troubles will be in- 
dicated by annunciators on the operating floor, as well as in the main control 
room and alarms will sound at both places. 

10. Wiring Diagrams 

The several wiring diagrams used in this report are shown on 
plate 100. They have been designated and marled as fo]lows: 

X-l Cross connected scheme with the power house 

divided into groups of three generator units, 
each connected to a banii of three winding 
transformers stepping up directly to 115 kv with 
two generator groups and to 2G7 kv with four 
generator groups. The 115 kv feeds a double 
ring bus from which are taken six 115 kv lines 
for local power and the four 2c7 kv groups each 
feed directly on to an individual transmission 
1 i ne . 



-Ii3- 



X-2 Cross connected scheme with the power house 
divided into groups of two generator units, 
each connected to a bank of three winding 
transformers stepping up directly to 115 kv w'it'h 
three generator' groups and to 2J0 kv with six 
generator groups. The 115 kv feeds a single ring 
bus from which are taken six 115 kv lines and the 
six 230 kv groups each feed directly on to an in- 
dividual transmission line. 

Y-l Single transformation with twelve generator units 
divided into groups of three, feeding a double 
ring 28? kv bus from which four 28? kv lines are fed; 
and six generator units, divided into groups of two, 
feeding a double ring 115 kv bus from which six 115 kv 
line? are fed. 

Y-2 Single transformation with the power house divided 
into groups of two generator units, with six of 
these generator groups feeding a double ring 2j0 kv 
bus from which six 230 kv lines are fed, and three 
generator groups feeding a double ring 115 kv bus 
from which six 115 ky lines are fed. 

Z-l Double transformation with six generator groups of 
two units each, feeding a double ring 115 kv bus 
from which six 230 kv lines are fed through auto- 
transformers end with three generator groups of two 
units each feeding the double ring 115 kv bus from 
which six 115 kv lines are fed. 

Z-2 Double transformation with the same arrangement as 
2-1 except that four 287 kv instead of six 230 kv 
lines are fed through auto-transf ormers. 

The above described wiring diagrams have not been subject to 
sufficient detail analysis to permit definite selection and recommendation 
of any one. We believe, however, that the diagrams as presented contain tbx. 
maximum of switching arrangement which reasonably may be adopted in the in- 
terest of flexibility and therefore represent a basis for fair comparison 
between the different schemes proposed. 

11. Estimates 

Three different estimates have been made for each of the above 
six schemes; one with the substation on Barnhart Island and cables leading 
from the plant to the substation through a tunnel; one with the substation 
in same location and power leads overhead on steel towers; and one with the 
substation across the spillway channel, on Hawkins Point, and overhead lines 
on steel towers. To make all schemes comparable, each has been estimated to 
a take-off tower on the south, or mainland side of the spillway channel. 

Table 8 shows the estimated cost of the electrical equipment, 
exclusive of generators, for each of the above schemes. 

The average cost of all schemes except X~l and Y-2 is $8,807,700. 
Schemes X-l average $9,712,600, and schemes Y-2 average $8,267,200, hence the 



-44- 



difference between the least and mos + expensive schemes is approximately 
$1,4h5i° 00 « The increased cost of X-l scheme is due principally to the ex- 
cessive cost of the high capacity 237 kv transformers required. These are 
of such size and weight as to require considerable dismantling for shipment 
and re-assembly in the field. The lo^/or cost of scheme Y-2 is due primarily 
to the difference in cost betv/een 28? kv and 230 kv oil circuit breakers 
and transformers. However, small additional cost will need to be added 
to the estimate to bring Y-2 to the same degree of transient stability. 

A number of reputable manufacturers of each class of major equip- 
ment have been interviewed and have submitted estimating prices. In the in- 
terest of time, the prices of one manufacturer h^ve been used in most instanc- 
es. Hov/ever, there is not a large spread between prices of the different 
manufacturers. These prices have been increased to cov^r the installation 
costs and the cost of miscellaneous materials sjch as local light, power 
equipment, and small wiring. 



TABLE 1 



SUMMARY OF COSTS 



Location C Electrical Scheme 2 Power House Type U 









Unit 
Price 


American 


Canadian 






C^uanti ty 


Price 


ijuantlty 


Price 


Total 


Excavation for P.H. and Wing 
Walls, H.R. & T.R., Earth 


,60/cy 


1,554,600 


$ 932,760 


1,989, 


,000 


$1,193,400 


$ 2,126,160 


Excavation, Rock 






2.50/cy 


98,300 


245,750 


72, 


,000 


180,000 


425,750 


Concrete, P.H., Class 


A 




25.00/cy 


300,000 


7,500,000 


300, 


,000 


7,500,000 


15,000,000 


P • H • , Ma s s 






10.00/cy 


373,000 


3,730,000 


395, 


,300 


3,953,000 


7,683,000 


Wing Wall 






12.00/cy 


66,500 


798,000 


74, 


,200 


890,400 


1,688,400 


Dikes 










764,795 






887,100 


1,651,895 


Highway Approach 










- 






717,500 


717,500 


Cofferdam 










507,200 






507,200 


1,014,400 


Major P.H. Equipment 










30,520,000 






27,892,000 


58,412,000 


Minor P.H. Equipment 










2,056,000 






2,056,000 


4,112,000 


P. H. Superstructure 










3,000,000 






3,000,000 


6,000,000 


Yards and Grading 










223,000 






241,000 


464,000 


Ice Gates 










223,700 






223,700 


447,400 


Spillway Gates 










147,740 






147,740 


295,480 


Powerhouse Electrical 


Equipment 






4,054,400 






6,158,200 


10,212,600 


Tunnel and Cables 










748,500 






1,446,600 


2,195,100 


Substation 










3,403,100 






2,180,600 


5,583,700 


River Crossing 










297,500 
$59,152,445 






«. 


297,500 




$59,174,440 


$118,326,885 


Int. Eng. and Cont. 










11.827.555 
$70,980,000 






11, 845, boO 
$71,020,000 


23.673,115 
$142,000,000 



-47- 





TABLE 2 

ESTIMATES OF POWER HOUSE SUBSTRUCTURES 

TYPE D - ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT DOWNSTREAM 


nilan 


• 


• 


Unit 
Price 


American 


Cane 


Grand 
Total 




Quantity 


Price 


Quantity 


Price 


LOCATION A 

Headrace Ex. -Earth 
Tallrace " - " 
Power House Ex. -Earth 

" " " -Rook 
Concrete - Class A 

n - Mass 

Total 


$ 0.60/cy 

0.60/cy 

0.60/cy 

2.50/cy 

25.00/oy 

10.00/cy 


333,400 
908,700 
1,410,500 
116,400 
308,880 
292,220 


$ 200,040 

545,220 

846,300 

291,000 

7,722,000 

2,922,200 

$12,526,760 


75,900 

4,006,900 

1,035,300 

87,550 

308,880 

323,920 


$ 45,540 

2,404,140 

621,180 

218,875 

7,722,000 

3,239.200 

114,250,935 


♦26,777,665 



LOCATION B 

Headrace Ex. -Earth 
Tallrace " - " 
Power House Ex. -Earth 

» " ■ -Rock 
Concrete - Class A 

■ - Mass 

Total 



LOCATION C 

Headrace Ex, -Earth 
Tallrace Ex.- " 
Power House Ex. -Earth 

■ ■ " -Rock 
Concrete - Class A 

" - Mass 

Total 



LOCATION A 

Headrace Ex. -Earth 
Tallrace " - n 
Power House Ex. -Earth 

" " " -Rock 
Concrete - Class A 

n - Mass 

Total 

LOCATION B 

Headrace Ex. -Earth 
Tallrace " - " 
Power House Ex. -Earth 

"..■"."•" -Rock 
Concrete - Class A 

" - Mass 

Total 



LOCATION C 

Headrace Ex. -Earth 
Tallrace " - " 
Power House Ex. -Earth 

" n " -Rock 
Concrete - Class A 

" - Mass 

Total 



0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
2 o 50/oy 
25.00/cy 
10.00/cy 



246,900 
474,200 
1,508,500 
85,700 
308,880 
328,220 



0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
2.50/cy 
25.00/cy 
10.00/cy 



190,100 

14,000 

1,224,000 

58,600 

308,880 

362,420 



148,140 
284,520 
905,100 
214,250 
7,722,000 
3,282,200 

$12,556,210 



114,060 

8,400 

734,400 

146,500 

7,722,000 

3,624,200 

$12,349,560 



38,900 

1,047,100 

1,479,000 

55,600 

308,880 

412,120 



69,500 

411,000 

1,344,000 

55,550 
308,880 
408,620 



TYPE U - ELECTRICAL EgPIRMENT UPSTREAM 



0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
2.50/cy 
25.00/oy 
10.00/cy 



0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
2.50/cy 
25.00/cy 
10.00/cy 



333,400 
908,700 
305,500 
168,500 
300,000 
307,900 



246,900 
474,200 
1,394,500 
129,900 
300,000 
340,500 



0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
0.60/cy 
2.50/cy 
25.00/cy 
10.00/cy 



190,100 

14,000 

1,117,500 

92,900 

300,000 

373,000 



200,040 
545,220 
783,300 
421,250 
7,500,000 
3,079,000 

$12,528,810 



148,140 
284,520 
836,700 
324,750 
7,500,000 
3,405,000 

$12,499,110 



114,060 

8,400 

670,500 

232,250 

7,500,000 

3,730,000 

$12,255,210 



75,900 
4,006,900 
951,500 
126,000 
300,000 
337,000 



38,900 

1,047,100 

1,363,000 

74,000 

300,000 

398,700 



69,500 

411,000 

1,232,500 

66,200 
300,000 
395,300 



$13,041,775 



45,540 

2,404,140 

570,900 

315,000 

7,500,000 

3.570.000 

$14,205,580 



23,340 

628,260 

817,800 

185,000 

7,500,000 

5,987,000 

$13,141,400 



41,700 

246,600 

759,500 

165,500 

7,500,000 

, 5,955,000 



25,540 

628,260 

887,400 

159,000 
7,722,000 
4,121,200 

$15,521,200 $26,077,41 



41,700 

246,600 

806,400 

158,875 

7,722,000 

4.086.200 



$25,391,3! 



$26,754,91 



$25,640,5 




$12,646,500 $24,901,& 



-48- 



TABLE 3 
WING WALLS. 



Unit Price 



American 

Quantity 



Price 



Canadian 



Quantity 



Price 



Grand Total 



LOCATION A 

Earth Ex. & Back Fill $ 0.60/cy 
Rock Excavation 2.50/cy 

Concrete \2.00/cy 

Total 



243,000 $ 145,800 

5,500 13,750 

64,300 771,600 



$ 931,150 



175,000 $ 105,000 

5,100 12,750 

57,100 685,200 



$ 802,950 $ 1,734,100 



LOCATION B 

Earth Ex. & Back Fill 
Rock Excavation 
Concrete 

Total 



0.60/cy 

2.50/cy 

12.00/cy 



243,000 

5,500 

64,300 



145,800 

13,750 

771,600 

$ 931,150 



250,000 

5,900 

72,000 



150,000 

14,750 

864,000 



$1,028,750 $ 1,959,900 



LOCATION C 

Earth Ex. & Back Fill 
Rock Excavation 
Concrete 

Total 



0.60/cy 

2.50/cy 

12,00/cy 



233,000 

5,400 

66,500 



139 ,800 

13,500 

798,000 

$ 951,300 



276,000 

5,800 

74,200 



165,600 

14,500 

890,400 



#1,070,500 $ 2,021,800 



HIGHWAY APPROACHES. 



LOCATION A 

Excavation 

Concrete 

Hghwy. & Ry. Bridge 

Drainage 

Ry. & Ballast 

Highway 



0.60/cy 

30.00/cy 

L.S 

L.S 

20 ,000/mi 

5,000/mi 



600,000 




360,000 


13,000 




390,000 


1 




74,000 


Job 




15,000 


li mi 
lj mi 




30,000 




7,500 




* 


876,500 



LOCATIONS B & C 

Excavation 

Concrete 

Hghwy. &. Ry. Bridge 

Drainage 

Ry. & Ballast 

Highway 



0.60/cy 

30.00/cy 

L.S 

L.S 

20,000/mi 

5 /000/mi 



425,000 


255,000 


13,000 


390,000 





- 


Job 


15,000 


2h 


50,000 


li 


7,500 



ft 717,500 



COFFERDAMS 



LOCATION A 
LOCATION B 
LOCATION C 



| 590,000 
# 726,700 
% 1,014,400 



-49- 



TABLE NO. 4 



DIKES 



Description 



Unit Price 



Scheme 1 
^uantTty 



Scheme 2 Scheme 3 

Price quantity Price quantity Price 



American Dike - 
Location A 

Excavation-Earth 0.15/oy 

Fill 0.40/cy 

Gravel Blanket 4.00/cy 

Rock Rip-Rap 5.00/cy 

Concrete 30.00/cy 
Total-Amer. Dike 



115,350 


$ 17,305 


92,420 


* 13,865 


Same as 


Scheme 2 


974,300 


389,720 


547,900 


219,160 


tt Tt 


Tl tt 


27,720 


110,880 


19,520 


78,080 


ft tt 


Tt n 


83,460 


417,300 


50,460 


292,300 


tt Tt 


tt tt 


3,030 


90,900 


2,630 


78,900 


tt Tt 


tt *t 




$1,026,105 




£682, 305 


tt M 


tl II 



Canadian Dike - 
Locatibn A 

Excavation-Earth 0.15/cy 

Fill 0.40/cy 

Gravel Blanket 4.00/cy 

Rock Rip-Rap 5.00/cy 

Concrete 30.00/cy 
Total-Can. Dike 



30,000 

450,000 

10,000 

29,000 

600 



$ 4,500 

180,000 

40,000 

145,000 

18,000 

,,387,500 



Same as Scheme 1 



37,000 


$ 5,550 


590,000 


236,000 


15,000 


60,000 


35 ,000 


175,000 


700 


21.000 




449 7,550 



American Dike - 
Location B 

Excavation-Earth C.15/cy 

Fill 0.40/cy 

Gravel Blanket 4.00/cy 

Rock Rip-Rap 5.00/cy 

Concrete 30.00/cy 
Total-Amer. Dike 



Canadian Dike - 
Location B 

Excavation-Earth 0.15/cy 

Fill 0.40/cy 

Gravel Blanket 4.00/cy 

Rock Rip-Rap 5.00/cy 

Concrete 30.00/ey 
Total-Can. Dike 



American Dike - 
Location C 

Excavation-Earth 0.15/cy 

Fill 0.40/cy 

Gravel Blanket 4.00/cy 

Rock Rip-Rap 5.00/cy 

Concrete 30.00/cy 
Total Amer. Dike 



Canadian Dike - 
Location C 

Excavation-Earth 0.15/cy 

Fill 0.40/cy 

Gravel Blanket 4.00/cy 

Rock Rip-Rap 5.00/cy 

Concrete 30.00/cy 
Total Can. Dike 



115,350 

974,300 

27,720 

83,460 

3,030 



61,000 

1,400,000 

24,000 

71,000 

1,000 



120,900 

1,076,900 

29 , 700 

89 ,400 

3,130 



* 17,305 

389,720 

110,880 

417,300 

90 ,900 

$1,026 |lo5 



$ 9,150 

560,000 

96,000 

355,000 

30,000 

$1,050,150 



67,000 

1,550,000 

25,000 

75,000 

1,100 



$ 18,135 

430,760 

118,800 

447,000 

93,900 

$1,108,595 



$ 10,050 

620,000 

IOC ,000 

375,000 

53,000 

§1,138,050 



92,420 

547,900 

19,520 

58,460 

2.630 



55,000 

1,140,000 

21,000 

62,000 

970 



97,970 

650,500 

21,500 

64,400 
2,730 



60,0(0 

1,200,000 

19,000 

58,000 

1,070 



$ 13,865 

219,160 

78,080 

292,300 

78 , 90 

$682, 305 



$ 8,250 

456,000 

84,000 

310,000 

29,100 

$887,350 



$ 14,695 

260,200 

86,000 

322,000 

81,900 

$764,795 



$ 9,000 

480,000 

76,000 

290,000 

32,100 

$887,100 



Same as Scheme 2 



Same as Scheme 



Same as Scheme 2 



Same as Scheme 1 



-50- 



TABLE 5 
Comparlaona of Costa for Various Locations 



AMERICAN 



CANADIAN 



Type *D" Powerhouse - Downstream Electrical Equipment 



LOCATION. "A" 



TOTAL 



Head & Tall Race Excav. 

Powerhouse Substructure 

Wing Walla 

Dike 

Highway Approach 

Cofferdams 

Total 



$ 745,260 

11,781,500 

931,150 

682 T 305 

295,000 
$ 14,435,215 



$ 2,449,680 
11,801,255 
802,950 
387,500 
876,500 
295,000 

$ 16,612,885 $31,048,100 



LOCATION "B" 



Head k Tallrace Excav. 

Powerhouse Substructure 

Wing Walla 

Dike 

Highway Approach 

Cofferdams 

Total 



$ 432,660 

12,123, 550 

931,150 

682,305 

363,350 

$ 14,533,015 



$ 651,600 

12,869,600 

1,028,750 

887,350 

717.500 

363,350 

$16,518,150 $ 31,051,165 



LOCATION "C* 

Head tt Tallrace Excav, 

Powerhouse Substructure 

Wing Walls 

Dike 

Highway Approach 

Cofferdams 



122,460 

12,227,100 

951,300 

764,795 

507,200 



I 288,300 

12,753,475 

1,070,500 

887,100 

717,500 

507,200 



Total $ 14,572,855 $ 16,224,075 $ 30,796,930 

Type "P* Powerhouse - Upstream Electrical Equipment 



LOCATION"*" 



Head it Tallrace Excav. 

Powerhouse Substructure 

Wing Walla 

Dike 

Highway Approach 

Cofferdams 

Total 



$ 745,260 

11,783,550 

931,150 

682,305 

295,000 

$ 14,437,265 



$ 2,449,680 
11,755,900 
802,950 
387,500 
876,500 
295,000 

$ 16,667,530 $ 31,104,795 



LOCATION *B" 

Head 4 Tallrace Excav. 

Powerhouse Substructure 

Wing Walla 

Dike 

Highway Approach 

Cofferdams 

Total 



LOCATION "C* 

Head * Tallrace Excav. 

Powerhouae Subatructure 

Wing Walla 

Dike 

Highway Approach 

Cofferdams 

Total 



$ 432,660 

12,066,450 

931,150 

682,305 

363,350 

$ 14,475,915 



$ 122,460 

12,132,750 

951 . 300 

76*, 795 

507,200 

$ 14,478,505 



651,600 
12,489,800 
1,028,750 
887,350 
717,500 
363,350 



$ 16,138,350 $ 30,614,265 



$ 288,300 

12,358,000 

1,070,500 

887,100 

717,500 

507,200 

* 15,828,600 $30,307,105 



-51- 



TABLE 6 



MAJOR POWERHOUSE EQUIPMENT . 



Unit 
Price 



American 



Quantity Price" 



Quantity 



Canad ian 

Price 



Total 



Turbines inclo Governors 

Generators 72 RPM 

25 cycle 58000 KVA .90 PF 

60 cycle 58000 KVA .90 PF 

60 cycle 55000 KVA .95 PF 

House Unit Complete 
5000 KVA 



$ 690,000 ea 



854,000 ea 

854,000 ea 

1,000,000 ea 



100,000 ea 



18 $12,420,000 



18 18, 000. ,000 



100,000 



|30,520,000 



18 $12,420,000 



12 
6 



10,248,000 
5,124,000 



100 ,000 



$27,892,000 #58,412,000 



MINOR POWERHOUSE EQUIPMENT 



Unit 
Price 



American 



Quantity Price 



Power House Cranes (300T) ^100,000 2 ea $200,000 

Upstream Gantry (150T) 70,000 1 ea 70,000 

Head Gates (Main Units) 38,000 18 ea 684,000 

Head Gate Hoists (Main Units) 15,000 18 ea 270,000 

Head Gate (House Units) 9,000 1 ea 9,000 

Head Gate Hoist (House Units) 5,000 1 ea 5,000 

Upstream Stop Logs 22,000 2 ea 44,000 

Draft Tube Gates 8,500 2 ea 17,000 

Draft Tube Gate Hoist 5,000 1 ea 5,000 

Gate Guides 140 1500 T 210,000 

Trash Racks 100 1000 T 100,000 

Filler Valves 2,500 18 ea 45,000 

Elevators 9,000 5 ea 45,000 

Ventilating Equipment 50,000 L.S. 50,000 

Plumbing 25,000 L.S. 25,000 

Drainage Pumps & Piping 17,000 L.S. 17,000 

Fire Fighting Equipment 50,000 L.S. 50,000 

Machine Tools 200,000 L.S. 200,000 

Oil Filter k Piping 10,000 L.S. 10,000 

Total $2;056,000 



Canadian 
Quantity 



Price 






Same as 

for - American 

side. 



$2,054,000 #4, 112,001 



-52- 









TABLE 7 



POWERHOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE 



Unit 
Price 



American 



Quantity 



Pric« 



Canadian 

Quantity 



Price 



Grand 
Total 



Superstructure 



$ 0.29/of 10,350,000 $3,000,000 10,350,000 #3,000,000 $6,000,000 



YARDS AND GRADING 





0.60/cy 






Substation Grading 


50,000 


$ 30,000 


Substation Rock 


4.00/cy 


5,750 


23,000 


Substation Fence 


3. 00/ ft 


3,000 


9,000 


Yard Drains 


4.00/ft 


4,000 


16,000 


Yard Seeding 


0.10/sf 


200,000 


20.000 


Yard Fine Grading 


0.25/sf 


100 ,000 


25,000 


General Glean-Up 


L.S. 




100,000 




$ 223,000 



Earth Excavation 

Head Race 
Power House 
Tail Race 
Wing Wall 
Approach 



Earth Fill Requirements 

Di^e 

Wing Wall 
Switchyard 
Cofferdam 



BALANCE OF YARDAGES 

For "C" Location. 
American 



190,100 cy 
1,117,500 
14 ,000 
233,000 



80,000 $ 



Excess Yardage 



1,554,600 



650,500 oy 
233,000 
50,000 
345,000 

1,278,500 

276,100 



Canadian 



69,800 cy 

1,232,500 

411,000 

276,000 

425.000 

2,414,000 



1,196,500 07 

276,000 

80,000 

345.000 

1,817,500 

596,500 



48,000 
23,000 
9,000 
16,000 
20,000 
25,000 
100,000 

$ 241,000 



% 464,000 



Total 



3,968,»00 cy 



3,096.000 oy 
872,600 oy 



Excavation of Cornwall canal, which is not inoluded, is estimated at 850,000 oy. 



-53- 



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-55- 



APPENDIX A 

DESCRIPTION OF POWER HOUSE 
AND EQUIPMENT 



Power House Inscriptions 

A general description of power houses from the standpoint of appear- 
ance, general arrangement, operating and maintenance of major equipment, and 
erection methods, is divided into two groups. Such items as appearance and gen- 
eral arrangement of major equipment is discussed separately as it applies to 
two distinctly different equipment and power plant arrangements as shown on 
Plate 123 which illustrates two types of power houses distinguished chiefly by 
location of transformers on the downstream or upstream side of the power house. 
Such items as operation, maintenance, and erection facilities apply to both 
power plants and equipment arrangements alike. 

Appearance, General Arrangement and Description of Major Equipment. 

1. Plates 14» l^, l6, 20 and 3&» show preliminary cross-section, tur- 
bine floor plan, generator floor plan, longitudinal section and architectural 
elevation based on location of the power house transformers and major switching 
equipment downstream of the generating units* 

From the standpoint of appearance, it is quite evident that locating 
many banks of exposed transformers, up to 37 feet high, on the downstream deck 
at generator floor level will make the architectural treatment of the downstream 
elevation of the power houses difficult if not impossible. This would be parti- 
cularly true if the transformers were enclosed in concrete cubicles as has been 
proposed. Some improvement might be obtained by lowering the entire front deck 
to just above normal high water at elevation l6o. Doing so would cause the fol- 
lowing. Jeopardize the transformers if ice jams occurred. Make difficult the 
handling of transformers into the erection bay. Eliminate the track connection 
between power houses and into the spillway bay. Require widening the power 
house downstream for accomodation of electrical equipment. Another meens for 
eliminating the transformers on the deck is to depress them below the deck as 
is proposed for the upstream power house scheme. A gantry crane would then be 
required for lifting the transformers out of their pits. The only objections 
to this scheme ere the employment of a doymstream gantry which might be considered 
unsightly and the fact that the cable tunnels would be below tail water requir- 
ing assurance of constant power and ample pumping capacity to guard against 
possible flooding. Otherwise this scheme is identical to that proposed for the 
upstream scheme. 

Some study was given to complete housing of the transformer banks in 
this scheme, thus for all practical purposes widening the superstructure to ac- 
commodate transformer cells on the downstream side of the superstructure as now 
shown. However, to be able to move the transformers out and bring them into the 
erection bay, large doors would have to be provided in the downstream power house 
wall, thus defeating the purpose of improved appearance. 

If overhead upstream or downstream transmission lines as described 
elsewhere are used with this scheme, the tower arrangement on the top of the 
power house increases the difficulties of architectural treatment to the extent 
that adoption of either of these methods for bringing out the power, would tend 
to eliminate all efforts of making the power plants of pleasing appearance. 
Whether or not appearance of the power plants is of importance is more a matter 
of public relations then of engineering. However, as we have been specifically 
requested to give attention to appearance, all power plant schemes have been 
discussed in detail on this subject. 

2. Plates 17. IS. 19 1 20 and 3^ show preliminary cross sections, tur- 
bine and generator floor plans, longitudinal sections and architectural elevation 
respectively, based on location of the power transformers and major switching 
equipment upstream of the generating units. 

-57- 



From the standpoint of appearance this leaves the entire downstream 
ration of the power house free of equipment interferring with architectural 
treatment and permits for example ., such treatment as that shown on the prelim- 
inary architectural drawing, Plate 36. It should be noted, however, that the 
appearance obtained on this elate is based on bringing the power out of the 
po'.ver plante in underground cables. Should either upstream or downstream over- 
head transmission be adopted far carrying the power away from the power plants, 
the necessity of tall towers on top o£ the building would unquesti anally mater- 
■ lly reduce the possibility of architectural treatment as harmonizing the tower 
design with that of the building would be difficult if not impossible. 

Locating the transformers and major switching equipment in the up- 
stream or dam section of the power house will require that all water pressure 
bearing walls be covered with hollow tile or similar protection to prevent mois- 
tures from forming in the electrical compartments. 

In this particular scheme additional room for switching is, or cen be 
made available by simply moving the transformers upwards until they finally are 
located on top of the deck at elevation 2^k> The disadvantage in locating the 
transformers on the upstream side, is, that they will have to be hoisted out of 
their cells up to elevation 2_54 and carried longitudinally by a' gantry crane 
running at this elevation, lowered through a shaft provided upstream of the 
erection bay and rolled into the erection bay where the power house crane takes 
the transformers and places them where desired. All transformer cells as well 
as the transformer shafts leading into the erection bay, would be covered with 
moveable roofs, all transformer cells would be ventilated by forced draft and 
provided with C0 2 fire protection. Proper drains for draining oil to the dirty 
oil tanks are included. 

Ail other major equipment such as generators, turbines, governors, etc., 
are located and arranged identically in both types of power houses above des- 
cribed. Detail description of generators and turbines are given elsewhere in 
this report. As shown on drawings previously .mentioned, it will be noted that 
all generating units are alike except for the small house units furnishing auxil- 
iary power for plant operations. All units are placed in line throughout both 
power plants permitting joint use of power house cranes, uniform crane clear- 
ance and span and uniform generator and turbine floor plan arrangements. A hot 
air collection chamber has been provided between the generator housing and the 
upstream superstructure wall permitting collection of heated air from the genera- 
tor in operation, distributing this air by forced draft fans throughout the power 
house and spillway section where high temperature must be maintained. Equipment 
for auxiliary heating has been included in all estimates. The governor actua- 
tors together with generator control cubicles are proposed located between every 
second generator and designed to permit operation of two adjacent units. 

Turbines 

■ 

All of the latest improvements in turbine design and construction 
will be incorporated in the units, insofar as possible, to provide for good 
operation and minimum maintenance. Where moving parts will be in contact with 
or have close clearance with stationary parts, both parts will be provided with 
corrosion resisting surfaces, and where necessary the latter will be readily 
replaceable. 

The runners, speed rings, head covers, bearing housings, bottom plates, 
discharge rings and wicket gates will be of cast steel, designed to withstand 
normal loadings at conservative stresses. The parts that may be so affected 
will, in addition, be designed to withstand stresses due to temporary excess 
overloads, run-away speeds, etc. 

The runner will be designed to support its own weight and that of the 
turbine shaft on the rim, "when resting on the curb ring, during erection and dis- 

-58- 



mantling. The head cover will have a circumferential joint inside of the gate 
circle, of such diameter that the runner may be removed without disturbing the 
wicket gate bearings. 

A dial indicator will be permanently mounted on top of each bearing 
to permit ready check on alignment of the shaft, and adjustable pointer will 
also be provided, which, with a circumscribed line on the shaft, will indicate 
if any lowering of the shaft occurs. These simple checks will 
make known immediately any unusual wear , displacement or unbalanced hydraulic 
thrust, so that the faults may be remedied before excessive damage occurs. 

The bearings will be babbitt-lined, oil-lubricated type, with cooling 
coils if necessary for cooling of oil. Duplicate, independent automatic-start- 
ing, motor-driven pumps will be provided for circulating the oil for each tur- 
bine. One pump will be driven by an A. C. motor, and the other pump by a 125- 
volt D.C. motor, power for which will be supplied by the station storage bat- 
tery. In case of failure of the alternating current supply, each D.C. motor will 
start automatically and will supply oil to the bearings. Provisions will be 
made to permit checking quantity of oil in the reservoirs and for indication of 
water in the reservoirs, and indication of flow on the discharge side of the oil 
circulating system. Suitable alarms and indicators will be provided on the con- 
trol cubicles on the generator floor and on the switchboard in the control room, 
to notify of failure of the alternating current supply to the motors or failure 
of oil circulation. Temperature detectors and relays will be placed in the bear- 
ings to permit check of temperature and to shut the units down when excessive 
temperatures are reached, with visual indication on both the control cubicles 
and the switchboard. 

The turbine wicket gates will have stainless steel, 3/8 inch thick, 
welded on top and bottom and on closing edges, to minimize wear by wire-drawing 
when the turbines are shut down. The gates for each turbine will be operated 
by two double-action hydraulic cylinders or servo-motors with oil pressure of 250 
pounds per square inch, to be provided by the governor system. Mechanical de- 
vices will be provided to hold the gates securely in the open or closed positions 
against maximum governor oil pressure in the cylinders, and to limit the gate 
openings when the head is so high as to develop more than the generator capaci- 
ties. Means will also be provided to retard the rate of closure of the gates 
after they have closed beyond speed -no-load position and just before they have 
completely opened. The system will be so designed that under even the most 
unfavorable head conditions, the full opening or closing stroke of the turbine 
gates can be accomplished rapidly, with provisions to vary the time interval to 
suit operating requirements. 

Provisions will be made to admit air to the underside of each head 
cover for operation at low gate opening or when motoring the unit. For the lat- 
ter operation, water will also be admitted to the spaces between the runners 
and the stationary rings for cooling and lubrication. 

Any leakage through each head cover will be collected in two sumps 
in the cover and then drained through a cored-out vane in the speed ring to the 
power house drain system. 

All working parts of each turbine will be lubricated by a "one-shot" 
centralized lubrication system, forcing grease to all parts under high pressure, 
to permit quick and frequent greasings. 

The draft tubes will have conical steel plate liners in the upper por- 
tions, extending to l6 feet below the runners, and adequately anchored to the 
concrete. Mandoors will be provided in the liners for entrance to the draft 
tubes for access to the underside of "the runners for inspection and maintenance.- 
A test cock will be provided on each mandoor to determine if the water level in 
the draft tube is below sill elevation, before opening the door.. 



-59- 



The turbine for each house unit will be similar in all respects to 
the main turbines. 

Governors 

The governor equipment for each pair of units will consist of a twin 
cabinet type actuator placed between units, with separate sump pumps and pres- 
sure tank system of the dual type. The actuators will be installed on the gener- 
ator floor and the balance of the equipment will be on the turbine floor. 

Only such control equipment as is essential for hand operation at the 
actuators will be mounted thereon. All other control and indicating equipment 
will be installed on the switchboard to permit eomplete operation from the switch- 
board or control room. 

The governors will be provided with air compressors, for maintaining 
the air cushions in the accumulator or pressure tanks, and also with air brake 
control mechanisms of the intermittent type. 

Air Compressors 

Air compressors will be provided to supply medium pressure air for 
generator brakes, cleaning of stator coils, and for machine shop equipment and 
other purposes. 



-60- 



GENERATORS 

The generators will be of the umbrella type with Kingsbury thrust 
bearing and guide bearing in one oil reservoir below the rotor and with or 
without upper guide bearing, as may be required. The thrust bearing will 
carry the entire rotating load of the generator and the turbine as well as 
the hydraulic thrust on the turbine blades. The oil reservoir for the thrust 
and guide bearings will be arranged to permit draining of the oil and entrance 
to the bearing housing for the purpose of servicing the bearings. Automatic 
air brakes controlled by the governor, will be provided for the generators and 
will be arranged to permit their use as hydraulic jacks to lift the rotor 
loads while servicing the bearings. Provision will be made to prevent oil 
vapors from entering the generator air stream where they might be deposited 
and would accumulate deposits that would eventually interfere with proper 
air circulation. 

Water cooling will be provided for the bearing oil, either by means 
of water piping within the bearing reservoir or by circulating oil through 
an external cooler, tfater supply will be by gravity from the forebay and will 
be automatically regulated to insure continuous flow when the generator is 
operating. A warning will be given the operator should this flow be inter- 
rupted. Standard temperature detectors will be installed in all bearings 
and will be connected to indicators or recorders or both at the switchboards. 
Temperature relays will sound an alarm and indicate on annunciators should 
bearings overheat. 

The generators will be equipped with main exciter, pilot exciter, 
permanent-magnet generator for governor fly ball drive, tachometer and speed 
switches, all directly connected above the generator rotor and completely 
housed but with mandoors and walkways to permit adjustment and maintenance 
of the equipment. 

Complete housing will be furnished for all generators with provision 
for recirculation of the air through coolers supplied with water from the 
forebay or for discharge of the air into the power house in order to utilize 
the heat when desired. 

Standard temperature detectors will be imbedded in the stator 
windings and in the field coils to permit indication and recording of these 
temperatures as required, and alarms will be provided as on the bearings. 

The generator construction will be such as to permit removal of the 
exciters, cover plates, upper brackets, etc. without disturbing the rotor 
or bearing; to permit removal of the generator rotor without disturbing the 
shaft or bearing; removal of the bearing, bearing bracket and shaft without 
disturbing the turbine except to lower the turbine runner to rest on the curb 
ring; and to remove the turbine parts without disturbing the generator stator. 
All parts will be properly doweled to insure proper replacement without neces- 
ity of realignment.. 

Automatic heaters will be provided in the generators to prevent 
excessive temperature changes in the stator coils, which might eventually cause 
deterioration of the coil insulation. 

House Service Generator 

As described elsewhere in the report, each power house will contain 
one house service unit to supply power for all auxiliary and lighting services 
in and adjacent to the power house and substation. Except for size and capa- 



-61- 



city these generators will be similar in construction and appearance to the 
main generators and, in general, will he equipped with the same type of 
protective devices and controls. P wer from these will supply the several 
transformer stations mentioned later under "Auxiliary Power & Light." Pro- 
vision will be made to connect the units in the two plants to the same pri- 
mary lines should it prove desirable or necessary to supply both plants from 
one generator. As a further guarantee of auxiliary power, transformers will 
be placed at the substations and connected to the high tension bus so that 
auxiliary power may be obtained from the main system should both house service 
units fail. 

Erection facilities 

The erection of eighteen machines in each power house presented a 
difficult traffic problem which demanded considerable study. It was estimated 
that work on at least three machines must proceed simultaneously. In order 
not to have work arriving at one end only and disturbing other erection work, 
it was considered advisable to have equipment fed intd each power house at 
both ends. This has been accomplished by having the railway tracks turn 
into the power house from the downstream platform over the center spillway 
erection bays. 

Owing to the lack of ample storage space at the erection bay end, 
it has been considered desirable to floor over the first two unit openings 
next to the erection bay. This space, with the erection bay, should supply 
ample erection and storage space for three generators simultaneously. The 
turbine equipment would then be brought in at the center spillway erection 
bays and erection started at the third unit from the end erection bay, pro- 
ceeding to the center of the power houses, as turbine erection proceeded. 
The generator erection would follow unit by unit. At the completion of 
sixteen units, it would then be necessary to suffer some traffic inconve- 
nience to complete the last two units. 

In order to place head gates, we have intended that the building 
over the ice sluice gate in the path of the upstream gantry crane will not 
be built until all gates are installed. A gantry runway is extended beyond 
the power house to lift gates from freight cars and place them directly 
in the gate grooves. Following completion of the project, upstream equipment 
required to be moved to or from the site is intended to be loaded out by 
barge at the upstream deck. Machinery from the upper deck can be transported 
into the power house by way of the transformer shaft. 

Switchboards 

The control of the power house will be primarily in the main switch- 
board room supplemented by secondary boards located on the generator floor. 

Main Control Room Switchboards . In the main switchboard room will 
be located a bench type board on which will be mounted the switches and lights 
for control and indication of the main generator circuit breakers; field 
circuit breakers; tranformer breakers; high tension oil circuit breakers; 
various motor operated high tension disconnect switches; governor control of 
load, gate limit, and speed; instrument transfer switches; and such other 
controls as prove desirable. Indicating instruments here will show the load 
on the generators, transformers arid lines; bus and generator voltages; position 



-62- 






of turbine gates and gate limit stops on the governors; governor oil level and 
pressure; and such other indications as required. 

Vertical boards will be mounted in this room and will contain indi- 
cating and recording instruments to show temperatures of generator and turbine 
bearings, generator stator windings, generator field coils and transformers; 
recording voltmeters and wattmeters as required for generators and transmission 
lines; differential relays for each generator and transformer bank; overload 
relays for protection against short circuit in the power house or substation; 
and such relays as may be required for the transmission system adopted. A 
miniature bus system showing main connections with control switches mounted in 
the position of the controlled equipment will be included on the face of the 
bench board. 

A frequency and load control system will undoubtedly be required but 
the type to be selected will depend on the systems to which this power house 
will be connected, since this plant will probably not be capable of controlling 
the frequency on some of the larger systems to which it may be connected. 
Should connection be made to two or more independent transmission systems, a 
corresponding number of frequency and load control schemes may be required, each 
designed to fit the connected system. 

Switchboards on Generator Floor . Each group of two or more generators 
will have a secondary control board mounted on the generator floor near the 
center of the group. By use of these boards the men on the generator floor 
will be able to observe the generator temperatures, bearing temperatures, flow 
of cooling water and such other mechanical features as may be under their 
supervision. 

A comprehensive annunciator system will be installed and arranged 
to indicate operation of protective relays for electrical or mechanical 
troubles. Indication and alarm of all such troubles will be in the switch- 
board room and of the mechanical troubles only, at the generator floor 
switchboards. 

Auxiliary Power and Light . 

Power for auxiliaries and lighting in the power house and substation 
rill be supplied as described in the section covering house service generator. 
Several three phase transformer stations will be located in the power house 
and substation. Each will supply power to one or more power distribution 
panels and several lighting transformers. Each lighting transformer will in 
turn supply one or more lighting distribution panels. 

Head Gates, Filler Valves and Stop Logs 

Three steel head gates, 17 feet by 41 feet, are required for each 
main turbine unit and one head gate is required for the house service unit. 
Estimates have been based upon wheeled type flat gates for all openings. The 
gate guides would be of steel backed by suitable sections to properly distri- 
bute the wheel loa^s into the concrete. 

Filler valves would be provided of hydraulic or motor operated type, 
preferrably of the ring follower type or of the cone valve type satisfactory 
for operating with water at high velocity. The valves would have capacity to 
provide sufficient water to the scroll case so that the hydraulic unbalance 
with wicket gates and head gates closed will not exceed ten feet. 



-S3- 






Stop logs without wheels would be provided to be able to close at least 
two units for repairs of gate guides within the scroll case. Stop logs would 
be designed to fit the trash rack slots. 

Head Gate Hoists 

The head gate hoists would be designed to operate all the head gates 
for one unit simultaneously. They would be designed to raise the gates under 
a hydraulic unbalance of ten feet and lower the gates with full hydraulic 
unbalance and with the wicket gates open and the turbine under run-away 
conditions. The lifting speed would be not less than five feet per minute 
with electrical power. Lowering would be from fifteen to twenty feet per 
minute with gravity for power and D.C. solenoid release with suitable mecha- 
nical devices to be used for speed control in lowering. Motor capacity would 
be sufficient for break- away loads and for lifting. 

Trash Racks 

Trash racks would be located in a groove upstream of the head gates, 
and this groove would also be used for emergency stop logs. The trash racks 
would be arranged for rapid and simple removal and replacement by the upstream 
gantry crane. 

Rock bars would be placed at not to exceed the turbine manufacturers 
recommendations and would be designed for not less than twenty feet of dif- 
ferential head. Provision for the possible future use of trash rack rakes 
will be included. 

Upstream Gantry Crane 

The upstream gantry crane is required for several purposes: to lift 
out trash racks, to place stop logs, and to lift out main gates and hoists for 
repairs, and to operate trash rack rakes. The capacity of the main hoist on 
this gantry should be of ample capacity to lift a main gate from the grooves, 
and high enough so the gate may be transferred. In case the transformers are 
inside the type "IT" power house, the gantry will have sufficient capacity to 
lift and transport a transformer. 

Power House Crane 

Crane capacity will be approximately 300 tons each, depending upon 
the weight of the heaviest piece to be handled, which has been estimated to 
be 600 tons. Two cranes will be required to handle this load, whereas it is 
expected that all other loads will be within the capacity of a single crane 
from information at hand to date. The cranes will be of the overhead travel- 
ling bridge type with double trolley hoists having a main and an auxiliary 
hook each. Crane hooks will be provided with ample lifting heights. Bridge 
travelling speed will be maximum because of the long distances to be travelled. 
Suitable equalizing beam r?ill be furnished. 



-64- 



Draft Tube Sates. 

Draft tube gates are required only for the purpose of unwatering 
the draft tube. This operation is required but rarely. Therefore, sufficient 
gates for closing the draft tube openings of two units in each power house has 
been estimated. These gates are to be of the flat type of structural steel 
throughout, without wheels. Sump pumps will be used for unwatering the draft 
tube. Thus gates will always be operated under balanced head and no wheels 
will be required. Provision is made so that draft tube gates may be ex- 
changed between power houses if desired. Normally they are to be stored on 
the downstream lower deck of the power house. 

Draft Tube Gate Hoist 

The draft tube gate hoists operate under the railroad downs tream 
deck and are arranged to lift one gate at a time and store it upstream of 
the gate slot. Each hoist will be provided with a lifting beam. Two hoists 
are estimated for each power house. The hoists are transferable between 
power houses. Hoists will be provided with three motors, bridge, trolley 
and lift. The capacity of the gate is approximately 20 tons. 

Auxiliary Mechanical Equipment 

The following equipment has been contemplated and has been included 
in the estimates: 

Sump pumps for galleries 

Drain pumps for draft tubes 

Elevators - passenger and freight 

Ventilating equipment 

Heating equipment 

Washroom and toilet facilities for operating 

personnel and for visitors 
Fire fighting equipment 
Oil filters, storage tanks and piping 
Machine shop equipment 



-65- 



APPENDIX B 

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS 

AND 
CIRCUIT BREAKER DUTIES 



In order to select an electrical arrangement for the switching 
and transformation of the St. Lawrence power output to connect the gener- 
ating units to the high tension transmission system; consideration must 
be given to the limitations imposed by present modern switch-gear design on 
the generating capacity which can be electrically connected to a single bus. 
At the present time, oil circuit breakers for high voltage switching are a- 
vailable in standard ratings of 1,500,000 and 2,500,000 kva of interrupting 
capacity. Air circuit breakers for low voltage switching are available in 
the United States with the same interrupting capacities and high voltage 
air breakers are under development and test. 

Each of the one line wiring diagrams on Plate 100 showing possible 
arrangements for transforming the St. Lawrence power have been analyzed to 
determine the interrupting duty imposed on the circuit breakers. 

Single an d Double Transformation S c hemes 

The calculated interrupting duties for the single and double trans- 
formation shown as diagrams Y-l, Y-2, Z-l, and 2-2 respectively are tabulated 
on the following page. Referring to this table, it will be noted that the 
maximum duty imposed on the low voltage generator breakers is 1,272,000 kva 
in scheme Y-l and that the severest fault condition for the generator break- 
ers is a three phase fault. These calculations indicate that, for the sug- 
gested switching arrangement, schemes Y-l, Y-2, Z-l, and Z-2; air circuit 
breakers with a rating of 2500 amperes, 1,500,000 kva will be adequate* 



-6 7 - 



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-68- 



Referring again to the fault calculations on the following page, 
for faults located at or near the high voltage line breakers it is noted 
that the maximum short circuit current is obtained on scheme Z-2 and the 
minimum is obtained on scheme Y-l. The minimum value is 2,490.000 kva or 
equal to the maximum capacity of existing breakers. 

Schemes Y-2, Z-l, and Z-2 exceed this value and therefore must be 
modified in one of the following ways: 

1. Development of breakers of 3,000,000 to 
3»_5°°i 000 kv a .interrupting capacity, 

2. Reducing the number of machines connected 
to each ring bus, using three or more bus 
sections instead of two. 

3. Independent operation of each ring, i.e., 
eliminating the possibility of connecting 
the two ring-buses together. 

4* Increasing the reactance of the bus tie 
reactor. 

5» Increasing the neutral impedance of trans- 
former ground connections. 

The deteimining factor dictating the choice of the most practical 
of the above modifications depends primarily on the location of the market 
for power and the transmission system selected to supply it. No basis for 
making such selection is available at this time. 

The Tables II and III immediately following this page show the 
short circuit duty that can be expected for various groupings of generator 
units. This data is based on the assumption of a single transformation, but 
applies equally well to the double transformation scheme. Table II shows the 
effect on the circuit breaker duty when the number of generating units is 
increased on a single isolated bus; 



.69- 



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-71- 



Table III shows the same dala for two buses interconnected through a 15 % 
reactor. 

From Table II it is noted that the maximum number of generators 
of standard reactance that can be connected to a single bus is seven genera- 
tors. This is limited by single line to ground faults on the high voltage 
system. As will be shown later, this can be increased by the use of reactance 
in the neutral of the grounded high tension winding of the step up transformer. 

From Table III it is noted that with a 1$% reactor between bus ties, 
the grouping of ten generators into two groups of six and four exceeds the 
breaker capacity of 2,500,000 kva for single line to ground faults. This in- 
dicates that the six by six arrangement shown in the one line wiring diagrams, 
Plate 100, must be modified by one of the alternatives given above. 

Detailed calculations have been made to show the effect of increas- 
ing the reactance of the bus tie reactor between groups of generators. The 
data is tabulated in Table IV and indicates that the benefit derived from in- 
creased reactance is comparatively small as the rate of decrease in short 
circuit capacity diminishes rapidly. Thus, using two groups of six genera- 
tors each, it is necessary to go to ys% reactance on 165,000 kva base in the 
bus reactor to reduce the breaker duty to less than 2,500,000 kva for single 
line-to-ground faults. 



-72- 



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-73- 



A similar tabulation, Table V, shows the effect of reactance when 
two groups of four generators are tied together through a reactor, indica- 
ting the necessity of using a reactance of not less than ]\% in the bus re- 
actor to reduce the breaker duty to less than 2,500,000 kva. An arbitrary 
base of 165,000 kva has been used to express the reactance values. 









TABLE V 




Reactance on 
165,000 kva 




Single Line to 
Ground Fault 
kva 


3 

k 

8 

10 

15 






2,600,000 

2,500,000 

2,220,000 
2,150,000 
2,030,000 



It is evident that line to ground short circuits impose the lim- 
iting factor in the design o.f a generator grouping arrangement. If the 
line-to-ground short circuit duty can be reduced to a value equal to or less 
than three phase fault duty; then greater freedom of choice exists. For 
example, a six by six or a four by eight grouping of generators does not ex- 
ceed breaker duty limits on three phase faults but does exceed the limits on 
single- lime-to-ground faults. The severity of line-to-ground faults can be 
reduced by the provision of an impedance in the grounded neutral of the trans- 
former high voltage winding. 

The following tabulation shows the effect of a neutral reactor on 
the line-to-ground faults for two generator groups of six generators each, 
assuming that the generator groups are tied through a 15^, l65»000 kva re- 
actor. 



TAPLE VI 



Neutral Reactance Fault kva for 12 generators 
% on 110,000 kva in groups of 6 x 6 

1 2,630,000 

2 2,570,000 

3 2,530,000 

5 2.M5.000 

6 2,420,000 

The results show that a comparatively small neutral impedance of 
approximately 5 or &% will bring the short circuit duty to within the limits 
of a 2,500,000 kva circuit breaker. This is the most effective means con- 
sidered and would be necessary if the transmission system finally selected 
requires that the generators be arranged in groups of six with provision for 
high tension interconnection between groups* 

Each of the four schemes Y-l, Y-2, 2-1, and Z-2 provides for the 
connection of six generating units to a 115 kv bus to supply the local power 



-74- 



load and for connection to existing 115 to lines from the Elack Fiver gen- 
eration. The short circuit duty imposed on breakers in the 115 kv ring is 
not as severe as on the buses connected to the long distance power system 
since the feed back capacity is not great. The duty on the 115 kv breakers 
is calculated to be about 1,300,000 kva exclusive of feed back. However, 
consideration of possible feed back which is not exactly known and also 
consideration of the possibility that more than six machines may at times 
be connected to this load; leads to the conclusion that oil circuit break- 
ers of 2,500,000 kva capacity should be provided for this service. 

The Cross-Connected Three Winding Transformer Scheme. 

Schemes X-l and X-2 represent the application of the three winding 
cross-connected transformer to provide 287,000 volts and 230,000 volts re- 
spectively* 

The complicated network which this arrangement provides made it 
necessary to analyze its short circuit characteristics by use of the calcu- 
lating board. 

In analyzing both schemes studies were made for each, using trans- 
formers of the following characteristics: 

Scheme X-l . 

I3.8/I3.8/287 kv transformers, I65/I65/2OO mva capacity with: 



(a) I3.8/I3.8 kv impedance = 
13.3/287 kv impedance = 30% 

(b) 13.3/13.8 kv impedance = 6% 
I3.8/287 kv impedance = 15% 

Both impedances are standard with transformer manufacturers and can 
be obtained without added cost. Variations in impedance can be ob- 
tained to a limited extent, but at material increase in cost of 
transformers. 

Scheme X-2 

I3.8/I3.8/230 kv transformers, 110/110/135 ^a capacity with: 

(a) I3.8/I3.8 kv impedance = 57.6% 
I3.8/23O kv impedance = 25. b% 

(b) I3.8/I3.8 kv impedance = 5.2% 
I3.8/23O kv impedance = 12.3* 

On each scheme, six generators were connected to transformers 
with a 115 kv primary rating to supply the local power requirements at 
Massena. The characteristics of these transformers were: 

Scheme X-l 

I3.8/I3.8/H5 kv transformers, 165/165/200 mva capacity with: 



-75- 



(a) I3.8/I3.8 kv impedance = 42& 
13.8/115 kv impedance = 1Q.5% 

(b) I3.8/I3.8 kv impedance -3.7% 
13.8/115 kv impedance = 9.25£ 



Scheme X-2 . 

I3.8/I3.8/H5 kv transformers, 110/110/135 mva capacity with: 

(a) I3.8/I3.8 kv impedance = 42# 
I3.8/H5 kv impedance = 1Q.5% 

(b) I3.8/I3.8 kv impedance = 3.7% 
I3.8/H5 kv impedance = 9.25# 

The resulting three phase faults were as follows s 

Scheme X-l . 

287 kv with high impedance transformer. 

(a) generator breakers - 1,100,000 kva 

(b) transformer ■ - 1,000,000 kva 

287 kv with low impedance transformers. 

(a) generator breakers - 2,93° »°0° kva 

(b) transformer • - 1,900,000 kva 

Scheme X-2 . 

230 kv with high impedance transformers. 

(a) generator breakers - 714*000 kva 

(b) transformer » - 690,000 kva 

230 kv with low impedance transformers. 

(a) generator breakers - 2,130,000 kva 

(b) transformer • - 1,404,000 kva 

It has been suggested that the cross-connected scheme be modified by the 
addition of reactor ties between generator bus sections. With these reactors 
in place, the maximum resulting three phase faults are as follows r 

Scheme X-l 









237 kv with low impedance transformers and 2\ per cent reactors between 
generator buses. 

(a) generator breakers - 3,736,000 kva 

(b) transformer • - 3,346,000 kva 



-76- 



Scheme X-l 

2S7 kv using high impedance transformers and variable reactors between 
generator bus sections. 



Reactor 


Generator 


Transformer 


Impedance % 


Preaker Duty 


Preaker ^uty 


2.5 


3,524,000 


3,572,000 


5.0 


2,948,000 


2,974.000 


7.5 


2,598,000 


2,604,000 


15.0 


2,058,000 


2,034,000 



All of the above data includes back feed from the high voltage system but 
does not include back feed from the 115 kv local power system. Analysis 
of the foregoing data leads to the following conclusions. 

For the 257 kv system, low impedance transformers cause the 
breaker duty to exceed the limits of 2,500,000 kva. The breaker duty is 
increased by using a shunt reactor between generator buses as this, in effect, 
reduces the equivalent impedance of the transformers. When high impedance 
transformers are used, the breaker duty is well within the limits of present 
low tension breaker design. The desirable transformer impedance lies within 
the limits Used and it can be computed to be as follows? 

I3.8/I3.3 kv impedance should equal 11^,2% 
13.8/237 kv impedance should equal 17. 0^ 

Transformers with these impedance characteristics will give a short 
< ircuit duty on a 287 kv system as follows: 

(a) generator treakers - 2,060,000 kva 

(b) transformer * - 1,478,000 kva 

It should be pointed out that the impedance of this transformer is * 
somewhat higher than the low impedance characteristics used in the stability 
studies. Therefore, the stability of a system using higher impedances must 
be substantiated by further tests. 

Results concerning the 230 kv system using the cross-connected ar- 
rangement (Scheme X-2) indicate that transformers of high impedance charac- 
teristics do not impose excessive duty on generator or transformer breakers 
due to three phase faults. 

The 230 kv cross-connected arrangement (Scheme X-2) using low 
impedance transformers imposes the severest duty on the generator breakers, 
up to 2,130,000 kva. 1'his value must be increased by an amount of probatly 
200,000 kva to include the feed back from the 115 kv local power system. It 
is believed that 2,500,000 kva breakers will be adequate for this service. 

Tests were also made on the 115 kv ring which is supplied by six 
generators on the X-2 scheme. The duty on the 115 kv breakers for three 
phase faults is approximately 1,906,000 kva. This requires 2,500,000 kva 
breakers. 



-77- 



APPENDIX C-l 

LOG OE A.C. BOARD STUDIES 

MADE AT 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC A MFG. CO. LABORATORIES 

MARCH 17 - 28, 1941 



Personnel present; 

Mr. W. W. Parker, Westinghou.se Electric & Mfg. Co. 

Mr. D. C. Harker " " B " 

Mr. H. P. Peters, " nun 

Mr. G. Floyd, Ontario Hydro-Electric Commission 

Mr. Cave, Office of U.S. Engineers 

Mr. C. C. Crane, Federal Power Commission 

Mr. C. E. Bennett, ■ ■ " 

Mr. G. W. Hamilton, Consulting Engineer 

Mr. H. A. Carlberg, Harza Engineering Company 

Mr. G. W. Bills, U. S. Engineer Office 

The following visited the laboratory at intervals to 
follow the progress of the calculating board work: 

Colonel A. B. Jones, District Engineer, U. S. Engineer Office 

Mr. C. H. Giroux, Head Engineer, U. S. Engineer Office 

Mr. Erik Floor, Harza Engineering Company 

Mr. A. Frampton, Ontario Hydro -Electric Commission 

LOG OF STUDIES MADE ; 

For power flow diagrams of these studies see attached plates 
101-122 of corresponding study number. 

Study 1 . The interconnected systems of Niagara-Hudson, Associated Gas 

and Consolidated Edison of New York City were set up with 194& 
estimated loadings to determine system improvements required to 
absorb assumed increase in capacity at the Oswego steam plant. 
A preliminary check showed that line condensers and the tap 
changer at Deerfield were set incorrectly. 

Study 1A . Conditions were the same as in study 1 , except that condensers 
were reset to correct values and the Deerfield tap changer ,was 
changed to 110 p.er cent boost in the direction of Rotterdam. Low 
voltages appeared around Lapeer and Binghamton and lines from 
Oswego were overloaded. 

Study 2 . A new 110 kv twin circuit line of 300 mem copper was added from 
Oswego To Geres Lock to Lapeer and the Oswego plant capacity was 
increased by 80 mw to 280 mw. This resulted in normal bus volt- 
ages on the Associated Gas system and reduced the loading of the 
present lines out of Oswego. 

Study 3. A St. Lawrence 287.5 Kv sys+sm was set up on the board so designed 
as to feed approximately 280 MW into the Syracuse, Utica and Rotter- 
dam areas, and 325 MW in the New York area. The 287.5 Kv lines to 
Syracuse, Utica, Rotterdam and pleasant Valley areas were used. 
The St. Lawrence output was 636 MW. 

The line condensers at Syracuse and those at Pleasant Valley were 
lumped and the Black River line condenser was removed to obtain 
necessary condenser units for the ,287.5 Kv system. 
The Barnhart bus was split into two separate sections with two 
lines on each section. The sending and receiving end trans- 
former banks each had 150 MVA rating and receiving end trans- 



-79- 



former banks had 75 MVA capacity tertiaries. 

The flow diagram for Study 3 indicated that the 287.5 Kv receiv- 
ing end voltages were too high: It was therefore decided to re- 
set synchronous condensers and tap changers and take another set 
of readings including phase angles. 

Study 4 » Same as. Study 3, except that a better balance on the system was 
made and condenser outputs were reduced. 

Study 5. Conditions were the same as in Study 4» except that the input 
to the New York area was reduced to 150 W of firm power. It 
was necessary to cut out all synchronous condensers in the New 
York area and it would have been necessary to use lagging 
synchronous condensers and to reduce the leading power factor 
of the generators at St. Lawrence in order to lower the re- 
ceiving end voltages. This was not done, however. Readings 
were taken on all circuits east of Deerfield only, as the rest 
of the system is the same as in Study 4» 

Study 6 . A 287.5 Kv tie line between Utica and Rotterdam was installed 
to relieve the 110 Kv system which had been carrying about 170 
M into, Rotterdam. Condenser settings at Utica and Rotterdam 
were increased to provide for the effect of the new line. The 
Rotterdam to Pleasant Valley line impedance was reset to correct 
for a new line length of 78 miles. This line was originally 
assumed to have a length of 66 miles, which was too short. 
The load into the New York area was again increased to 3^5 Mff. 
The flow diagram shows the power distribution for this loading 
and with the new tie line in use for comparison with Study 3» 

Study 7 « This study was based on the same system used in Study 6. The 
power to the New York area was reduced to 150 Mff. There was 
360 W on the Barnhart right bus, and 103 W on the Barnhart 
left bus. Under these conditions, it was found that 3° MW 
circulated in the 287-110 Kv loop between Rotterdam and Utica. 
The power output of the 287.5 Kv Barnhart right bus was cut to 
about 300 Mff to come within trams former bank ratings. This sent 
about 150 MW into Utica and about 50 MW of this went over the 
110 Kv line to Rotterdam. The 287.5 Kv tie carried about 6 Mff 
in the opposite direction. Evidently, for this condition, the 
287.5 Kv tie was not needed. It was left in, however, and a 
complete set of readings were taken. 

Study 8 . At a conference on Wednesday night, March 19th, which included 
Messrs. Giroux, Floor, Frampton, Hamilton and Colonel Jones, 
it was decided to open the Utica line into Rotterdam. Also, 
the Barnhart sending system was changed to include a double 
transformation from I3.8/H5/287.5 Kv. The two 115 Kv buses 
were tied through a 5 P er cent reactor on a 165 MVA base. Seven 
machines were required on the left bus and nine machines were 
required on the right bus. A 125 Mf load was set up on each 
110 Kv bus section to v represent the local Massena load. 
During the balancing procedure on the board, the 110 Kv line 
to Black River was temporarily closed and was found to carry 



-80- 



about 6,000 Kw. The line was then re-opened and the system 
balanced. 

The load on the right bus at Barnhart was 39° Mff and about J0O 
on the left bus. The input to New York area was 150 MJ7. Barn- 
hart generation at unity power factor. 

All the Utica line power was transmitted over the 110 Kv belt 
to Rotterdam, indicating it would be better placed at Rotterdam. 
Its only value could be to aid the Syracuse area if the Syracuse 
line went out. 

Study 9 . The first transient stability study. A set of swing curves for 
the conditions of Study 8, was made tfith a double line- to-ground 
fault on one of the 287.5 Kv lines on the right Barnhart bus. 
Both ends of faulted line vere cleared simultaneously in 0.18 
second assuming that carrier current relaying was used and that 
the breaker on the 115 Kv side of the transformer bank at Bank- 
hart and the 287.5 Kv breaker on the receiving end of the line 
were opened, thus removing the faulted line. 

The fault impedance necessary to represent this type of fault was 
calculated on the assumption that the effect of the zero sequence 
impedance of the system other than that of the Barnhart trans- 
formers .vas negligible. 

For this study, and all the remaining swing curve studies, a 
load of 600 Mff was placed on the Hudson Avenue bus and the New 
York area generation was increased by 600 MJT. Because of board 
limitations, this load had to be cancelled against generation for 
load studies, but for swing curves, half voltage was used on the 
board and this made it possible to add the load and generation 
which was necessary for a transient analysis. 

The Huntley station was tied into the system for the swing curve 
and set for an initial power interchange of zero at Rochester. 
This system was found stable and it was decided to test for 
stability with 325 Ml into the New York area. 

Study 10 . A new load study was made with 325 MIT into the New York area and 
all other conditions the same as in Study 8. The previous load 
study for 325 Wl to the New York area, Study 6, had the Utica- 
Rotterdam 287.5 Kv tie line in use, but here the tie line was open. 
The load input to the Rotterdam area was about 6l Wl higher than 
the normal loading which made the Barnhart-Rotterdam lines too 
heavily loaded. The 287.5 Kv voltages were too low and in ad- 
dition to the overloading of the lines, the 287.5 Kv transformers 
were loaded beyond their rated capacity. The system was loaded 
very close to its steady state limit. 

Study 11 . A swing curve study was made with a LLQ fault on one of the 287.5 
Kv lines near the Barnhart bus. The fault was cleared in 0.18 
second and the system was found to be unstable. It was agreed that 
the system was too heavily loaded to remain statically stable with 
the faulted line removed. However, to definitely show this, the 
same fault .vas applied to this system, but a clearing time of only 
0.1 second /vas used. This became Study 12 . 

For all the remaining transient studies, a clearing time of 0.10 
second was used. 



-81- 



At this point, a power-angle diagram was made by Mr. Parker from 
the available data and he determined that the probable stability- 
limit was about 100 M7 less than the loading used; in other words, 
about 225 MW can be carried to the New York area with the system 
remaining stable. On the basis of this calculation, it was de- 
cided to drop further study of a two line system to New York and 
to go to a three line system. 

Study 13 . For this study the following conditions <vere set up: 

1. A 325 Mff input to the New York area. 

2. Three 287.5 Kv lines from Barnhart to Rotterdam. 

3. No tie line between Utica and Rotterdam, 

4. The Utica 287.5/HO Kv connection was opened. 

5» All three lines to Rotterdam identical, capacit- 
ances changed on the board the Utica-Rotterdam _, _ 
circuit impedance set to zero. 

6. LLG fault on one of the Barnhart-Rotterdam lines 
near the Barnhart bus and a clearing time of 0.10 
second. 

7. Capacity of the Rotterdam transformer bank in- 
creased to 300 MVA. 

Preliminary check and comparison with previous studies showed 
load deficiencies in the Rotterdam area was about 200 MW on the 
board. This was about "JO Wf higher than the assumed condition 
and was corrected by increasing the generating of the Spier Falls 
group. Complete readings of loads, generation, voltages and phase 
angles were taken on both the 110 and 287 Kv systems. 

Study 14 . This was a stability study of the conditions described under 
Study 13. The system was found to be marginally unstable. 
Mr. Floyd noted errors in the phase angles around Pleasant 
Valley on Studies 10 and 13. They do not seem to check or be 
comparable and are probably errors in readings. These will have 
to be computed on the basis of the power flow in those circuits 
between Rotterdam and Pleasant Valley. 

Study 15 . A load study similar to Study 13 was made with an additional line 
installed between Rotterdam and Pleasant Valley, - this additional 
line being installed to determine whether the reduced phase angle 
difference obtained would be sufficient to make the system stable. 

Study 16 . This is a stability study similar to Study 14 except that two lines 
were used be Ween Rotterdam and Pleasant Valley instead of one. In 
Study 15, the phase angle difference between New York and St. Law- 
rence was reduced by approximately 6 by the addition of this new 
line. But this study showed an initial phase angle difference bet- 
ween the St. Lawrence and New York generators of 735 whereas for 
Study 13 it was only 74.5 . Instead of 73»5°t the angle should 
have been nearer 68.5 • This system was found to be stable, in- 
dicating that Study 14 was marginal. 
The above concluded the studies of the 287.5 Kv system, and 

provides data sufficient to determine the minimum requirements 
to supply either 150 Or 325 MW into the New York area. 



-82- 



It was decided not to run additional swings with 115 Kv faults, 
as was suggested, but to make such studies during the last two 
week period or possibly insert such a study when the 230 Kv 
system is set up. Faults on the line to Syracuse were also re- 
jected, inasmuch as instability of the west end of the system 
was not considered pertinent to the problem at Barnhart. 

Study 17 * The 230 Kv system which v/as set up as a first case included five 
lines to Rotterdam, two lines to Syracuse, and two lines from 
Rotterdam to Pleasant Valley. On a percentage impedance basis , 
it was computed that this system should be comparable to a three 
line 287.5 Kv system. This load study was made with a 325 W 
input to the New York area. 

The phase angle differences between the various buses were slightly 
higher for the 230 Kv system than for corresponding buses on the 
28f.5 Kv system of Study 15; but the total phase angle differences 
between New York and St. Lawrence for the two systems were almost 
the same. 

In this study, the transformer bank at Pleasant Valley was over- 
loaded far beyond its capacity, so its rating and reactance were 
changed after Study 18 to give more bank capacity. 

Study 18 . A stability study of the conditions set up under Study 17 and 
with a LLG fault on the St. Lawrence to Rotterdam 23O Kv line 
was made. The initial phase angle difference between New York 
and St. Lawrence was 70° as compared with 73*5° on the previous 
287.5 Kv system. The system was found to be stable. 

Study 19 . This was a voltage and load distribution study of a six line 
230 Kv system, with four lines from St. Lawrence to Rotterdam 
and two lines to Syracuse, one less line than used in Study 17. 
To obtain a balance on the St. Lawrence bus sections, it was 
necessary to divide the generation into three groups, with re- 
actors between each group. The local load was to have been 
split into 125, 62, & 62 MI7 to keep the flow through the re- 
actors to a minimum, but actually a load of 110 MV was placed 
on the center bus section instead of the 62 M. There were two 
230 Kv lines from each bus section. The load study shows some 
interchange over the 115 Kv system from Deerfield to Rotterdam. 

Study 20 . A stability study was made using the conditions of Study 19, 

with a LLG fault on the St. Lawrence end of one of the Rotterdam 
lines; the fault was cleared in 0.10 second. The load to the New 
York. area was 325 W. The system was found to be unstable but 
marginally so; it was estimated that a reduction of the input to 
the New York area by 50 MV would make the system stable. 

Study 21 . To determine the effect of lower machine reactance on system 
stability, the St. Lawrence generator transient reactance was 
reduced from 44 to 30 per cent on its own base. It was decided 
not to chance the inertia of the generators, although actually 
it would become larger and so help system stability. The system 
was found to be stable and to the same degree as the three line 
287 Kv system used in Study l6. 



-83. 



Study "2 . This was a load study to determine the power distribution on 
the 230 Kv system, with three 230 Kv lines to Rotterdam and a 
325 MW load to the New York area. It was made to determine how 
the system loading appeared when the faulted line of Study 19 is 
removed . 

Study 23 . This is the same as Study 22, except the input to the New York 
area was reduced to 150 M7. The genera tiors at St. Lawrence 
were split into two banks of 10 and 7 units each arid with a 2\ 
per cent reactor on a 165 MVA base between the lid Kv bus sec- 
tions. It was found that all power into the New York area flowed 
on the 230 Kv lines, with no power on the 115 Kv system to Pleasant 
Valley. There vas about 50 MW input to Rotterdam from Utica over 
the 115 Kv system. This study is for comparison with Studies 8 
and 9, which used 287 Kv and 150 Wf input to New York. 

Study 24 . Instability study of Study 23 was made, with a LLG fault at St. 
Lawrence and cleared in 0.10 second. The system was found to be 
stable. 



-84- 



APPENDIX C-2 

LOG OF A. C. BOARD STUDIES 

MADE AT 

WESTING-BOUSE ELECTRIC A MFG. CO. LABORATORIES 

APRIL 14 - 25, 1941 



Personnel Present: 

Mr. W. W. Parker, Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. 

Mr. D. C. Harker, •• " » • 

Mr. J. C. Peters, ■ ■ " • 

Mr. G. Floyd, Ontario Hydro Electric Commission 

Mr. W. Cave, Office of U. S. Engineers 

Mr. C. E. Bennett, Federal Power Commission 

Mr. C. C. Crane, » " " 

Mir. G. f. Hamilton, Consulting Engineer 

Mr. H. A. Carlberg, Harze Engineering Company 

Mr. G. W. Bills, U. S. Engineers' Office 

The following visited the laboratory at intervals to 
follow the progress of the calculating board work: 

Mr. C. H. Giroux, Head Engineer, U. S. Engineer Office 

Mr. Erik Floor, Harza Engineering Company 

Mr. A. Frampton, Ontario Hydro Electric Commission 

Mr. M. Wood, Ontario Hydro Electric Commission 

LOG OF STUDIES MADE: 

The 110 kv New York State system was set up on the calculating board, 
using the electrical equivalents that were determined at the close of the pre- 
vious studies, and the seven line 230 kv system was superimposed upon the 110 kv 
system in a manner similar to study 17 • The local Massena load of 250 mw was 
represented and the total St. Lawrence generation of 18 units was split into 
groups of 8 and 10 on the left and right buses respectively. The tvo bus sec- 
tions were tied through a 2-\/2% reactor, and the seven 230 kv lines were split 
into groups of 3 an( l 4« 

Study 25 . This study was a load study of the system described above and is exactly 
comparable to study 17 of the previous group of studies except for the 
effect of increased transformer capacities used at Rotterdam and Pleas- 
ant Valley. 

Study 26. This study is a stability study which is exactly comparable to study 
18. The purpose of this stability study was to prove that the new 
system on the calculating board was equivalent to the seven line 230 
kv system used in studies 17 and 18. The load to New York was 3^5 mw, 
Schenectady was supplied with 135 t& w and the Syracuse area with about 
100 mw. These loads, combined with 2f0 mw load at Massena, give a 
total output at St. Lawrence equal to about 870 mw after including 
system losses. A LLG fault was applied on one of the Rotterdam lines 
connected to the right bus section and cleared in .1 second. The 
system was found to be stable with a maximum swing of 97° » which com- 
pares with 100° found in study 18. This study was expected to be some- 
what better than study 18 because of the increased transformer capa- 
cities used and this study was therefore accepted as proof that the sys- 
tem now represented on the calculating board was equivalent to the sys- 
tem previously used. 

Study 27 . This study is a stability study of the same seven line system used in study 
26 except that the fault was relocated and applied on the 110 kv bus 
at St. Lawrence. No reactors were used ahead of the fault, but one 



-85- 



reactor of 2-1/2^ on 165 mva base was used between the two 110 kv 
bus sections, as previously used in study 26. It was expected that 
the severity of the 110 kv fault would be sufficient to make this sys- 
tem unstable, but the test showed that the system was stable with a 
maximum swing pf approximately I30O. It was, therefore, not necessary 
to attempt additional stability studies for this fault with the .use 
of reactors ahead of the faulted 110 kv lines. Measurements, of the 
shcrt circuit kva showed that 2,200,000 kva flowed in the fault cir- 
cuit and that about 980,000 kva was supplied from the southern system 
and the remainder, about 1,220,000 kva was supplied from the St. 
Lawrence machines. Check of these values by calculation gives a to- 
tal of 2,550*000 kva in the south, with about 1,600,000 kva supplied 
from the St. Lawrence units. 

Study ?fi. This study was also a stability study of the same set-up used for 

studies 26 and 27 % except that the 110 kv load was removed from the 
110 kv bus and the number of connected generators was reduced from 
18 units to 13 units. For all studies up to this point the double 
transformation system was used. The machines at St. Lawrence were in 
groups of 5 a nd 8. The condenser at Syracuse was removed because the 
receiving voltage on the 230 kv system was too high at that point. This 
system was found to be only slightly less stable than study 26, in 
which the local Massena load was tied in. The conclusion was made that 
while the local load at Massena had some effect in improving the sys- 
tem stability, this effect was not as great as it was expected to be. 
Reference to the stability curves shows that elimination of the Massena 
load increased the phase angle swing from approximately 97° to ap- 
proximately 104°» or made a difference of only 7°» It was therefore 
decided to remove the 110 kv load for all of the future studies to be 
made. 

Study 29 » For this study the same system used in study 28 was used except that 
the reactor tie between the two bus sections was opened so that the 
St. Lawrence generation was operating in two units. The left bank 
had five machines of standard reactance and 155*000,000 WR 2 and with 
three lines connected to its 110 kv bus; the right bus section was 
supplied by 8 standard machines of l\b$> reactance and 155*000,000 WR^ 
and connected to four 230 kv lines supplying the Rotterdam bus. A 
LLG fault was applied to one of the 230 kv lines connected to the 
right bus section and cleared in .1 second. This study was made to 
determine if the unit operation scheme is feasible from a stability 
standpoint. The system was found to be stable with a marginal swing 
of 119°. 

Study 30 . This study is the same as study 29 except that the fault was transferred 
to the Rotterdam line connected to the left hand bus to determine whe- 
ther this fault condition was more severe than that used in study 29- 
The stability curve determined from this study showed that the system 
was unstable for this fault condition and the conclusion was made that 
as a practical operating condition, it would be necessary to use at 
least four lines from a single bus section to maintain system stabi- 
lity when using standard generator characteristics and vdthout line 
sections lizing. 



a 



Study ?1> For this study a split bus section was used as in studies 29 and 30, 
except that the five Rotterdam lines were connected to the right hand 

-86- 



s 



bus and only two lines to Syracuse were connected to the left hand 
bus. The 13 standard characteristic generators were split in groups 
of 3 and 10. A LLG fault was placed on one of the Rotterdam lines 
connected to the righ 4 " hand bus and the system was found to be stable, 
with a maximum swing of 118 . This is somewhat better than the sta- 
bility determined for study 29. where only four lines were used on the 
right hand bus section. 

Study 32. At a conference on Wednesday evening, April 16 , it was decided to run 
two additional stability curves on the double transformation scheme, 
these studies to be numbers 3 2 and 33* using four lines on the left 
hand bus and three lines on the right hand bus. This is the reverse 
of studies 29 and 30. This re-grouping of the lines required a genera- 
tor distribution of the 7 units on the left bus and 6 units on the right 
bus. The TJfl fault was applied on the 230kv line connected to the 
right hand bus and was cleared in .1 second.' This system was found to 
be unstable. 

Study 33 » This study was the same as study 32 except that the fault- was located 

on the left hand bus on one of the Rotterdam lines. Machine character- 
istics of \\h$> reactance and 155» °0,000 #R were used, as previously. 
The system was found to be stable, with a maximum swing of 129°. These 
studies, 32 and 23* compared with studies 29 and j0 are conclusive 
proof that a minimum of four lines per bus section will be necessary 
to maintain system stability when using standard generators and with- 
out line sectionalizing. 

Study ^4» For this study the system represented on the calculating board was 

changed over to duplicate a direct transformation at the St. Lawrence 
substation, stepping up from 13.8 kv directly to 230 kv and using a 
high tension bus with a reactor tie of 2-1/2^ on 165 MVA between the 
two bus sections. Four lines were connected to the right bus section 
and three lines to the left. A total of 13 machines were split into 
groups of 5 an d 8« No local Massena load was represented and the LLG 
fault was applied on the right hand 230 kv bus and cleared in .1 sec- 
ond. This system was found to te stable with a maximum swing of 133° • 
which should be compared with the curve determined for study 28, which 
is identical except for a double transformation. 

Study 3,$ « This system was set up with a split bus without the reactor tie and 
with three lines connected to the right bus and four lines connected 
to the left bus. The 13 generators were split into groups of 7 aad 6. 
The LLG fault was located on one of the Rotterdam lines connected to 
the right bus. This stability study is comparable to study 32. which 
used the double transformation. Study 35 was found to be unstable also. 

Study 36 . It was decided to run a second stability study of study 35 except with 
the fault located on the Rotterdam line connected to the left hand bus. 
This curve is comparable to study 33* an( 3 was found to be stable, with 
a maximum swing of I46 . It is, therefore, marginally stable but gives 
a true comparison showing that the double transformation scheme provides 
greater stability than the single transformation. 

Study 37 . For this study the system was changed to represent three bus sections 

at St. Lawrence. Reactor ties between bus sections were used, a ^% 
reactor on 400,000 kva between the center and right hand bus. The 13 

-«7- 



machines were split into 3 groups of 3t k snd 6. A LLG fault was 
placed on one of the Rotterdam lines connected to the extreme right 
hand bus section. The system was found to be marginally stable. 

Study 2§L, This study is the same as study 37 except that the fault, was located 

on one of the Rotterdam lines connected to the center bus section. This 
study was unstable. 

i 

Study 39. At this point it wa3 decided that stud^ 2>5 should be repeated with in- 
creased WR^ to determine the amount of increased inertia required to 
make that system stable. The system used consisted of two separate 
buses with the 13 machines divided into two groups of 7 and 6, and 
with four lines connected to the left hand bus and three lines con- 
nected to the right hand bus. The fault was located on the right hand 
bus, the same as study 35- The WR 2 per machine was increased from 
155,000,000 to 185,000,000. At this point, a re-check of the WR used 
showed that for a 64.2 r.p.m. generator, the standard TVR is actually 
130,000,000 instead of 155,000,000, which has been used up to this point 
This means that the studies for standard generators are optimistic in > 
predicting stability and therefore a re-check will have to be made f<r 
some of the marginal studies to determine a correction factor that 
may be applied to the other stability studies. 



S 



Study 39 wss also found to be unstable, but slightly less so than stu- 
dy 35- 

Study 40 » This stability study is also the same as study "^ except that the WIT 
per machine was increased to 200,000,000. The system was still un- 
stable, although a reduction of 17° in phase angle spread was obtained. 

Study 41. This study was a repetition of study 36, with the WR 2 reduced to 130,- 
000,000. This study is being made to determine the effect of correct 
WR 2 as compared to the 155*0009000 that was used for study 36. Study J 
was found to be unstable, whereas study 36 had been marginally stable. 

Study 42. Data from the Westinghouse Company concerning the relationship be- 
tween the transient reactance and the WR2 f or 55,000 kva generator was 
not available and it was, therefore decided, to study an eight line 
system for load distribution and stability. Study L2 is a load study 
in which one additional line was added from Massena to Rotterdam and 
also from Rotterdam to Pleasant Valley. The transformer bank at Pleas- 
ant Valley was increased from 300 mvs to 39° mva. The power into New 
York was increased from 325 nw* "the assumptipn being made that this ir.' 
creased power is available from the Canadian system. 14 generators 
were connected to the 230 kv bus at St. Lawrence, each group of 7 unit; 
supplying about 345 mw to each bus section. 

Study 43 » This study is a stability study of the system described under L2 and r 
using standard generator characteristics with reactance at LL% and 'w 
at 132,500,000. This study was found to be unstable. 

Study kk . This study duplicates study 43 except that the IR 2 was increased to 

155,000,000 to determine whether this increase in inertia would be suf 
ficient to make the system stable. Reference to the stability curves 
shows that this system was stable, with a maximum swing of approxi- 
mately 145° • 

-88- 



tui 



The conclusion, therefore, is that an eight line system without a reac- 
tor tie is unstable for standard characteristic generators, without 
sectionalizing, and with 375 mw to New York. Previous studies show 
that this system would be stable with only 325 mw to New York. 

Study 45» For the study the board set-up was changed to duplicate the system 
used for study 35 • which is a single transformation scheme using a 
split bus, with 4 lines^ on the left hand bus and three lines on the 
right hand bus. 13 generators were used, 7 connected to the left bus 
and 6 connected to the right hand bus. Study 25 WQ s unstable and stud- 
. ies 45 snd 4& were made to determine the effect of reducing the machine 
reactance. For this study a machine reactance of 35% and a corres- 
ponding WR 2 150,000,000 were used. The LLG fault was located on one 
of the Rodderdam lines connected to the right hand bus section and 
cleared in .1 second. The system was found to be stable, with a maxi- 
mum swing of 135 °. 

Study 4d» This study is also the same as study 35 except that the na chine re- 
actance was reduced to 30£ and the WR 2 was increased to 170,000,000. 
This system was also stable, with a maximum swing of only 116-1/2°. 

Study 47« This study was the first study of a low tension busing scheme. The 

first scheme set up on the board was the cross connected scheme using 
three winding transformers. The 110 kv load was also replaced so that 
the generation of all 18 units would be absorbed. 9 generator groups 
were represented on the board, with 135 n* 7 ® transformer capacity con-, 
nee ted to each 230 kv line and 150 mva capacity connected to each 110 
kv line. The generator characteristics used were as follows: Tran- 
sient reactance 44£ and WR 2 155.000,000. 

Checks were made on the D. C. board and it was determined that the 
worst fault location would be on one of the Rotterdam lines adjacent 
to one of the 110 kv load circuits. A LLG fault was, therefore, ap- 
plied at that point. Studies were also necessary on the D. C. board 
to determine the negative sequence impedance. The values determined 
were as follows : 

Using transient reactance equal to )\h$> : 

For 230 kv fault - Z s 51% 
For 110 kv fault - Z = 46 ,5% 

Using sub-transient reactance equal to 32^: 

For 230 kv fault - Z - 51.25? 
For 110 kv fault - Z - l±0% 

The fault kva for a three phase fault was also determined on the D.C. 
board and the following values were obtained: 

For 230 kv and transient machine reactance equal to 44#» tJae fault kva 
is 690,000; 

For sub-transient machine reactance of 32% the fault kva is 780,000. 

For the 110 kv fault and using transient reactance of k&f u V?& ftmlt 

-89- 



kva is 860,000; and using sub-transient reactance of 3255 the fault kva 
is 1,000,000. 

The zero sequence impedance determined on the D.C. board is 32-1/2% 
on 400,000 kva base. 

Study 47 was a load study to determine the power distribution in the 
group-connected network at St. Lawrence. 

Study 48 . This study is a stability study of the cross -connected scheme set up 
for study 47 and using a transient reactance per machine of 44# and a 
WR 2 of 155*000,000. The system was found to be stable with a maximum 
swing of about 100°. 

Study J|Q. This study is a load study similar to study 47 except that the faulted 
line was removed to determine the power distribution that would be ob- 
tained in the cross-connected network under this condition. It was 
found that the secondary winding of the transformers adjacent to the 
disconnected line became loaded up to approximately the capacity of 
the two generating units and therefore the rating of each secondary 
winding must be at least 110 mva and the primary rating must be about 
135 mva. The equivalent base rating of each transformer is, therefore, 
approximately 180,000 kva. 

Study 50 . Because of the results obtained under studies 47» 48 ana " 49* it w 83 
decided that sufficient data was at hand to analyze other low tension 
switching schemes and our attention should be directed to further stud 
of the high tension switching arrangements. 

This study is a duplication of study 28, wherein the double trans- 
formation was used and where the two bus sections were tied through a 
2-1/2^ reactor. Three lines were connected to the left hand bus and 
four lines were connected to the right hand bus; the 13 machines were 
split into groups of 5 and - 8. Study 5° is the same as study 28 ex- 
cept that the fault is located on the Rotterdam line connected to the 
left bus. General characteristics of 44& reactance and 155*000,000 1 
were used as in Study 28. The purpose of this study was to prove the 
complete stability of a seven line system when a reactor tie is used 
between the bus sections. 



5' 



Study SI. This study is the same as study 50 except that the V/R 2 was reduced to 
132,500»000. This system was also stable, but slightly less so than 
study 50. 

Study 52. y or this study the set-up was changed to duplicate the set-up used in 
study 32* wherein the double transformation was used, but without a 
reactor tie between bus sections. For study 52 the transient reactant 
was reduced to J>$% and the WR 2 changed to 150,000,000. The fault was 
located on one of the Rotterdam lines connected to the right hand bus 
The system was found to be stable, with a maximum swing of 124 • ^ 
compares with study 32 ♦ which was unstable with a maximum recorded 
swing of about 155 • 

Study 53 • For this study the system represented on the calculating board was 
changed to a six line system, using the double transformation and 

.90. 



St: 



L 



3;.. 



with two bus sections connected through a 2-1/2% reactor. The sta- 
bility curve was run with reduced reactance machines, using 35# f° r 
transient reactance and 150,000,000 7/Fr. This system was found to be 
stable, with a maximum swing of 103°. The initial phase angle was 
about 6?°. The fault was located on the Rotterdam line connected to 
the left hand bus. 

Study 5k * This study is the same as study 55 except that the fault was trans- 
ferred to the Rotterdam line connected to the right hand bus. This 
system was also stable, but not quite as stable as study 53 • There- 
fore, it was determined that the worst fault condition was with the 
fault located on the left hand bus. 

Study 35 - This study is also a stability study of the six line system using 

the double transformation and with the two bus sections inter-connected 
through a 2-1/2/? reactor. The 13 generators are split into two groups 
of 6 and 7 generators each. The LLG fault was located on the Rotter- 
dam line connected to the left hand bus. This study is the same as 
studies 33 an ^ 5k except that the machine characteristics used were 
transient reactance equal to l^X and 7*r2 equal to 132,500,000. The 
system was found to be stable with a maximum swing of 97° • 

Study 56 . Comparison of the above study with previous studies seemed to show 
inconsistencies and it was, therefore, decided to repeat study 3^ 
to check the board setting. It was noted than an incorrect fault 
impedance had been used for study 32 » but this error was such that 
the correct value would have made the system even more unstable. Er- 
rors in calculation were also found in study 32. Study 5^> was found 
to be unstable and checked the conclusion reached in study 32 • 

Study 57 . This study is of a six line system with three lines connected to each 

bus section. This study is the same as study 53 except that the reactor 
tie was increased to 7-1/2% on 165,000 base. The purpose of this and 
the next study is to determine the effect of increased bus reactance 
on the system stability. The LLG fault was located on a Rotterdam 
line connected to the left hand bus. This study was found to be un- 

, stable. 

Stud?, 5? > This study is the stme as study 51 except that a reactance of 5^ was 
used for the reactor tie. Machine characteristics of \\h$> transient 
and 132,500,000 KR 2 were used. 

Study 59 . This study is a re -check of study 35- Two errors were found in the 

study 55 set-up - one error was found in the calculations on the sta- 
bility sheets, and it also appeared that for studies 55 an< i possible 
3k and 53 ♦ the fault impedance circuit was open in the- zero sequence 
branch, thus making the fault equivalent to a line-to-line fault in- 
stead of an LLG fault. Study 59 was found to be unstable, whereas 
study 55 was stable. 

Study 60 . This study is a repetition of study 53 1 using 25% machine reactance 

and a six line system. It was suspected that the fault impedance for 
study 53 was also incorrect. However, the check of study 53 was per- 
fect. 

At this point it was discovered that for studies 51 % 5§ ana " 59 » one 

-91- 



of the Rodderdam line circuits connected to the right hand bus had 
been inadvertently left open and those studies were really on a five 
line system instead of a six line system. Therefore, it was necessary 
to re-check studies 35 and 59 1 using the six line system and 2-1/25? 
reactor tie. 

Study 61. This study is a repetition of studies 55 and 59 » which was necessary 
because one of the Rotterdam circuits was opened for study 59* This 
study was found to be stable and checked study 35" 

Study 62. This study is the seme as study 57 using a 7\% retctor between the 
two bus sections and using standard machine characteristics of l±h$ 
reactance and 132,500,000 WR 2 . This system was found to be stable, 
whereas 57 was unstable, showing that 57 was incorrect. 

Study t° ( . This study is the same as study 62 except that a 15% reactor was used 
between the two bus sections. This study was also stable and the con- 
clusion was made that for the range of reactor values used in Studies 
6l, 62 and 63, the effect on stability is negligible and the value shou! 
be used that is indicated by the short circuit requirements. 

Study bZj.. The remaining studies, including study 64, were made by Mr. Parker, 
Mr. Peters and Mr. Harker of the Westinghouse Company on Saturday, 
April 26th. Study 64 was a study of a single transformation scheme 
using a six line 230 kv transmission system and with a 2%% reactor 
tie between bus sections. The thirteen generators used were split into 
two groups of 6 machines on t'he^ left bus and 7 °n "the right bus. A 
T.TPt fault was placed on the Rotterdam line connected to the left hand 
bus section and cleared in .1 second. A reduced machine reactance of 
35% and a WR 2 of 150,000,000 were used. This study is for comparison 
with study 33* which is identical except that a double transformation 
was used instead of a single transformation. 

This study was found to be stable, with a maximum swing of 111 . This 
compares with the nBximura phase angle of 94° obtained in study 33- 

Study 65 * This study is the same as study 64 except that standart machine char- 
acteristics of l\\\% reactance and 132,500,000 WR 2 were used. This 
system was found to be unstable, and the conclusion results that a 
six line single transformation scheme with a reactor tie will only 
be st&ble with reduced machine reactance or possibly line sectionaliz- 
ing. 

St.nfly f)f) . This study is a load distribution study to determine the pov/er bal- 
ance on the six line system used in study 65. 



-92- 



APPENDIX D 
REPORT OF THE A. C. NETWORK CALCULATOR STUDIES 
FOR THE NEW YORK STATE 60 CYCLE SYSTEM 



This report covers studies made during the periods March 
17-29 and April 14-25. 1941 on "the network calculator of the Westing- 
house Electric and Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa, Indi- 
viduals and organizations represented at each of the two studies are 
tabulated at the beginning of the log of studies for each period. 

Purposes of the Studies ; 

In order to provide generators, transformers, and switches 
for the project power house and substation, it was necessary to study 
the influences which an extensive transmission system exert on the 
selection of their characteristics. The probable distances of trans- 
mission to the power market, characteristics of the existing system, 
and feasible points of interconnection indicate that technical pro- 
blems of system design from the standpoint of system stability, volt- 
age regulation and power control will arise. Before the power house 
is finally designed, these problems must be anticipated in order to 
obtain the most economical overall design. The characteristics of 
equipment selected for the power house and substations themselves 
represent a large factor in the complete project design and layout 
from the turbine to the power market. Therefore, study of the pre- 
sent power system in the State of New York and probable market centers 
is necessary to determine what technical difficulties exist and in 
turn, determine the degree to which these problems can be solved in 
the power house design itself. The electrical system begins with the 
generator itself and its characteristics must be carefully selected 
to give assurance that it will ecnomically complement the character- 
istics of the transmission system and loads to which it will be 
connected. 

Basic Data and Sources 

In order to represent a power system on the calculating 
board, it is necessary to have data on the electrical characteris- 
tics of the system. These data concerning the resistance, reactance, 
charging kva and line connections, transformers impedances and volt- 
age ratios, generator capacities, generator inertias and transient 
reactance values were obtained through the cooperation of the elec- 
tric utilities in the State of New York, the Federal power Commission 
and the Power Authority of New York. The available data had to be 
condensed and combined into electrically equivalent circuits. The 
final diagrams used on the calculating board with the circuit charac- 
teristics is included with this report. This data was reviewed by 
the Federal Power Authority and the Power Authority, prior to the 
first board study and was accepted as representative of the neces- 
sary system elements to be studied. 

The estimated load conditions for the year 1945 were also 
set up on the calculating board in accordance with data furnished 
by the Federal Power Commission. The Project capacity was estimated 
as follows by the Harza Engineering Co. 

575.000 kw 95% of the time 
740,000 kw 50% of the time • 
806,000 kw j0% of the time- 
The load deficiencies estimated by the Federal Power Com- 
mission were as follows: 



-93- 



Minimum 



Maximum 



Niagara Area 

Massena Area 

Rochester Area 

Syracuse Area 

Rotterdam Area 

Binghamton 

New York City Area 



118,768 kw 

248,000 " 

4.325 " 

68,598 " 

136,010 " 

81,150 " 

55,560 " 



173.768 Deficiency 
358.000 ■ 

n 

Excess 
Deficiency 

Excess 



The values for New York City area art after reserves of 
212,000 kw for minimum conditions and 511.000 kw for maximum condi- 
tions have been deducted. The Power Authority's estimates of anti- 
cipated future markets and locations are as follows: 



Massena Area 
Syracuse, Utica, 

Schenectady 
Binghamton Area 
New York City Area 

Primary 
New York City 

Secondary 



Total 



Minimum 

250,000 kw 

225,000 " 
75.000 " 

150,000 " 

175.000 " 

875.000 ■ 



Maximum 

300,000 kw 

175.000 " 

75,000 " 

150,000 • 

175.000 " 

875.000 " 



Studies Made 



Included in the appendices of this report is a long of each 
of the 66 studies made on the calculating board. The log describes 
in detail the conditions represented for each study. Generally speak- 
ing, a particular system was set up on the board and a load and volt- 
age study made to analyze the power distribution. Any inadequacies 
of voltage or difficulties in power control were corrected and then 
stability studies were made to determine its adequacy under transient 
conditions of system faults. 

The general plan of study was to devote the first two weeks 
period to study different voltages with different number of lines 
that would be required" to supply the load conditions established. 
There was to be no attempt to design a system. The second two weeks 
were to be devoted to a study of the St. Lawrence generation using 
the transmission system determined during the first study. In diff- 
ferent words, during the first study, the St, Lawrence generating 
characteristics were kept constant; during the second study, the 
transmission system was kept constant. It is only in this manner 
that the interdependence of the two elements, generation and trans- 
mission, could be studied. 

The first group of studies (Studies 1-4) were made of only 
the existing 110 kv and 132 kv system in the market area. These were 
preliminary studies to check the setting of the calculating board and 
to determine the inadequacies of the existing system to absorb plan- 
ned additions by the private companies. It was determined that in 



-94- 



order to hold voltage and balance power, a double circuit 110 kv 
line would be desirable from Oswego to Syracuse and from Syracuse to 
Lapeer, a point between Syracuse and Binghamton. The present system 
is inadequate to absorb an additional 80,000 kw of capacity contem- 
plated for the Oswego steam plant. 

The next group of studies, (Studies l±-l6 incl.) were load 
and stability studies of a 2&7t000 volt transmission system to trans- 
mit power to the points of deficiency outlined above. Studies were 
made for varying amounts of power into the New York area and it was 
determined that a minimum system of three 287 kv lines would be re- 
quired to transmit power to the Rotterdam and New York areas. A 
fourth line was found capable of transmitting power to the Syracuse 
area. Stability studies were confined to determining the degree of 
stability between the St. Lawrence and New York systems. For all 
studies during the first two week period (up to study 23). the gen- 
erating conditions at St. Lawrence were kept constant, using machines 
of standard reactance and a WR2 equal to 153*000,000 per unit. 

The next group of studies (studies 17-24 inclusive) were 
devoted to the study of a 2j0,000 volt transmission system to supply 
the same load conditions set up for the 287*000 volt system. On the 
basis of constant conditions at St. Lawrence, it was determined that 
a minimum of five 230 kv lines was required to supply the Rotterdam 
and New York areas. Two additional lines were used to supply the 
Syracuse area. 

The results of the board studies were assembled in the form 
of a preliminary report submitted to the Federal Power Commission 
and the i^ew York Power Authority. A meeting of this group was held 
in Chicago on April 9 th and 10th, to review the results of the first 
24 studies and to conclude upon what additional studies should be 
made during the last period schedule for April I4"thr-2_5th. Much 
consideration was given to the use of 2j0 or 287 kv for the future 
board studies by the representatives of all of the different bodies. 
It was unanimously decided to use 230 kv with the freedom of later 
choice to 287 kv or any other voltage as the major system voltage. 

It was agreed at the meeting that studies should be made 
as follows: 

(a) A 13»8 kv star bus arrangement with reactors. 

(b) A 220 kv and 115 kv bus arrangement and using 

a transformer bank for interconnection and pos- 
sible three-winding transformers. 

(c) A unit system wherein small groups of generators 
will assigned to each transmission line without 
interconnection. 

(d) A double 220 kv bus scheme without interconnection. 

(e) The cross connection scheme at generator voltage in- 
volving double winding on low tension side of t rans- 
formers. 

(f ) A low tension ring bus scheme with reactors con- 
nected in the bus. 

(g) A single 115 kv bus scheme, using auto step-up 
transformers and as used on the previous studies., 

Every effort was made to carry out 'the agreed program dur- 
ing the calculating board studies from April 14th to April 25th. 



-95- 



Forty- two studies were made. Representatives of all the different 
bodies on the technical committee, except the Power Authority, were 
in attendance* That there was not enough time to complete the full 
schedule was recognized by everyone. 

The second group of studies, in accordance with the deci- 
sion described above, were made using a 230 kv transmission system 
to supply the load conditions selected. The existing 110 kv system 
set up on the board was a reduced equivalent of the system studied 
during the first period. A diagram ig included showing the electri- 
cal characteristics of this system. All but five studies were sta- 
bility studies made to determine the effect of changing generator 
characteristics and line connections at St. Lawrence, 

These studies fall into six general groups t 

1, Studies of the double transformation scheme using 
a double bus section interconnected through a bus 
tie reactor, 

2. Studies of the double transformation scheme using 
a double bus section without interconnection, 

3« Studies of the single transformation scheme using 
a double bus section with a bus tie reactor, 

4* Studies of the single transformation scheme using 
a double bus section without interconnection, 

5» Studies of the cross connected scheme as shown on 
Plates 104t 118 and 119. 

6# Five load studies were made - the first (study 25) 
was made to check the board setting. Two load 
studies were made for the cross connected scheme, 
and one for the 230 kv six line transmission 
system, and one for a 230 kv eight line system 
with 375 mw transmitted to the New Tfork area , 

Most of the studieswere devoted to the single and double 
transformation schemes, since a greater possible number of combina- 
tions existed for these schemes and each had to be investigated. 

The results of each of the studies are presented in the 
form of stability curves and power flow diagrams. For comparison 
all stability studies and conditions of test are also tabulated in 
Table 10 on the following page. 



-96- 



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-97- 



Results of Studies 

Circuit Breakers, The stability of a power system is highly in- 
fluenced by the speed with which a faulted circuit is interrupted. The 
studies showed that for the distances of transmission considered and 
quantities of power involved, it will be necessary to use circuit breakers 
capable of interrupting circuits within one-tenth seconds. This is 
equivalent to a breaker designed to five cycle operation and allowing 
one cycle for relaying. This requirement is within the limits of modern 
design. Circuit breakers with speeds less than three cycles are now 
in operation. The requirements of circuit breakers from the standpoint 
of short circuit duty are analyzed elsewhere in this report. 

Synchronous Condensers , No analysis of synchronous condenser 
requirements was made. However, condensers of reasonable size were em- 
ployed at the load centers in the board studies. They will need to be 
used in the transmission system* 

Local Load and Stability. It was determined that a stable system can 
be designed without interconnection at St, Lawrence with the local load 
supplied at that point. The local load of about 250,000 kilowatts does 
exercise a stabilizing influence but this is not as great as it was ex- 
pected to be. Elimination of the load increased the phase angle swing 
by only seven degrees. For some systems this difference may be critical 
but it was not for the systems studied. Stability conditions being favor- 
able, it is preferable to supply the local load separately from the long 
distance transmission system to obtain greater flexibility of voltage and power 
control, reduce short circuit capacity, and to also isolate the respective 
system faults. This can be done for the St. Lawrence project. 

Power Control. Load studies indicated that when buses are inter- 
connected at St. Lawrence, it will not be possible to avoid circulating 
power across the 115 kv backbone from Syracuse to Rotterdam w ithout the 
use of phase shifting transformers in the 115 kv system. 

Step-up Transformers, Details of transformer characteristics 
have been covered in main body of the report in article on electrical 
features, paragraph 4 • 

Transmission Systems 

Double Transformation, All studies of the 230 kv double trans- 
formation scheme were stable when a 115 kv bus tie reactor was used be- 
tween two generator groups for the following combinations: 

1, Using standard generator reactance of 44^ and 155,000,000 
WR 2 with a seven line 230 kv system, 

2, Using standard generator reactance and 132,500,000 WR 2 
with a six line 230 kv system. 

When three generator groups were used with six generators on each 
group and tied through 115 *v bus tie reactor, the system was unstable 
using generator reactance of 44£ and a WR 2 equal to 155,000,000. The same 
system was stable when the generator reactance was reduced to 30^. 

Studies were made of a 3ystera involving the following features: 

1, Double transformation 

2, Two generator groups without reactor bus ^ e *o 

3, Using standard machine reactance of kk% an* 3 "^ equal to 
155,000,000. 

4« Seven transmission lines with three lines connected to one high 

tension bus and four lines connected to another high tension bus, 

-98- 



These studies showed that such a system is unstable when the 
fault is located on one of three lines, and is stable when the fault is 
located on one of four lines to a high tension bus. 

The unstable tests with faults on a three line group were 
made stable when the generator reactance was reduced to 35/S and the 
WR 2 was reduced to 150,000,000. From this it is concluded that: 

1. An eight line system is necessary if split buses and 
standard reactance machines are used. 

2. A six line system is adequate if split buses and 
35^ reactence machines are used, (study 5 2 «) 

3» A six line system is adequate if two groups of gener- 
ators of standard characteristics are tied through 
high tension bus reactors. 

Single Transformation. All studies of the single trans- 
formation scheme using a bus tie reactor and standard machine reactance 
of kk% were unstable if the fault was located on one line of a three 
line group connected to six generators, (study 65.) 

The same system was stable when the generator reactance was 
reduced to 35^ reactance. The same system was also stable when the 
fault was located on one of four lines connected to a n eight machine 
group tied through reactors to a five machine group, (study 34) 

All studies of the single transformation scheme without bus tie 
reactors were unstable with all of the following conditions existing. 

1. Using standard machine reactance of hX%* 

2. Using 13 generators in two groups cf seven and six. 
3» Using seven 230 kv lines in groups of four and three. 
4. Using WR2 equal to 115,000,000, 185,000,000 or 

200,000,000. 
5« When fault was located on one line of three line group. 

The above conditions resulted in stability when the machine 
reactance was reduced to 35/5 an d also to 3°^« The above conditions also 
resulted in stability when the fault location was changed to one line of 
the four line group. This stability was marginal since a reduction 
of WR to 130,000,000 resulted in instability. 

On the basis of the above results, it is concluded thati 

1. The single transformation with solidly grounded 
transformers and without bus tie reactors requires 
four lines per generator group of six generators 
each in order to obtain system stability with 44/£ 
reactance machines. The WR 2 must be at least 
155,000,000, which is slightly higher than normal. 

2. The single transformation scheme with solidly 
grounded transformers and without bus tie reactors 
requires only three lines per generator group for 
system stability if reduced reactance generator^/ 
are used in groups of six units per bus section. 

3. If any group of six generators is connected to 
two points widely s epara ted (asSyracuse and Rot- 
terdam), then four lines must be connected to that 
bus regardless of generator characteristics. This 
follows aince if a single line to Rotterdam waa 
faulted, then instability between St. Lawrence and 
Syracuse would result. 



-99- 






The above established requirements for the various systems, 
when supplemented by the analytical studies included in this report 
for short circuit conditions, and for transient stability limits 
using line sectionalizing, provides the basis for evaluating the 
several alternatives and their combinations to provide the most 
economical scheme of generation and transmission suitable to meet 
the conditions now considered* 






-100- 



APPENDIX E 

STUDIES ON A.C. NETWORK 
CALCULATOR FOR THE CANADIAN 
25 CYCLE AND 60 CYCLE SYSTEM 

An internal report of the 
Engineering Planning Section 
of the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario and 
does not represent an official 
report by this Commission* 



ST. LAWRENCE PROJECT 

STUDIES ON A. C. NETWORK CALCULATOR 
FOR THE CANADIAN 25 CYCLE AND 6o CYCLE SYSTEMS 

This report covers studies made during the period February 17th to 
28th, 1941. on the Network Calculator of the Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., as arranged by the Rarza En- 
gineering Company of Chicago, Consulting Engineers for the Corps of Engineers 
of the U. 2. Army. The studies reported herein were under the supervision of 
Mr. E. M. Wood, assisted by Mr. G. D. Floyd, both of the Planning Section, 
Electrical Engineering Department, of the Hydro-Electric ^ower Commission of 
Ontario. The Hazra Engineering Company were represented by Mr. H. A. Carlberg, 

During the progress of the studies various conferences were held, 
at which were also present 

Messrs. Lieut. -Col. A. B. Jones - District Engineer, 

U. S. Engineers Office Massena 
C. H. Giroux, Head Electrical Engineer, 

Office of Chief of Engineers, 
"Washington, D. C. 
Erik Floor - Chief Engineer, Hazra Engineering 

Company, Chicago 
A. H. Frampton - Assistant Electrical Engineer 

Hydro-Electric Power Commission 
of Ontario, Toronto 
A. C. Monte it h - Manager, Industry Engineering, 

Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company, 
East Pittsburgh. 



-101- 



PURPOSE OF THE STUDIES 

> 

These studies form part of a series, the purpose of which was 
to provide engineering data to enable the generating stations on the Canadian 
and American sides of the St. Lawrence Development to be designed for success- 
ful operation as components of the respective power system 1 © which they are to 
supply. The studies covered by this report comprise all those pertaining to 
the Canadian power station supplying the systems of the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario. 

The specific problems to be worked out on the calculator were 

1. To lay out systems of transmission lines and receiver 
stations, adequate to absorb 

(a) The output of twelve St. Lawrence generating units 
into the 25 cycle Niagara System of the Commission. 

(The rating of these units in the early studies was 
53.000 kv-a. (90#P.F.) corresponding to a turbine 
rating of 66,000 h.p. In the later studies (Study 
25-6 to 25-14 as reported below) decision had been 
reached to Adopt a unit of 72,000 h.p. at 85 foot 
head and the corresponding generator rating of 
58,000 kv-a. (90X P.F. ) was used. 

(b) The output of six units of 58,000 kv-a., 90£ P.F. 
partly into the Eastern Ontario and Georgian Bay 
60 cycles systems of the Commission and the re- 
mainder into new 60 cycle loads in the vicinity 
of Cornwall, Ontario. 

2. To determine by studies of these systems under normal 
operating and under fault conditions: 

(a) The characteristics necessary in the 25 cycle and 
60 cycle generators, step-up trans formers, and 
switching equipment to enable these power sources 
to operate successfully in parallel with the 
existing power sources in the respective systems. 

(b) The essential requirements of the Wiring Diagrams 
for the 25 cycle and the 60 cycle generating 
stations. 

In the paragraphs following, the conclusions and recommendations 
drawn from the results of these studies are presented, the detailed description 
of the studies being contained in the appendices attached. 

It should be noted that studies in the 25 cycle and the 60 cycle 
systems have been made and reported separately as any existing interconnections 
by frequency changers are not considered significant in this problem. 



-102- 



SUPPLY" TO 25 CYCLE NIAGARA SYSTEM 
A. GENERAL 

Four alternative systems of 230 kv. lines were studied, comprising either 
eight or nine lines from the power sources in the Ottawa and St. Lawrence 
valleys to a series of 230/115 kv. step-down stations to the existing 115 kv. 
Niagara System line network and loads. In each case it was assumed one 230 kv, 
line between Niagara Palls and the vicinity of London, Ontario, had been pro- 
vided to supplement the existing transmission capacity to the loads in south- 
western Ontario. These alternative arrangements are described in Part I and 
shown in the map and charts attached thereto. These systems were studied and 
were each found to be suitable for transmitting the output of twelve 58»000 kv-a., 
25 cycle generators at the St. Lawrence power house in addition to all other 
generation on this system as existing in 1945» 

The results of the studies are, therefore, considered valid for the 
design of the facilities at the St. Lawrence power station. 

B. WIRING DIAGRAM 

Studies were made using alternative arrangements, as follows : 

(a) With units interconnected at generator voltage level and with outgoing 
power through four transformer bank-230 kv. line units, without switch- 
ing at St. Lawrence at 230 kv. This was the subject of one set of stud- 
ies (Studies 25-8, -9, -10). 

This arrangement has the following characteristics: 

1. Transformer units require a total rating of one-third greater 
than the total rating of the generators, to carry the load while 
a 230 kv. line with its bank is out of service. 

2. The generator bus-work and switching, details of which were not 
studied, would require capacity for carrying and rupturing 
heavy currents. 

3» The 230 kv. line arrangement is not as flexible as might be de- 
sired during the development period and lacks facilities for 
interconnection with other nearby generating sources. 

4. It provides a very stable system. 

(b) Diagrams with no direct interconnection between units at generator vol- 
tage level, and all switching between units and lines provided at the 230 
kv. level. 

Three sets of studies were made with this arrangement which showed no 
special problems in stability, if faults were cleared in 0.2 seconds as 
discussed under circuit breakers below. This type of diagram can be ar- 
ranged to provide desirable flexibility in grouping and regrouping units 
and lines from time to time. 

Such a diagram should incorporate the following features to which this 
type lends itself:- 

1. Unless there are serious economic or constructional reasons to 
the contrary, the genera tor -trans former unit corresponding to 

-IO3- 



the capacity of two generators is desirable. 

2. It should provide a maximum of flexibility for grouping of units 
and lines including interconnections 'with nearby power sources. 
This flexibility should provide ability to group the units in or- 
der to keep fault currents and circuit-breaker duties within de- 
sired limits. 

Further detailed study, including cost of alternative arrangements. 
will "be required before final selection of a diagram can be made. 
The chief value of the studies made will be to assist in comparing 
the advantages, or otherwise, of the two basic schemes, with their 

cost and flexibility of co-ordination with the remainder of the 

230 kv. system. 

C. EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS 
1* 230 Kv. Oil Circuit Breakers — Fault Clearance Time and Rupturing Capacity 

The studies all indicate the paramount importance of speed in clear- 
ance of faults on the 23O kv. lines. In all cases where the faults were as- 
sumed to be cleared at both ends in not over 0.-2 seconds, stability was main- 
tained. Such performance can be obtained with the present so-called "standard 
8 cycle" breakers of 2,500,000 kv-a. rupturing capacity and available high 
speed relaying. With a longer clearance time of 0#3 seconds, instability de- 
veloped using generators of high transient reactance as is discussed below. 
Fault clearance times faster than 0.2 seconds would provide a desirable margin 
of safety. We are advised that at least one manufacturer has developed a so- 
called "5 cycle" breaker of suitable rating. 

The rupturing duty with twelve "standard" units connected to a sin- 
gle H.V. bus will be beyond 2,500,000 kv-a., the capacity of standard circuit 
breakers. Provision of either (a) circuit breakers of rupturing capacity high- 
er than 2.500,000 kv-a. or (b) segregation of units so there will be not over 
eight to ten in a group, will be required. It is recommended that further stu 
dy be made of the practicability and cost of circuit breakers of 



Higher rupturing capacity up to 3,000,000 to 3,500,000 kv-a. 
Higher opening speeds to give clearance in 0»l5 or 0.10 seconds, 
2» 25 Cycle Generators 






The characteristics of the generators studied in all but the last 
study were those of units which the Canadian manufacturers had advised the Com« 
mission were "standard" or minimum-cost machines for the respective ratings; 
that is, machines to which nothing had been added to the cost to provide any 
particular fly-wheel effect, transient reactance or short-circuit ratio other 
than that inherent in a unit of most economical design. In all cases the TUR 2 
was based on 60 r.p.m. At other speeds within the range 60-75 r.p.m. the in- 
ertia constant would have been practically the same, and the results therefore 
unaffected. 

The characteristics of these units were as follows: 

For the studies previous to 25-8 

Rating - 53*000 kv-a., 90^ P.F., 60 r.p.m. 



-I04- 



Flywheel effect - 145x10° lbs. -ft. 2 

Transient reactance (see note below) - 21% on rating 

For the studies 25-8 to 25-13 inclusive 



:ating - 58,000 kv-a., 9Q% P*F. t 60 r.p.m. 
flywheel effect - l63xl0 6 lbs.-ft.2 



Flywheel effect - 1 63x10* 
Transient Reactance - 2l%» 



On the advice of Mr . Monteith, Engineer of the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company that in their 'opinion a minimum-cost generator would 
have a higher reactance in the order of 3$% on rating, the last study (25-14) 
was made using the following details: 

Rating - 58,000 kv-a. t 90% P.F., 60 r.p.m. 
Flywheel effect - I59xl0 6 lbs.-ft.2 
Transient Reactance - 3$% on rating 
Short-circuit ratio - 1.1 

Note: The above values of transient reactance are the values actu- 
ally set on the calculator. The corresponding value to be 
called for in a specification is not quite clear and is a 
matter to be clarified with the generator designers. 

The following conclusions have been reached regarding pertinent gen- 
erator characteristics:- 

(a) Power Factor Rating - 

In all the studies, the power factor of the plant output at the 
generator terminals is between 90 and 95^ (current lagging). The rat- 
ing used in the studies (58,000 kv-a*, 90# P.F.) is, therefore, re- 
commended. 

(b) Transient Reactance - 

In all the studies in which a reactance of 21% was used there 
was ample margin of stability under the most severe fault con- 
dition studied (namely LL-G adjacent to St. Lawrence 23O kv. 
bus) and with complete clearance time of 0.2 seconds. Instab- 
ility occurred in Study 25-14* with a unit of 35°£ reactance and 
0.3 seconds clearance time, but examination of the test-record 
shows probable stability if the clearance has been complete in 
0.2 seconds. A desirable margin of safety would be obtained if 
clearance times of less than 0.2 seconds were obtained, espec- 
ially if the generator of least cost should prove to have reac- 
tance higher than 21% • 

(c) Flywheel Effect - 

As no stability problem arose in any of the studies where fast- 
est fault clearanoe v/ith standard equipment obtained, no value of 
flywheel effect other than that inherent in a minimum-cost unit 

was considered. This value was in the order of l60xl0^ lbs. -ft. 2 



-I05- 



for a unit rated at 58t000 kv-a. , 9052 P.P. , ,,,,,60 r.p.m. 

It Is recommended that as soon as certain necessary in- 
formation is available the generator manufacturers be request- 
ed to advise the reactance and flywheel effeot inherent in a 
generator of standard design for this rating; also the effect 
on oo st of variations from these values. Prom this data, to- 
gether with that re circuit breakers, final decision as to gen- 
erator characteristics can be reached. 

3. Step-up Transformers 

(a) Kv-a. Rating - 

A suitable rating for each transformer bank would be that cor- 
responding to the output of two 58tOOO kv-a. generators. The system 
could tolerate the loss of this generation, but might be in diffi- 
culty if the unit size were greater. The factors of overall economy 
in cost and of convenience in construction and transportaion must be 
considered before finally selecting the rating. 

(b) Voltage Ratio 

The studies indicate that successful operation as to delivered 
voltage, condenser capacity required and losses can be obtained with 
a transformer of 230 kv. class. 

The turn ratio should be such that when operating at rated vol- 
tage at the generators, the transformers will deliver 2^0,000 volts 
at rated load and 90% P.P. (lagging) which corresponds to the system 
voltage required at the St. Lawrence H.V# bus. Any excess voltage 
obtainable by operating the generator voltage above rating should be 
considered as available for use in emergencies only. 



-106- 



SUPPLY TO 60 CYCLE EASTERN AND GEORGIAN BAY SYSTE MS 

A, GENERAL 

1. In these studies it was assumed that the output of the 60 cycle 
St. Lawrence generating station would he absorbed in part by transmission at 
115 kv. to the Eastern Ontario System with an extension to the Georgian Bay 
System and the remainder in new industries in the Cornwall area. 

St. Lawrence generation allotted for delivery to the 60 cycle 
systems was as follows: 

(a) In the first series of tests, the output of three 
58,000-kv-a, 90$ P.P. (72,000 b.h.p.) units. 

(b) In the remaining tests the output of four units of 
the same rating but loaded at 45,000 kw. (63,000 
b.h.p.) each, corresponding to the loading with 
reduced head in the earlier years of operation. In 
this case the higher generation at St. Lawrence was 
compensated by reductions assumed at certain of the 
Commission's plants. 

2. Interconnection with Georgian Bay System 

In all the studies using this interconnection approximately 30,000 
ip. was assumed to be transmitted to the Georgian Bay System. This inter- 
connection presented the most serious aspect in the stability problem al- 
though facilities provided in the studies made the interconnection feasible. 
It is possible that until such connection is made, provision of certain faci- 
lities in the generating station, for example the L.V. bus with reactors, 
could be safely delayed. 

3. Certain of the studies were made in such way as to provide a direct 
comparison between provision of a line. 

(a) via the direct route - St. Lawrence- Smiths Palls - 

Tweed-Petersborough-Pergusonvale (Georgian Bay 

System) - which was the arrangement used in all 

the stability tests, 
(b) via the lake shore - St. Lawrence-Frontenac-Sidney- 

Oshawa- Per gus on val e . 

Plow sheets are attached which show the operating results to be 
expected both with and without the inter connection to the Georgian Bay System. 

B. STATION DIAGRAM 

1. The studies indicate requirements for the station wiring diagram to 
be as follows: 

(a) Bussing at the high- voltage level which should be, in 
three sections, when the station is completed, two for 
connection to the transmission system and one for supply 
to new loads in the Cornwall area. 

(b) Provision for tying these bus sections together through 
oil circuit breakers when desired. 

(c) Provision for installation of a generator bus with reactors. 



-107- 



(d) The unit for switching should be one 58f000 kv-a. 
generator with its tranformer bank. 

(e) Provision for convenient transfer of units between 
the local load bus and the transmission system bus. 

C. EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS 

1. US Kv. and n.8 Kv. O il Breakers 

All studies indicate that the problem of system stability of the 
St. Lawrence Power source with the remainder of the system is much more seriousi 
than on the 25 cycle section. It was, therefore, deemed necessary to inves- 
tigate separately the influence on stability of a number of factors in the 
design of the diagram and equipment, as it was apparent that the usual speed 
in oil breaker clearance alone might not be sufficient to ensure a system 
with the necessary margin of stability. A study was made with clearance time 
of 0.12 seconds at St. Lawrence (Study 60-8) corresponding to a "5 cycle" 
oil breaker, and comparison can be made from a stability standpoint, with 
other arrangements for increasing stability. Rupturing capacity of 1,5°Q 
mv-a. is made for both H.V. end L.V. breakers. 

2. 60 Cycle G enerators 

(a) Transient Reactance and Flywheel "Effect. 
Except for those studies in which a generator 

characteristic was deliberately varied (Studies 60-9, 60-10, 60-11, 60-12), 
the transient reactance and flywheel effect used where those of a standard 
or minimum cost machine. 

The rating given the generators for these studies was as follows 1 

Rating: - 58,000 kv-a. 90% P.F. (lagging) 
Turbine rating 72,000 b.h.p. 

fte have been advised by Canadian Westinghouse Co. that the chara- 
cteristics of the minimum cost unit at the above rating would be job follows »?- 

Flywheel Effect 1 - 163x10° lbs. - ft. 2 Q 60 r.p.m-. 

Unsaturated Transient Reactance 44# on rating 

The effect of increasing the flywheel effect to 200x10^ and 240x10^ 
lb. - ft. 2, and of reducing the transient reactance to 37% and $0% were studiet 
Each of these changes produced improvement , although not as great as that 
obtained by use of the 5 cycle oil breaker. (See drawing 1467-EP). 

The amplitude of swing of the St. Lawrence units following a L-L-G 
fault indicated that severe surging at least can be expected to occur at times 
of fault. The relative effect of the various means available to provide the 
necessary factor of safety has been brought out by the studies. As any of the 
methods add to the cost of the project, the selection of one or more should be 
the subject of an economic study using the results of these studies as a guide 
to weigh the benefits resulting. Apart from any change in generator chara- 
cteristics it does appear that the splitting of the H. V. bus into sections, 
each corresponding to two generator units and the tying together of these 
groups through reactors at generator voltage level, presents such advantages 
that we can recommend without further study that provision be made in the 
station layout to permit the installation of a generator bus with the neeessar: 
reactors. 

(b) Power Factor Rating 



-108- 



The load studies indicated that a generator rated at <}5% power 
factor (lagging) would meet all requirements. Unless the local load requires 
generators of lower power factor than 95#t all 60 cycle generators could 
be of the same power factor rating of 95^* We have no information regarding 
the probable power factor of the local load. This load could be supplied from 
generators, tied to the other 60 cycle sections of the L.V. bus. By this 
means, it would be possible to have all generators share the reactive kv-a. 
of the local load, thus permitting all generators to have the same power 
factor rating.,. 

3. flteb-up Transformers 

(a) Kv-a. Rating. 

In view of the large capacity of the individual generating units 
relative to the total generation of the 60 cycle systems, it is recommended 
that the unit for switching consist of one generator and its transformer 
bank of corresponding capacity. 

(b) Voltage Ratio 

The studies indicate that successful operation as to delivered 
voltage, condenser capacity required and losses can be obtained with a trans- 
former of 115 kv. class. 

The turn ratio of the transformer should be such that when supplied 
at rated generator voltage and when carrying rated load the voltage at the 
H.V. bus should be slightly over 120 kv. Some margin should be left for 
increase above this value. The delivery voltage for practically all the stu- 
dies at this station was 121 kv. 

The conclusions and recommendations for supply from the St. Lawrence 
project to both the 25 cycle and 60 cycle systems have been formulated after 
careful study of the data. No attempt has been made to give details regarding 
the supporting data, as this would make the report very lengthy. The supporting 
data with notes will be found in the appendices attached, the whole, becoming 
a complete record of the study. 

Respectuflly submitted, 
/•/ B. f . WOOD 

PLANNING ENGINEER. 



-109- 



EXPLANATORY NOTES AND APPENDIXES 

PART I 
SUPPEf TO THE 210 KV. NETWORK OF THE 2 5 CYCLE NIAGARA SYSTEM 

Information relating to and data obtained in these studies are 
submitted in the appendixes attached. 

Appendix 

1. Drawing 4020-EP - A map of the southern part of the Pro- 
vince of Ontario, having marked on the lower half the im- 
portant lines and stations of the existing Niagara System, 
together with the additions as studied for absorbing the 25 
cycle output of the St. Lawrence Development. On this are 
shown the generating sources, the main load centres, the 
existing and proposed 25 cycle, 230 kv. and 115 kv. trunk 
transmission lines, 

2. A log of the studies with explanatory notes, 

3. Charts of system balance (load diagrams) for the signi- 
ficant system arrangements studied, as follows: 

Study 25-2 - Drawing 4021-EP 
Study 25-6 - Drawing 4022-EP 
Study 25-8 - Drawing 4023-EP 
Study 25-11- Drawing 4024-EP 

4« Stability charts ("rotor angle curves" or "Swing curves") 
under fault conditions, as follows: 

Drawing 1433-EP - Stability studies 25-3 and 25-4 cm * ne 

system of Study 25-2, 
Drawings 1434-EP and 1435-EP - Stability studies 25-9 

and 24-10 on the system of Study 25-8, 
Drawings 1436-EP and 1437-EP - Stability studies 25-12, 

25-13 and 25-14 on the system of Study 25-11. 

Details of the Niagara System as Studied 

The system of 230 kv. trunk lines between the power, sources in 
the Ottawa Valley and St. Lawrence River and the Niagara System loads in 
southwestern Ontario, as arranged for these studies, is shown on the sys- 
tem balance charts (sometimes named load diagrams or flow diagrams), 
drawings 4021-2-3-4-EP. A comparison of these diagrams with the map, 4020- 
EP, showing the location and grouping of all the lines studied, will enable 
the physical a rrangement of lines corresponding to each diagram to be deter- 
mined. These trunk lines are terminated at the receiving end at step-down 
stations at Toronto-Leaside T.S. where the capacity is assumed to be the 
same as in 1941 and at York, Burlington and London where step-down trans- 
former stations of the required capacity are assumed to be located adjacent 
to load groups. 



-110- 



No additions to the 115 k*« line network existing in 1941 were 
provided as it was apparent that for the increases in load assumed these 
lines would be adequate with minor modifications, ^t was however assumed 
that by the time St. Lawrence power is required in the London District, one 
230 kv. line from Niagara to a step-down station near London would have 
been provided to take care of load growth. 

The system loads were assumed to have increased proportionately 
in the respective districts, based on the year I938 peak values, by an a- 
mount sufficient to require a total generation of approximately 2,500,000 
h.p. This assumed total load was sufficient to absorb the complete 25 cy- 
cle generation from twelve units at the St. Lawrence in addition to the 
expected dependable Niagara System generation as of the year 1945* 

The loads in the Niagara peninsula adjacent to the Niagara River 
generation were assumed to be supplied by local generation separate from the 
main system. These loads are, therefore, not considered in these studies 
other than by assuming that they absorb sufficient Niagara River generation 
to supply them, which generation is not considered available for the system 
as studied. - 

In order to simplify the setup on the network calculator, loads 
in various sections of the system have been grouped together and represented 
by single loads. 

General Assumptions 

The following general assumptions were made regarding lines and 
equipment other than those located at the St. Lawrence Development! 

1. All 230 kv. lines are similar in detail to existing lines. 

2. 230 kv. to 115 kv. step-down transformation is to be in transfor- 
mer banks of 75»°00 kv-a. capacity, similar in characteristics to 
those now being installed at Burlington Transformer Station. 

3. Synchronous condenser units, rated at 30.000 kv-a. each, similar 
to those at Toronto-Leaside T.S. , are to be provided, of one such 
unit per step-down bank, where required by the conditions of each 
study as shown on the load diagrams. 

4* On load tap changing equipment is assumed to be available at each 
23O/II5 kv. transformer station. 

At the St. Lawrence Development, the capacity of the units was 
varied between different tests as recorded in the log of the studies and in 
the detailed presentation which follows. The following characteristics were 
common to all studies. 

1. Transformer reactance (I3.8 kv. to 230 kv.) was assumed to be 13^ 
on rating. 

2. The generator flywheel effect was assumed to be that inherent in 
a rotor for a unit of the rating, with no addition of weight for 
the sole purpose of obtaining more flywheel effect. 



-Ill- 






3« The transient reactance set on the calculator for the generators 
was 27% based on rating; except that for the last study 25-14 • this 
was increased to 35% aa suggested by Mr. Monteith as being the 
correct value for a minimum cost unit of the rating being studied. 

4* All generators were assumed to be rated for 90% P,F« (lagging). 

The general procedure followed for each arrangement of the 230 
kv. lines studied was first to balance the system with appropriate genera- 
tion, loads and voltages at the various points so as to be certain that the 
respective system arrangement studied was a workable one* After the system 
was balanced a complete set of readings was taken and recorded on the system 
balance charts (load diagrams), pour such arrangements were studied and the 
charts are submitted as drawings 4021-2-3-4-EP, dated April 8th, 1941* 

After a satisfactory balance was obtained with each arrangement, 
system stability studies were carried on under fault conditions to check up 
the feasibility of the diagrams and to furnish data as to the characteristics 
of equipment. The results of the stability studies are submitted as curve 
sheets (drawings 1433 to 1437 EP inclusive), showing the angular swing of 
the respective rotors. On these sheets are indicated also the type and lo- 
cation of the fault, the conditions of clearance and other necessary data. 






-112- 





Above dioorom is for 9-230 Kv 'rook lines as u»«d 

in Srody £5 2 

Srud»e » t^e/t/H Differ m number of 23Q kv line * 

Hydro Elrctri© Power Commhsion 
Or Ontario 



Planning Section 
APRiL.gg.i94i Dwg402O EP. 






APPENDIX 2 

List of Studies and Notes 

Niagara 25 Cycle System 

Study 25-1 

Nine line system in 3 line groups as follows: 

3 from St. Lawrence to Leaside 
2 from St. Lawrence to York 
1 from MacLarens to Burlington 
1 from Paugan to Burlington 
1 from Chats to Burlington 
1 from Chats to London 

230 kv. tie lines as follows: 

London to Burlington 
Burlington to York 
York to Leaside 

This study was only an approximate balance and was intended as a pre- 
liminary investigation to find out what difficulties would be encountered with 
the line connection used. 

Iter the assumed load distribution it was found 

(a) Voltages on the 110 kv. system were low indicating the necessity of 
more synchronous condensers than were used. 

(b) The maintenance of system voltage required synchronous condensers of 
large capacity at St. Thomas to support the voltages at the western, 
end of the system. 

(c) Heavy loading on the London-St. Thomas tie line indicated that a 
230 kv. step-down station should be located at St. Thomas or further 
west. 

(d) Considerable back- feed on the Leaside- York and York- Burlington 230 k» 
tie lines. 

(e) The necessity for supporting the Yellow System loads by additional 
transmission from Niagara. (This was accomplished on the board by 
providing a single 230 kv. circuit from Ojueenston to London connected 
to the London 230 kv. bus.) 

Study 25-2. Master 2 

Nine line system. 3 line groups. St. Lawrence generation, 10 generatois 
and 2 generators. 

A 230 kv. tie line between Leaside and York was opened to obtain better 
control of voltage in Toronto District. Burlington transformer bank operated 
two on the Green and two on the Yellow-Brown system. It was discovered on this 
test that to get 230 kv. line from Queenston to London to carry load it would be 
necessary to segregate the Niagara generation supplying this line. 

Stduy 25-3 

A stability study of the line system of Study 25-2. The basis of the 



-113- 



study was an L-L-G fault on the 230 Kv. bus supplied by the 10 unit group at 
St=. Lawrence. 

The circuit "breaker clearance time assumed as 0.2 sees, simultaneous. 
This system is stable with a good, margin as shown by the attached curve sheet 
1433 EP. The effect of a 3 phase fault was calculated approximately. Based 
on 45 raw. losses on the generators and transformers, it was apparent that the 
system would be stahle even with a 3 phase cleared in 0.2 seconds. 

Study 25-4 

Nine line system as in Study 25-2 was L-L-G- fault at St. Lawrence 
developing into an L-L-I# fault in 0.2 sees. Fault cleared at St. Lawrence in 
0.2 sees, and at Leaside in 0.4 sees. The system is stable with Leaside. 

Study 25-5 

Nine line system of Study 25-2. 3 phase H.V. fault MVA calculated 
for fault on the St. Lawrence group of generators. 

The magnitude of fault MVA was 1,3525 + 740 =■ 2,065 mv-a. Generator 
reactance 27% on rating. 

Study 25-6, Master 3 

Eight line system with 5 line (St. Lawrence and Beauharnois)+ 3 line 
(MacLaren, Paugan, and Chats). 

Study 25-7 

Eight line system of Study 25-6. 

This was 3 phase fault calculation for a fault on the St. Lawrence 
high voltage bus with twelve St. Lawrence Generators. The total fault kv-a. 
was 2,620,000. Generator reactance 27<& on rating. 

Study 25-8, Master 4 

An eight line system with a second line between Beauharnois and Chats. 
Low voltage switching. The St. Lawrence output was raised to 615 raw. with 12 
St. Lawrence units bussed on the low voltage side of four 230 kv. lines. 

The transformer capacity Was raised to 960 mv-a. total to carry the 
load in case a line is out. 

Study 25-9 

The eight line, system of Study 25-8. This was a stability study with 
an L-L-G fault on the St. Lawrence and York circuits cleared in 0.2 seconds, 
simultaneous. 

There was very little disturbance and evidently the system is fctable 
with ample margin. Conditions would probably settle down after considerable de- 
lay, and surging. Curve Sheet 1434 EP. 

Study 25-10 

The eight line system with low voltage switching. An L-L-G fault at 



-114- 



York cleared in 0.2 seconds simultaneous. There was little disturbance on the 
system. The curve was run out to 0.7 seconds showing that the rather weak tie 
between York and the Beauharnois generating station was clearly holding the 
sub- systems together. The total short circuit kv-a. on the York bus for a 3 
phase fault was measured and equalled 2,100,000. Curve sheet 1435 EP. 

Study 25-11. Master 2 

Nine line system. St. Lawrence in two groups. Unit size increased 
to 72,000 H.P. The leaside-York tie was closed and the York- Burlington tie 
open. This was done to assist absorption of power from the increase in 
generation at the St. Lawrence thereby, relieving the loading on the Leaside 
Transformer Banks. 

Six synchronous condensers were required at Leaside and one at Lon- 
don. Additional synchronous condenser capacity at London would unload reactance 
from the Niagara plants if such were desirable. 

Study 25-12 

A stability study with the nine line system of Study 11. An L-L-Gr 
fault on the high voltage bus at St. Lawrence. This fault was run to 0.4 
seconds without clearance . Clearance in this time would have caused instability. 
Clearance in 0.3 sees, simultaneous would be sufficient to maintain stability. 
In selecting 0.3 seconds, it was felt that the conclusion could be drawn that 
if stability was maintained with the highest loading of this study it would be 
safe to assume that the earlier stability studies with lower transmission 
loading would have been stable with even better margin. 

For this study the generators at St. Lawrence were assumed to be 
52,000 kw., 58,000 kv-a. 

Study 25-13 

A stability study with the nine line system of Study 11, An L-L-G 
fault at St. Lawrence cleared in 0.3 seconds simultaneous. This test showed 
stability but by a very small margin. Curve Sheet 1436 EP. 

Study 25-14 

A stability study with the nine line system of Study 11. The fault was 
cleared in 0.3 seconds simultaneous. This was the same as Study 25-13 except 
that on the suggestion of Mr. A.C. Monteigh of the Westinghouse E.4M, Co. the 
transient reactance of the St. Lawrence generators was increased from 27$ to 
35^ on rating. 

The system was unstable under the conditions assumed, the St. Lawrence 
generators supplying Leaside losing synchronism with the remainder of the 220 kv. 
system. Curve Sheet 1437 EP. 



-115- 




^■ KMAC LAJUKfl 



-"-*Mj3M-Q 



(is) 131 Kv 



BEAUHACNOisl 



I O units 



g unita 



1ST LAWOENCfcl 



LEGEND 



Arrow and number indicate direction i maqnitude of Power flow in Mw Thus — S2 etc 

Arrow and number in bracket" indicate direction 4 maqnitude of laqqinq R Mva flow Thus —(56) etc 



Reference Study 25-2 



STUDY 25-2 



Hydro Elcctric Powt* Commission 
Of Ontario 



St. Lawrence Development 
Niagara System 
25 Cycle Load Diagram 

Planning Section 



LE.DepT 



April 8, 1941 



Dwo. 4021 E.F> 




1st. lawpencej 



legend 



Arrow and number indicate direction $ moqnitude of Power flow in Mw Thus : -62 etc. 

Arrow and number in brockets indicate direction $ magnitude of laqqinq R Mva flow Thus -(36) etc. 



Reference Study 23-6 



STUDY 25 -6 



Hydro Electric Power Commission 

Of OwTAtio 



St. Lawrence Development 
Niagara System 
25 C^cl e Load Diagram 

Plamn inoSictjon 



E.E.Dept 



April 8, 1941 



D w«. 4022 E. P. 




|ST LAWQENCfcl 



LCGCND 



Arrow and number Indicate direction i magnitude of Power flow in Mw Thus -42 etc. 

Arrow and number in bracket indicate direction 4 magnitude °"f laqqinq K Mva flow Thus -(s*) etc. 



Reference Study 23-fl 



S TUDY 25-6 

Hydro Electric Power Commission 



Of Ontario 



St. Lawrence Development 

N IACARA SVSTEM 

25 Cvcle Load Diagram 



E.EDept 



April. 8, 1941 



Pl anning Section 
Dw«4023ER 



— IOE 




- 4« 



<«0 



113 IU 



1 «o — i — 



.•lOOMAHl 



115 5 K. ' ' 

I 3TBACHAM | 



(33)- 

On as-. 

*• 1 (TiV- 



-<36) 



-as 



(!<*- 



(111)- 

CHSpr 
^-i^ -moat 



-559 



^7*3> 



((©a) 



Z03 9 Kv 



-^o % 



(5«) 



801 



IttSb j-34--<3-», 

-4b 



(id) * 



3S. '"J * 



(«> 



<4e»je" 



*»ok« 



see 



— no 



A &*^ I£HATS) 



-<»4) 

- 125 



2SOKr 



-fe5) 



sKD 



^#< W I FALL3I 

-TS 



(I©)* lx. 

250 



I O units 



-(5») 



Jc»S^O 



»V' FAU<3ANl 

da-) ' 




Z34 Kv 



/ 



37 



t*-I4« 



-(3d) 



|g«oifc 



8 (135) K>4 (33) 

J 6 



-C36) 



(•*) 



iasl(4o) 



■ (*<» 



(~) I RE AUHABNOI3| 



C units 



[ST. LAWRtNCt.1 



LCGCNO 



Arrow and number indicate direction ^. moqnttud* of Power flow In Mw. Thus — az etc. 

Arrow end number in bracket Indicate direction $. magnitude of loqqmq R Mva flow T hua — (so) etc. 



Reference Study ?5- 1 ' 



STUDY 25-11 



Hydro Electric Powns. Commission 
Or Ontario 



St. Lawrence Development 

Niagara System 
25 Cycle. Loao Diagram 



E.E.Dept 



April 6, 1944 



Pla n n inc Section 
4024- E.R 




c£-£*f T 




•y, s,w*tc 






ji.ihtj - . &fefc 1^^ ()w<r h t 













A IM I! 11 







i*MMT1NO DfcPT 



PART II 

SUPPLY TO THE 115 KV. 60 CYCLE EASTERN ONTARIO SYSTEM 
AMD GEORGIAN BAY SYSTEM 

Information relating to and data obtained in the studies are 
submitted in the appendices attached as follows: 

Appendix 

1* Drawing 4020-EP, showing in the upper part a map of the southern 
part of the Province of Ontario having marked on it the simplified 
60 cycle diagram of Eastern Ontario and Georgian Bay Systems with 
additions for St. Lawrence Development. On this are shown the 
generating cources, the principal load centres and the existing 
and proposed 60 cycle, 11.5 kv. transmission system. The existing 
lines, as of I9Z4.I, are given in a table on the map. 

2. A log of the studies made on the network calculator with explana- 
tory notes. 

3« Charts of system balance (power flow diagrams) for the system 
arrangements studied, as follows: 

Study 60-2 - Drawing 3015-EP 
Study 60-5 - Drawing 3OL6-EP 
Study 60-6 - Drawing 3017-EP 
Study 60-14 - Drawing 3OI8-EP 
Study 60-15 - Drawing 3OI9-EF 
Study 60-18 - Drawing 3020-EP 
Study 60-22 - Drawing 3O2I-EP 
Study 60-23 - Drawing 3022-EP 
Study 60-24 - Drawing 3023-EF 

4» Stability charts (swing curves) under fault conditions, as follows: 

Drawing 1438-EP for Stability Studies 6O-3 and 60-4 on the system 
of Study 60-2 

Drawings 1439-EP, 144°-EP and 1441-EP - Stability Studies (swing 
curves) 60-7, -8, -9, -10, -11 and -12 under fault con- 
ditions on the system of Study 60-6 

Drawing 144 2 -EP - Stability Study 6O-I3 for fault conditions on 
the system of Study 60-6. 

Drawing 1443 -EP - Swing curves for Study 6O-I7 for fault conditions 
on the system of study of 60-15. 

Drawing 1444-EP - Swing curves for Studies 6O-I9 and 60-20 for 
faults on the system of Study 60-18. 

Drawing 1^45-EP - Swing curves for Study 60-21, also for faults 
on the system of Study 60-18. 

Drawing 1/^6 and 1447-EP - Grouping of swing curves for comparison 



-117- 



of effect of specific remedial measures. 
Details of the Systems as Studied . 

The Eastern Ontario System, the approximate boundar- 
ies of which are marked on the map 4020-EP, is served by a pri- 
mary network of 115 kv. circuits and a secondary network of 
44 kv, circuits. Its chief sources of generation in 1941 are 
in the Ottawa Valley (Gatineau Power Company) and on the Trent 
River System. A new generating source at Barrett Chute is ex- 
pected to be placed in service in the Fall of 1942. 

The Georgian Bay System, whose boundaries are also 
marked, covers the section of the Province around the shores of 
Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe. This system is at present tied 
to the Niagara System through frequency-changer sets which 
were, however, not considered in this series of studies. In 
this case it is assumed that the Georgian Bay System will be 
connected to the Easetern System by an 115 kv. tie line so that 
it can receive power from the St. Lawrence Development. Two 
alternative line arrangements in the Eastern Ontario System 
and locations for the tie to the Georgian Bay System are dis- 
tinguishable on 4020-EP. 

General Assumptions 

The Eastern Ontario System load in 1940 was in the 
order of 115.000 kw. , while that of the Georgian Bay System 
was approximately 35»000 kw. In assigning loads for this 
study the existing loads at the various centres, including 
existing loads at Cornwall, were assumed to be increased by 
varying amounts in accordance with an estimate of load growth, 
the average increase being in the order of 100% over the 1940 
values. The generating capacity in addition to that available 
in 1942 (Including Barrett Chute G.S.) was assumed to be sup- 
plied from the St. Lawrence Development. It was further as- 
sumed that remaining 60* cycle Canadian generation would be 
absorbed by new loads in the vicinity of Cornwall. 

The following general assumptions were made regard- 
ing lines and equipment other than those at the St. Lawrence 
Development : 

1. The existing 115 kv. network was assumed supple- 
mented where required by additional circuits, the 
exact arrangements of which are indicated in the 
flow charts for the respective studies. 

2. Step-down transformation to the 44 kv. network was 
assumed to be provided in banks of 15*000 kv-a. 
each, with on-load .tap changers, similar to existing 

. banks as required by the loads. 

3« Synchronous condensers for voltage control, rated 
at 30,000 kv-a. total at Oshawa and 15,000 kv-a. at 
Fergusonvale were assumed to have been provided. 



-118- 



At the St* Lawrence Development the following assump- 
tions were made with regard to rating and characteristics of 
equipment : 

1. Step-up transformation to 120 kv. corresponding to 
the rating of the connected generator (58,000 kv-a.) 
having a reactance of 1Q£ on rating. 

2. For all studies the generator rating is based on a 
72,000 h.p. turbine with a $8 ,000kv -a, generator 
at 9Q£ power factor. 

3. For all studies except 60-11 and 60-12 the generator 
transient reactance was assumed to be l\h% based on 
the rating. For these two latter studies the trans- 
ient reactance was varied to show the effect of this 
factor on stability. 

4» For all studies except 60-9 and 60-10 the flywheel 

effect of the units was assumed to be 1 63xlO& lbs. ft. 2 
In these two studies the flywheel effect was varied 
to determine the effect of this fabtor on stability. 

The general procedure in making the studies was the 
same as on the 25 cycle system, namely to balance the system with 
appropriate generation, loads and voltages to be certain that the 
respective system arrangement was a workable one. After the sys- 
tem was balanced a complete set of readings was taken and re- 
corded on the system balance charts ("load diagrams" or "flow 
sheets" ). 

After a balance was obtained on each arrangement, 
system stability studies were carried on under fault conditions 
to check the feasibility of the diagrams and to furnish data as 
to characteristics of equipment. The criterion for system sta- 
bility was assumed to be a LL-G fault at worst location. 

SUMMARY 

A summary of conditions and analysis of results is 
given below in greater detail than available from the log of 
studies attached as Appendix 2. 

Studies 60-2, -3, -4, and -5 are system balance dia- 
grams (flow sheets) and stability diagrams on a system which . 
was not found to be workable due to the fact that the removal 
of a faulty line did not leave sufficient line capacity in ser- 
vice to transmit the power. These are included only as a matter 
of record. 

Study 60-6 - System Balance - System shown on Drawing 
3017-EP - This system comprising that of 60-2 with addition of 
a 115 kv. line between Cornwall and Frontenac , proved to be ade- 
quate for transmission of the amount of power desired. 

St. Lawrence Generation on thi3 system consisted of 
three 72,000 h.p. , 58,000 kv-a. units. 



-119- 



A series of stability studies was made based on LL-G 
fault on the 115 kv. line between Cornwall and Smiths Falls 
adjacent to the St. Lawrence bus under the conditions as stated 
in the swing curve drawings. 

Drawing 1439-EP presents swing curves of studies 60-7 
and 60-8, showing directly the effect of increasing speed of 
fault clearance, especially at the end adjacent to the fault. 

Drawing 1440-EP presents swing curves of studies 
60-7, 6O-9 and 60-IO. These curves were taken to show th var- 
iation in the stability- characterj L stic_s__gf_t he system for changes 
in the generator flywheel effect as shown on the drawing, the 
characteristic for Study 60-7 being the assumed standard charac- 
teristics for a machine of minimum-cost for the rating. 

Drawing 1441 -EP presents a similar set of curves, with 
the exception that the variable is the direct axis transient re- 
actance of the generator, Study 60-7 being repeated again on the 
curve sheet to permit comparison with results for a minimum cost 
unit. 

It will be noted from these three sets of curves that 
the combination of characteristics and circuit breaker speed for 
Study 60-7, which are for "standard" characteristics and circuit 
breaker speed, is marginal for stability, so far as the power 
transfer to the Georgian Bay System is concerned. The relative 
effect of the changes in characteristics can be seen readily and 
the value of fast clearance time is clearly brought out. 

It is also to be noted that with the conditions of 
Study 60-7 using standard machine characteristics and the 
system of Study 60-6 the greater tendency to instability lies 
between the St. Lawrence and other power sources at the east 
end of the system and the Muskoka System. It is evident from 
the swing curves that the margin of stability between these 
power sources and the Trent River plants and their local loads 
is very much greater and that a problem of stability under these 
conditions is only presented insofar as the extension to the 
Georgian Bay System is concerned. 

The next group of studies reported under Study 6O-I3, 
Drawing 1442-EP, on the system of Study 60-6, was taken to de- 
termine the effect of a fault at another location in the system, 
namely, on the 115 kv. line between Peterborough and T//eed. 
Study 60-14, Drawing 3018-EP. followed in order to determine 
the ability of the System to carry the load with this line out 
of service. The loads can be carried only if a drop in voltage 
of 1C# to 13% is accepted. The previous conclusion that for 
these studies the most severe fault should be assumed to be ad- 
jacent to St. Lawrence bus as was done in all studies by this 
one, was also confirmed. 

Study 60-15, Drawing 3OI9-EP, introduces a new group- 
ing of generation on the same system as studied in 60-6. The 
use of four "standard" generators at St. Lawrence was assumed, 
each loaded however at 45 » 000 k.w. This presents a somewhat 
heavier loading of the transmission system westwardly from the 
St. Lawrence. The increased generation was balanced by a reduc- 
time of the Barrett Chute end Trent River generations to 5^ 
normal, loads remaining at the level of previous studies. 

-120- 



Study 60-17 , Drawing 1443-EP, shows a stability test 
on this system under the conditions of Study 60-15 and with the 
results recorded. This also showed probable stability although 
the Muskoka generation, which is in effect the generation and 
load of the Georgian Bay System, was almost out of step. The 
actual, system would undoubtedly be subject to severe surging. 

Study 60-18, Drawing 3020-EP, was the first of a series 
of studies in which the St. Lawrence generation was assumed to be 
divided into two equal sections, the remaining system conditions 
being the same as those in Study 6O-I5. In this case the 115 kv. 
bus at St. Lawrence was assumed to be divided into two sections, 
each supplied by two generators and each connected to two 115 kv. 
lines as shown in 3°20-EP. Drawing 1444 -EP presents swing curves 
for a stability study under the conditions stated thereon. 

In both cases it was assumed that as soon as the fault 
was cleared a circuit breaker would be automatically closed, ty- 
ing the two sections of 115 kv. bus together. In Study 6O-I9 it 
was assumed that this breaker would be closed in 0.5 second* 
which was clearly too late to maintain stability. A repetition 
of the study in 60-20 with closure of the tie breaker in 0.4 
second would apparently pull the two halves of the system to- 
gether but this arrangement is not favoured because, if the re- 
closure is not entirely dependable as to time, a serious strain 
might be thrown on the generator units approximately equivalent 
to closing them in out of step. Data was obtained in this 
study to show the power interchange between St. Lawrence gener- 
ators following closing the tie breaker. 

In study 60-21, Drawing 1445 -EP, the two halves of the 
St. Lawrence generating station were assumed to be tied together 
on a low voltage bus through a reactor with approximately 7«25t 
reactance based on the rating on one generator. In this case 
the parts of the system are held strongly together. With this 
arrangement the high-voltage bus tie breaker could be closed 
automatically aftqr a line trips if this condition should be de- 
sired for better division of load among the renainig trunk lines 
or for any other reason. 

The remaining Studies - 60-22, -23, -24 - are Power flow 
studies for the alternative arrangement of lines via lake front 
(3021-EP) and for both alternative line arrangements, omitting 
the tie to the Georgian Bay System, 3022 -EP and 3023-EP. These 
are included, as a matter of record. 



-121- 



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ELECTRICAL ARRANGEMENT 

SCHEME I 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



DATE 
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CHICAGO 



BATE 

JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 3 



PLATE 6 B2 




PLATE 7 C2 




ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

LOCATION C 

ELECTRICAL ARRANGEMENT 

SCHEME 2 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 9 



PLATE 8 A3 




PLATE 9 83 




PLATE 10 C3 




Nets. 

If lock is not built 
es'end di*? to high 
g r ound. This 
er/ens'on was not 
included in estimate. 



J00 r eef 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

LOCATION C 

ELECTRICAL ARRANGEMENT 

SCHEME 3 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 10 



PLATE 14 



Mpj H w El 249 
Do: Norm* H. « E l_ 1410 

Crnt.EI. 229 O 




SECTION THRU OFFICE PORTION 



SECTION THRU ERECTION BAY 



mom H W El 249 
Max Normal H W. El 242.0 




». w. 1 1. 24*0 n)' • 



UltlM. Normal H. W. tl 2420 



Crotl El I960 



Mo- T W. El. 1616 




SECTION THRU HOUSE UNIT 



ScjIcO 20 40 Feef 
l.i.l 1 1 



SECTION THRU GENERATOR ROOM 



SECTION THRU SPILLWAY 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TYPE POWERHOUSE 
CROSS SECTIONS 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAOO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 



SL-PN- II 



PLATE 15 



_T 



^ DRAFT— J i W»f-l ' ftWP '—OPERATING ^iORRIDORi 



ELECTRICAL CORRIDOR 



ELECTRICAL CORRIDOR 



ELECTRICAL CORRIDOR 



Avoiloblt Spoc* for Mochint Shop 



ICE SLUICE 

ELEVATO, 



*=U 



ICE SLUICE 



P 






TRASH RACK AND 
STOP LOS SLOTS 



iNO / 
TS—^ 



TURBINE FLOOR PLAN AT SHORE END 



DRAFT "J TUBE GA~TE— 3 OPERATING l -CORRIDOR - 



-V/. I64.S-J ' 1 



ELECTRICAL CORRIDOR 



ELECTRICAL CORRIDOR 



ELECTRICAL CORRIDOR 






y 





^imuinnrninr'Lnnri 



//f<»0 ff<<rf SLOTS- 



TRASH RACK AND 
STOP LOG SLOTS 



TURBINE FLOOR PLAN AT SPILLWAY END 



=3 ' I If/. /6«J I I C I c=] 





z/f^c <wrf siors 



=n i . 1 t= 





u~inru 



■ ■/■' . ' i . ■■■ ' • - ■ i = ; f 




Sco.'e 3 20 40 . c e; 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TYPE D POWERHOUSE 
TURBINE FLOOR 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 12 



PLATE 16 




u — -^ — i_j u e 






GENERATOR FLOOR PLAN AT- SPILLWAY END 



U^l^ll^ll^^ 



PLAN OF CANADIAN POWERHOUSE - TYPE O 
UNITED STATES POWERHOUSE OPPOSITE HAND 

Sale lOOftmf 

1 i ■ ■ 



Scile ?0 40 ?ee\ 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TYPE D POWERHOUSE 
GENERATOR FLOOR 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 13 



PLATE 17 



Mm_N W L ^Et^S4S0 
Mi. Norm* H W El. 141.0 



MAILABLE SPACE FOR 
PUBLIC RECEPTION 
y ROOMS, CONTROL 
ROOM, OFFICES a 
ELECTRICAL EOUPMENT. 




Man. T W. El 161.6 




Mom T. W. El. 161.6 




Mot. F * El. 161 6 



SECTION THRU OFFICE PORTION 



SECTION THRU ERECTION BAY 



SECTION THRU HOUSE UNIT 



Mot. Normal H W El S4S0 




SECTION THRU GENERATOR ROOM 



SECTION THRU SPILLWAY 



Met T. W. El. 161.6 



* bcaUO 20 JOF«J 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TYPE U POWERHOUSE 
CROSS SECTIONS 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 14 



i i' ' j-i=zzz>-m: 



DH=ZZH±±ZD iJ — C 



-Hi 



}^r-^^c=^c 



DRAFT TUBE GATE OPERATING CORRIDOR 







^ -ELEVATOR 



w 




(gfS" 



Availabl* Space for Machine Shop 
Ei. ist.s 



ICE SLUICE 



TRASH RACK AND 
STOP LOG SLOTS 




I I „ [ 



I ' 1 



I ' " I k , '. A-* t 



w~ o "' <-} '" ' i}' "<r t^""T 'AH^^ 



-tff>«0 MTf SLOTS 



TURBINE -FLOOR PLAN AT SHORE END 



ICE SLUICE 



PLATE 18 



"LJ 



•~h i — r 



th: 




i i n 



U tf I 



TUBE GATE OPERATING CORRIDOR 







nn 



n c 



n c 



3 L" 



n c 



H L 



3 e: 



h c 



h i— — I 



it^d" ' o " t^r^~u — ^ i^'y- 1) lj F^nr ~kj *r ~i 



S7W> Z.06 SiOfS 



*£v»o ««■ SLOTS 



TURBINE FLOOR PLAN AT SPILLWAY END 



5cole 



20 40 r ?e) 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TYPE U POWERHOUSE 
TURBINE FLOOR 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 15 



PLATE 19 



-r- 



RAILROAD TRACK 



DECK AT El 197 5 





generator room floor 

CI. 197. s 



HOUSE ' 
UNIT _ 



GENERATOR PLATFORM El. 2065 



PUBLIC CORRIDOR (For vitmina powrhtutt ) 



Typical Spool 




- RAILROAD TRACK . 



BAY 

\ 



PLATFORM AT CI III 



Typical 

^pa.s 



Th NSFORUt 'S 



1 k., A - E 



3 C 



EC 



3 ■ C 



3 '. ' C 



1& ^TT^_J w 



HEAD 6ATE SLOTS- 



TRASH RACK AND 
STOP LOG SLOTS 



15 tf LJ # ^T LJ $ tf o £ 



S-7ELEVATORS 



i 



-PUBLIC VIEWING BALCONY 



ICE SLUICE 



JSI 



/cf atw?£ 






GENERATOR FLOOR PLAN AT SHORE END 




ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TYPE U POWERHOUSE 
GENERATOR FLOOR 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 16 



PLATE 20 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION 

LOOKING UPSTREAM 



Aroiloblt Spec* 



=fc 



cz 



Available Spoc* - 



=¥ 



~zn 



SPILLWAY 



n 



6><m# ^tf// 



Generator Floor El. 197.5 



Turbine floor El. 182.5 



Y~XrConnoctlng 

L_J Ti 



Tunnel 



Connecting 
Tunntl 



-0- 



/Cf SLUICE 



ICE SLUICE 



\ l~-- 



DP APT TUBE 



( > ■ 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION 

LOOKING DOWNSTREAM 



icalc 



20 40 Fee) 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWERHOUSE 
LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHI0A4O 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 17 



PLATE 21 



STOP LOG HOIST 




50' x 50' GATE 




Mom. H mjl.249.0 
Tod of eatt ELZ46.0 



40' x 38' GATE 



or rn 




50' x 34' GATE 



Scole 8 16 Fsst 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART- ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

SPILLWAY GATES 
CROSS SECTIONS 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 19 



PLATE 21 a 



Mo, H W El. 249.0 
Top of Bolt £1 146.0 



Crtst El £ £9.0 




El. 254 5 



Won H W El 249.0 
Top of Gots EI._246.0_ 



Crsil El 229 




EJ2695 



Ma,._H. W. El 24 9.0 
Top of Solo EUlttXr 



Cr tst El 229.0 



STOP LOGS 



HAMMERHEAD 6 ATE 




GATE AND STOP LOGS 



_E/£54_5 



Ma t. H W. El. 149.0 




DRUM GATE 

(Not to to considtrtd on Canadian slda) 




FLAT GATE 



EL 197.5 



I I 



WING WALL AT POWERHOUSE 



A 



5col= 







8 16 Fee! 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

ICE SLUICE GATES 

WING WALL 
CROSS SECTIONS 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 9 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 36 



PLATE 22 



DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT 

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER - INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 
CONTROLLED SINGLE STAGE PROJECT 



DURATION CURVES OF HEADS 

AT BARNHART ISLAND POWER HOUSE 

(I860 - 1939) 

(Based on Backwater Calculations F.H.98 
and Regulation Method No. 5) 




MONTHLY MEAN HEAD IN FEET AT. BARNHART ISLAND POWER HOUSE 





























PLATE 23 


164 
162 
160 

\ 
I 

158 

5 

156 

154 

152 
C 


■ 






































. 


























/ 




















/ 

/ 
/ 


















/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
• 

* 
s 
















> 


i 
* 

/ 

• 
• 


















* 






















Assu 
e Cot 


med 




Ic 


iditiOi 


75 


















































































) 20 40 60 80 10 

PERCENT OF TIME 





Source: Department of Transport Dominion of Canada, 

Dwg. No. 2324 in 8 sheets, operating scheme 5. 


ST. LrAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TAILWATER DURATION 


HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 


















DATE 
JUNE 10 1941 


DRAWING NO. 

SL-PG- 35 



PLATE 24 



PLANT 



Consumers Pr.Co. 

Shawlnigan Palls 

Fairfax Falls 

J. 0. Whit* P 

Dixon 

Rochester 

N.F.Hyd.Pr.&Mfg.S 

High Bridge (Look 7) 

Chataaugay Dev. 

Turners Falls 

Otsego 

Prootor 

Ft. Edward 

Sal Weir 

Wilson Dam 



SPEC. 

SPKK" HKAn MFQ 



Mass. 

Mich. 
Vt. 



160 



140 



120 



too 



40 




Ada 

Anson 

Glens Falls 

Cedars Rapids 

whiting Bridge 

Cookevllle 

Iroquois Falls 

Norway 

Swan Falls 

Mlllinooket 

Hoi yoke 

Cascade 

Trenton Falls 

Troy 

tTtloa 

Coon Rapids 

Rochester 

Hooksett 

N.Y.Util.Co(Bl.R.3) 

Mlnnotto 

Marshall 

Nia.F.Pr.Co.#2 

Deer Rips Station 

Sault Ste. Merle 

Hllllnocket 

Mountain St. Pr.Co. 

Green Bay ft Miss. 

Utilities Pr.Co. 

Timmins 

Oswego R. Pr.Co. 

Smoky Falls 

Raymondvllle 

City of Watertown 

Norwood 

Seneca 

High Falls 

Mich ob can 

Medina 

Norway 

Neenah 

Va. Plant #4 

North Twin 

Brule River 

white Rapids 

Stevens Creek 

Medina 

Iron Mt. 

Roanoke Rapids 

Vernon 

N.Y.Utll.(Bl.R.#2) 

North Twin 

Post Falls 

Ruth Falls 

Norman Dam 

Guernsey Dam 

Jackson Bluff 

Tidewater 

Drummondv 1 1 1 e 

App. Pr.Co. ,#4 

Minidoka 

Turbine 

Parr Shoals 

Rawkesbury 

Crisp County 



3600 
3600 
3700 
3840 
3900 
4000 
4000 
4000 
4000 
4000 
4000 
4000 
4190 
4200 
4200 
4250 
4300 
4360 
43B5 
4416 
4600 
4500 
4500 
4550 
4800 
4960 
5000 
5000 
5000 
5000 
5000 
5100 
6250 
5250 
5300 
6400 
5400 
6500 
5500 
5500 
5500 
5500 
5700 
5800 
5900 
5900 
5920 
5960 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6000 
6200 
6350 
6626 
6700 
6760 
7000 
7000 
7100 
7200 
7200 
7250 
7500 
7500 
7500 
7500 
8000 
8000 
8100 
8500 
8500 
8700 
8700 
9000 



P.C.Z. 
Conn. 



Oatun 

Mclndoes Falls 
Lower St. L. Pr.Co. 
Bast Norfolk 
Dolby Mill 
No. Canada Pr.Co. 
3. Car, Gas & Else. 
Sturgeon Falls 
Big Falls 
Crescent Dam 
Naoooohee 
Inghsms Mills 
Vernon 
Grand Falls 
Prosser 
Skonhegan 
Kent a Falls 
Oakdale 
White Rapids 
Hales Bar 
Eagle Pass 
High Dam 

Smooth Rook Falls 
Grand Falls 
Jackson Bluff 
Deferlet 
Wash. P. ft: D.Co. 
Jim Falls 
Schagntlooke 
Nla. F. Pr. Co. 
Treadgold 
Oakdale 
Hllllnocket 
Lighthouse Hill 
Ear Falls 
Int. Paper Co., Nla 
West Buxton 
Aloona 
Holyoke #8 
Nla. Falls (N.Y.#1) 
" " (N.Y.#2) 

Mllllnocket 
Beebee Is. 
KananasklB Falls 
Mo shier 
Aliens Falls* 
Guernsey Dam 
Rookland Lt.ft Pr. 
Jonage 

Don Pedro Dam 
Egllsau 

Twin Falls Ont. 

Sturgeon Pool N.Y. 

Shflwinlgan Falls Que. 

Mas sena N.Y. 

App. Pr. Co., #2 Va. 

Iroquois Falls Ont. 

Burton Ga. 

Vernon Vt. 

Rainbow Conn. 

Shoshone Wyo. 

Searsburg Vt. 

Nova Soo.Pr. Coram. N.S. 

Shawlnlgan Falls Que. 

Don Pedro Dam Cal. 

U.Q.I.Cont.Co(Oorge) Wash. 
Rookland Lt.ftc Pr(Rlo) 



N.Y. 
Me. 

Ml oh. 



Cal. 




Little Falls Wash. 75. I 
Nor. Acquisition (Vic. ) 36.: 

Gulf Island Me. 112.; 

American Falls Ido. 71 

ROmford Falls Me. 62. 

Spier Falls N.Y. 65 

Trenton Falls N.Y. 29. 
Wlnfleld 147 

Algcna Diet. Pr.Co. Ont. 62. 
Ot. Falls Fr.Co(Bl.EagleMontl30 

Badln N.C. 70 

Turners Falls Mass, 65. 

City of Eugene Ore. 81 

Stevenson Conn. 66. 

Burgln Ky. 35 

Can. Niagara Pr.Co. Can. 60 
N.F.Hyd.Pr.ft Mfg.#3 N.Y. 37. 

Snoqualmle Wash. 32. 

Ocoee Term. 36 

Sherman Island N.Y. 79. 

Rumf ord Me . 66 

Roosevelt 7th Unit Ariz. 53 

Bullards Bar Cal. 41. 

Cohoes N.Y. 61. 

Keokuk la. 75* 

Qulnte Que. 92. 

Salmon R. N.Y. 27 
Clse Bolocon 130 

Turners Falls Mass. 67. 

Sherman Vt. 70 

Shawlnlgan Falls Que. 40. 

Cove Ido. 63. 

Soft Maple N.Y. 67 

Don Pedro Dam Cal. 47. 

Wettlngen Oer. 98 

Cedarj Rapids Que. 81. 

Piney Pa. 63. 

Fishing Cr. S.C. 68 
Lookout Shoals 88 

Stevenson Conn. 79. 

Colton N.Y. 36. 

Mormon Flat Arte. 64. 

Browne Fallo N.Y. 37 

Dearborn S.C. 60. 
I aland Portage 61. 

Kern Canyon Cal. 30 

Niagara Falls Ont. 23 

Rock Island Tenn. 48. 
Mlxnltc 129 

Iaar 168 

Nlplgon 

Upper Salmon Falls 
Sao Paulo Tramway 
Niagara Falls 
Aso Village 
Lanforsen 
Brldgewmter 
51T Drop #4 
McCall Ferry 
Louisville 
Slave Falls 

Cohoes 5th Unit N.Y. 

Yonah Qa. 

Spokane Wash. 

Hardy Dam Mloh. 

Niagara Falls Can. 

Oneida Sta. Ido. 

Volta Mont. 

Hat Cr. Cal. 

Hat Cr. Cal. 
Munkfors 

Rhodlss Car. 

Terrora Oa. 

Horse Mesa Arls. 

Bardslae N.Y. 

Fond du Lao Wis. 

Colton N.Y. 

Rochester N.Y. 

Niagara Falls #6 N.Y. 
Laholm 
Abb or rf or sen 

Holtwood Unit #8 Pa. 

Hoi ton Mont. 

Cohoes N.Y. 
Holtwooa Units#6 &#7 Pa. 

Tagaloo Oa. 
Seno Awtohall 

Conklingville W.Y. 
Lake Lynn 

Ooampo Ala. 
Mantarlo 

MoCalls Ferry P». 



Cheat Haven 

Columbus 

CampAlexander 

Wateree 

Oroenvollfoss 

Shawlnlgan Falls 

Mormon Flat 

Camarasa 

Melonee 

Kllngnau 

Bellows Falls 

Tugalo 

Ooampo, Lock 12, #5 

Grand Mare 

McCall s Ferry 

Niagara Falls 

Rock Island 

Copco 

Bartletts Ferry 

Cutler 

Rochester #6 

Long Lake Sta. 

Tugalo 

Mitchell Dam 

Exchequer Dam 

Upper Tallassee 

ShowaDenryoku KKSta. 

Gorge 

Great Falls 

Oxford 

Komakl 

Deer Lake Ext. 

Wilson Dam 

High Fells 

Furman Shoals 

La Cabelle 

Norwood 

Morony 

Great Falls 

Coulter Shoals 

Shannon 

Rooky River 

Ounteravllle 

Wyman 

Hawk's Nest 

Wilson Dam 

Dogern 

Lower Tallassee 

Chlokamauga 

Rooky River 

Kemba 

La Gabelle 

Jordan Dam 

Niagara Falls 

Isle Maligna 

Swlr 

Seven Sisters 

Look 18 

Ryburg 

Carpenter 

Par any 

Santee Cooper 

Parker 

Shawlnlgan 

Safe Harbor 

Watts Bar 

Safe Harbor 

Lower 16 Mile Falls 

Cherokee Bluff 

Joe Wheeler 

Pickwick 

Comerf ord 

Rujkln 

Conowlngo 

Va. Plant fZ 

Beauharnols 

Conowlngo 

Chute a* Car on 

Saluda 

Calderwood 

Abltlbl 

Spier Falls 

Queens town 

Queenstown 

Bonneville #1 ft #E 

Chute a< Car on 

Morris 

Niagara Falls 

Bonneville #8 ft #4 

Chute a 1 Car on 

Dnel pros troy 

Duel pros troy 



I.Y. 


36. 9 


Que. 


SI 




164 


Man. 


143.6 


Ala. 


SB 


0«r. 


1B7 


Ark. 


69.6 


Brat. 


7S.1 


3.C. 


118.6 


cal. 


7° 


«u«. 


83.8 


P.. 


161 


Tenn. 


139 


P.. 


ISO 


Coon. 


48.8 


Aim. 


81 


Ala. 


148 


T*nn. 


162 




63.6 




83.3 


mi. 


88.4 


Va. 


87 


«"•• 


78 


ad. 


70 


Can. 


81.3 


S.C. 


80.2 




43.8 




43 


k.y. 


81.4 


Ont. 


37 


Ont. 


40.3 


man. 


138 


Can. 


S8.S 


T.nn. 


80.2 


I.Y. 


34.8 


amah. 


122 


Can. 


88.8 


DSSR 


88.6 


USSR 


70 




jjiiiii 



280 



300 



60 



100 



120 



140 



160 



180 



200 



220 



240 



260 



HEAD 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

PREVAILING PRACTICE 
SPECIFIC SPEED vs HEAD 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 10 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PK- 



26 



PLATE 25 



100 



1 



I 
I 



90 



80 



7C 




40 



80 



120 



160 



200 



SPECIFIC SPEED 



Sources: Sharp - Kent's, "Mechanical Engineers Handbook 1 ', page 2-42. 
Barrows- Barrows, "Water Power Engineering", page 222. 
N.EL.A -Proceedings 1928, Vol. 85, page 928. 



100 






1 



90 



80 



70 





























































^ 

>v^ 
^W- 




















TO 




4* 


\- 














"3> 
1 























30 



40 50 60 

THOUSANDS OF HORSEPOWER 



70 



HORSEPOWER DELIVERED TO GENERATOR SHAFT 



Source From curve sheet No. 5541, Baldwin 
Southwark Division, Baldwin 
Locomotive Works. 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TURBINE EFFICIENCIES 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 10 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-P6- 20 



PLATE 26 





20 






























18 
























^^ 






















16 

• 




^■^c 


> 


•^ 






















^ 






• 










£_ 




^s> 


s 












14 




















































_4_ 




























































t ' 














































! 
























CURVE A- 28 Units operated at best gate. Annual output 10,800,000,000 KWH 
8-32 best gate. II, 980, 000, 000 
C - 36 best gate. 12,600,000,000 
D-36 full gate. 12,840,000,000 




SO 

§ 8 

1 


Optimum river output 13,030,000,000 

TURBINES 81,000 HP AT BEST GATE AT 92% EFF. 
' 67,200 HP AT FULL GATE AT 90% EFF. 

GENERATORS, 55,000 KVA, 0.95 P.F., 967 % EFF. 

UNIT EFF., 89% AT BEST GATE, 87 % AT FULL GATE. 






6 


Flow and head records for computing curves taken from 
Department of Transport, Dominion of Canada drawing No. 2324. 






4 
2 




• 




































80 

1 


IC 


10 
















ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 


















POWER DURATION CURVES 
















20 40 60 
PERCENT OF TIME 

II 'II 1 


HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 


DATE 


DRAWING NO. 






J 


UNE 10 1 


941 




SL-PG 


- 21 



PLATE 27 



a 



156 



155 



154 



153 



r 



NT.Wl. AT 2J0000 ?FS 




TAILWA r£ff AT 1 1ESUMP ION OF 



TAILWA TER WHEN FLOW 



AFTER 



I HR 



FLOW OF 1 230 COO CFS 



AFTER 



R I£jJ£E? BY ,5000 



3 HRS 
AFTER 



5 HRS- 




I 2 3 4 

HOURS 

TAILWATER CONDITIONS ON DROPPING OF LOAD 



156 



155 

% 

5 154 
153 



152 




40 



30 20 10 

THOUSANDS OF FEET 



GENERALIZED RIVER GRADIENT ON DROPPING OF LOAD 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TAILWATER CONDITIONS 

AND RIVER GRADIENT 

ON DROPPING OF LOAD 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 10 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PG- 22 



PLATE 28 



250 




COPIED FROM DOMINION OF CANADA DRAWING 2324 
DEPT. OF TRANSPORT SHEET 1 OF 8 



PLATE 29 



250 



240 



ss 230 
o 

H 
Eh 

w 
w 



160 



150 



350 



o 

o 
o 
o 

H 

H 



300 



250 



200 



150 




< 
w 



C DPI ED PROM DOMINION OF CANADA DRAWING 2324 

DEPT. OF TRANSPORT SHEET 2 OF 8 



PLATE 30 



250 




COPIED FROM DOMINION OP CANADA DRAWING 2324 

DT3PT. OP TRANSPORT SHEET 3 OP 8 



PLATE 31 



250 




COPIED PROM DOMINION OP CANADA DRAWING 2324 
DEPT. OP TRANSPORT SHEET 4 OP 8 



PLATE 32 



250 



240 



;s 230 
o 

H 

En 

$ 
W 

w 



160 



150 



350 



CO 
I*. 

o 
o 
o 

H 

S3 
H 



&4 



300 



250 



200 



150 




COPIED PROM DOMINION OP CANADA DRAW™* £324 

DEPT. OF TRANSPORT SHEET 5 OP 8 



PLATE 33 



250 r 




P 
1 



COPIED PROM DOMINION OF CANADA DRAWING 2324 

DEPT. OF TRANSPORT SHEET 6 OF 8 



PLATE 34 



250 




COPIED PROM DOMINION OF CANADA DRAWING 2324 
DEPT. OP TRANSPORT SHEET 7 OP 8 



PLATE 35 



250 




P 



COPIED PROM DOMINION OP CANADA DRAWING 2324 

DEPT. OP TRANSPORT • SHEST 8 OP 8 



ST. I AWRENCE WATERWAY 

INTCmTIONALBAPIDS SECTION 

GENERAL PLAN 

CONTROLLED SINGLE STAGE PROJECT 

238-242 



PLATE 100 



9999999999999990Q9 



^■Ot^tJt^OO 



/VW A*Iaa AA^ A*A A/V\A ArVSA a4\A AaKa A-4aa A/4\A aaUa 
* AAAA AM 8 ' /VWV AAAA AAAA 

■4P- l H}'t-K]' j -4P-i 1 \ \ 



aaKa 

AAAA 



287 KV. LINES 



IIS KV. LINES 



SCHEME X-l CROSS-CONNECTED THREE WINDING TRANSF. 

A. Transformer, 13.8/13 8/ 115 KV., 165/ 165/200 MVA. Capacity 

B. Transformer, 13.8/13.8/ 287 KV., 165/165/200 MVA. Capacity 



999999999999999999 

Uvwvi/vw v4v\w vw\r4vvwvwv4vvwv^ vW 

VUV VWV WW B-VWV \AvtW \AAA/ \AAA/ \A*A/ VAAAy 

> — ' — k I 






-ck- 



1 



I' 



VlAA/ WW 



230 KV. LINES 



115 KV. LINES 

SCHEME X-2 CROSS-CONNECTED THREE WINDING TRANSF. 

A. Transformer, 13.8 / 13.8 / IISKV. 110/ 110/135 MVA Capacity 

B Transformer, 13.8/ 13.8/ 230KV., 110/ 110/135 MVA. Capacity 



999999999999999999 

a4v\ aa1v\ a4v\ _ aaIaa a/*\a a4\a aaUa 



AAAA A/W\ AAAA 



-I 



* 



n, 



f 



H s I h 
-I I h 



11 



Hi 

4 



ft ♦ 1 



MK 1 - 



-^^OToTT^- 



44 

J 



115 KV. LINES 



267 KV. LINES 



SCHEME Y-l SINGLE TRANSFORMATION 

A. Tramformtr, 13.8/ 115 KV., 110 MVA. Capacity 

B. Transformer, 13.8/287 KV., 165 MVA. Capacity 



999999999999999999 

TJTJTJTiTJTJ.fjWTJ 

aaKa a/w\ aaIv\ . aaIv\ aaUa aaIna aaKa anaa aaIaa 



AAAA AAAA 
' vrQx-- 




115 KV. LINES 



230 KV. LINES 



SCHEME Y-2 SINGLE TRANSFORMATION 

A. Transformer, 13.8 / 115 KV., 110 MVA. Capacity 

B. Transformer, 13.8 / 230 KV., 110 MVA. Capacity 



AAVVA AAV\A A/jAA AaW\ 

H. 




115 KV. LINES 



9999999999 
4444444444 

Aa!\A A^V\ AaKa A/Iaa AAy\A 



AAAA 



4 



LI 



AAAA /VWA 
L ^ — I — s — 



L /-TTCK 



<{? 



R 



* 



AAAA AAAA 



41 



AAA 



2875 KV. LINES 



SCHEME Z-l DOUBLE TRANSFORMATION 

A. Transformer, |3.8 / 115 KV., 110 MVA. Capacity 

B. Autotransf orm.r, 119 / 287.5 KV., 165 MVA. Capacity 



W 4 



I 



AAA 

r 



99999009909999 

A/V\A AArAA AaUa A/VW aaIaa A/VV\ A/*V\ 
AAAA AAW AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA 



^ w m 



ti 



9999 

fit* 

a/*v\ aaIaa 
aaaa aaaa ' 




115 KV. LINES 



230 KV. LINES 



SCHEME Z-2 DOUBLE TRANSFORMATION 

A. Transformer, 13.8/115 KV., 110 MVA. Capacity 

B. Automonitor met, 115/ 230 KV., 125 MVA. Capacity 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

ONE LINE DIAGRAMS 

SUGGESTED TRANSFORMATION 

AND SWITCHING SCHEMES 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NQ 

SL-PG- 61 



PLATE 101 



v.9»RNH»RT ISLAND 



&4 




LAKE 



N T » « ' ° 







U 



<%3 


/ 








sue*****' i . 
nvdto tt-tcr com? 

(CLmta V «v«r) ^^ 




'© \ 










i© 




U h 










;M 




© 






*r"T 


>*♦ 




'%®^< 



- -friitco\ -S5>i_ /T|r«o» / 



Aft 




ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM 
NEW YORK STATE 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE IS 1941 



ORAWINO NO. 

SL-PK- 37 



140 

$ 130 
ui 



CD 

uM20 
o 

z 

UI 

tc 

ill 

J, '00 

o 

z 

UI 
IT 
UI 
U 
U. 



90 



HJ 80 

oe 

o 

UI 

o 
70 









®/ 














// 




















© 


« 

O 
0> 




























i 


/#/ 












^/ 














/ i 


.2 


! .2 
TIME 


IN SEC 


\ X 
iONOS 


> .( 


i 



150 



140 



OI30 

>- 



ui 



120 



ui 
o 

Smo 

i 

-i 



100 



CO 

l 

ui 
o 

z 

UI 

tc 

UI 



90 



£ 80 



CO 
UI 
UI 

cc 
e> 

UI 

o 



70 



60 













































•o 














o 
o 














3 

£ 

1 


V i HI 1 























































.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 

TIME IN SECONDS 













PLATE 102 


5 


s 

UI 

1- 
co 




M 

"a: 


TRANSIENT 
REACTANCE 




e 

oe 


1 


DOUBLE 


TRANSFORMATION 




@ 


iK 




155 


44 


325 


- 



% ^ 



1 



155 



44 325 - 



® 4 



® rMi 



155 44 325 - 



155 44 325 - 



150 44 325 - 



® IPti 



.; 155 44 325 - 



SINGLE TRANSFORMATION 



%i 



155 
155 



44 325 
44 325 



I 



^ 



A 



155 44 325 

185 44 325 

200 44 325 

150 35 325 

170 30 325 



T _L-. '32.5 44 375 - 



*b 



ikrfb 



-155 44 375 - 
155 44 325 2.5% 



i^k 



150 35 325 2.5% 
132.5 44 325 i.5% 



X indicates Fault Location 
Left Bui Represents Syracuse 
Right Bus Represents Rotterdam 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

STABILITY CURVES 
A. C. BOARD STUDIES- SHEET NO. I 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 

JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-P6- 38 



PLATE 103 



s 



130 



120 



no 



100 

CO 

I 90 

s 

z 



g 



80 



uj 70 P 
Id 
OC 
© 
111 
o 
60 











<©@ 




• 






/%. 


3B§ 








O 

• 

o 








2* =^ 


gi 








!==> @r 




1 


ar/Y/ 












1 


> .; 


i A 


.! 


> .6 



140 



a 



I s • 

o 



.? • ? 



- a: K 

a £ £ 



TIME IN SECONDS 



>• 
a 

3 . 
HO 
tOZ 



s 

UJ 

W 

> 



u> 

I 

o 

x 
CM 

<r 
5 



So 
truj 

HE 



(AK 

IS 



o 

1- 

UJ 



DOUBLE TRANSFORMATION 



I 






& 



=1 



? 



l< 



® jT-^tI 1 ' 




I Hi 




NOTE^ 

Studies 9- 

all others a 



55 44 325 25% 



55 44 325 2.5% 

55 44 325 2 5% 

55 44 325 2.5% 

32.5 44 325 2.5% 

50 35 325 25% 

50 35 325 2.5% 

325 44 325 2.5% 

32.5 44 325 75% 

32.5 44 325 15.0% 

55 44 325 2.5% 

55 3 325 2.5% 

55 44 150 - 

55 4 330 2.5% 

55 44 330 2.5% 

55 44 324 2.5% 

55 44 329 2.5% 

55 44 315 2.5% 

55 44 156 2.5% 

6 inclusive are 287 KV. 
re 230 KV. 



.3 .4 .5 

TIME IN SECONDS 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

STABILITY CURVES 
A. C. BOARD STUDIES- SHEET N0.2 

HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PG- 39 



PLATE 104 



150 



140 



130 



<o '20 

id 

ui 

IT 
O 

uj 110 
a 



UJ 

-i 
o 

< 

UI 
CO 

<t 

X 

a. 



100 



90 



80 



70 



60 



50 



40 































^ 










i 








e 


k^ 




































































si 


u^ w 


^CE^ 


t$E*L^ 


Rfc_— 






WE 


STERN 
























- 










*^eff\^ 


^> 


> 


















o" 












• 






- 
















^L 












NEW 


YORK 



































.2 .3 

TIME IN SECONDS 



STUDY NO. 48 

Stability Curves For Crossconnected Scheme Using 
Three Winding Transformers. 

Transient Reactance "44% 

WR*-I55xio 6 lb. ft 2 

Double Line to Ground Fault on 230 KV. Rotterdam Line 

Seven Line System Used 

Massena Load - 250 Megawatts. 

System Stable 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

STABILITY CURVES 
A. C. BOARD STUDIES-SHEET N0.3 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-P6- 40 




PLATE 105 



PLEASANT VALLEY 



'JH&Millvood 



'?l@?Sherm3n Creek 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWER FLOW DIAGRAM 
STUDY NO. 4 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



Associated Group 



Arrow and number ,nd,cate d,rect,on f magnitude of Po~er flow in Mw Thus - 8d etc. 

Arrow and number in bracket mdicate d,rection f magnitude of !a 9S ,ng (?. M*a flo* Thus - (56) etc 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PK- 49 



PLATE 106 




Associated (7 roup 



307MW 

Arrow and number ,nd,cate d,recl,on 3 magnttude of Power flow ,n M« ThuS — BZetc 

Arrow and number in bracket .ndicate d.rechon f nnegn.tode of lagging P Mva flo„ Thus — (44) srfr 



P'-ATt 107 




PLATE 108 



3 Units 



ST. LAW PENCE 






5 Units 



Black giver Group 



I30MW 



o 



Black 
Piver 



©J 



/<;-? 



OSWEGO 



1175 



NIAGARA 



i 



o 



1 

I 



r 

(7) 



POCHESTEP 



I V'3) 

— - 7 



MW 



-tf- 



—(3) 



~- 14- 




iietjos' 



imic 



\ 

(23) 



HJt^ 1 






L ight house 
Hill 



= -r- Brown's Falls 
Jill 



\\6» 




*T=7m 

n -"3, 

1 SYPACUSE 
105%*.* 



~(5) 

— 2 



n 

26 

(is) 



(3)' 



Genera 
\h-W0slz9 



n 



! 



Montour Falls T 



Hillside 






Plverside 



M 

,?4 



-C7; 



/ttLSS" 



—f2/ 



iiilS-3 
T T ~ g 




,<£; 



fo; 



IIQ. 5I IPS 

\ 



IW 



Oneida 



Deerfield 
(Utica ) 



62=. 



(tsr- 




Spier Falls\ 



-ZZ= 



-55 






««) 



IOS5LBB 



81 
09) 



J L dpeer 



6 

(0) 



HellGate 



/iziioi '■ 



I 

Binphampton 
UZIIOl' 



TT 
fn (40) 



Waterside 



East River 



Hudson Avenue 



IOt.MW 



A 



ti 




<h>- 



58 



I/O XV 

:,„■<< ft) 

fe) /38i88° 









A 



T /o/ 



tfW < 



Ttw 
? 

i38l£ £' 
~T 



T 

32 

06) 

1 



!££&?' Millwood 



§ ( jf?j NEW YOPK 
t3Si3S>° 

* 089) 
I&Z&.B' 



T 
¥8) 



£9 7t_sa° 



138) 



iozsZ'- — |- 



1 PLEASANT [/ALLEY 



1 
<s) 



'J£f J Snerman Creek 



D 



272 MV/ 



Associated Group 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWER FLOW DIAGRAM 
STUDY NO. 7 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 



1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PK- 



44 



PLATE 109 




PLATE 110 




PLATE I I I 



9 Units 



ST. LAWRENCE 



Black giver Oroup 
132 MiM 






?■ 115175 



/ViA 



m 



Black 
Pi^er 



T 



OSWEGO 



NIAGARA 



4 



345 MM 



70- 



1%JF 



27 fc— 






-77 



^W 



^(60) 

i 



-43 



Wc 



■22) 



H I 00 



- 3 



POCHESTEP 



(12) 
—8 




-13 



-^r^- 



(?) 



^w 



H3LSS° 



inlsx 



43 
(22) 



HI 



~=W 



-14 



L ight house 
Hill 




A* 



1875IC3' 



■(33) 




9 Units 



1145175' 



28C/63' 



LU SYRACUSE 







Geneva 
'SIH I (1) -29 



"3 



n • 

25 

(15) 



146 
(Si) 



51 
(26) 



<0 



Montour Fa/Is T" 
IS 
(1) 



X. 24 



110/47' 

XT -is 



Hillside 



Riverside 



T 

20 

(10) 



W! 



-(4) 



2I< 

H \( s li4i\ 



'% 



lasts? '( 3i ) 



@(°) 



~(6) W 



1/0147 ■ 
I T -7 



-(sT^r 



131 1££ 



(Si S&. 



I \(IC) 



Oneida 



-8 



-^w 




ijm 



I 



oa s 



Binghampton 



1/3143 ' 



kc3 
(12) 



103 MIM 

Associated Croup 




284170° 



-(33) 



t 



123 
taiS(70' (4$ 



±(38) 



77/5152' 



ROTTERDAM fl 



t 




25- 

IIC- 



J20^ 



T 



Greenbush 
-M03) 



113 
(SC) 



7&7/40' 



• o > 



1511133' 



HellGale 



I 



Waterside 



Easl Piver 



Hudson Avenue 



"a 



1. 



I23U1' 

TTTaa 

m (si) 



(59) 

3,1 
(15) 



§8 



13-1 U S.' 



345 

-cm) 

1 3 751/4' 



T 
NEW YORK 8$, 



3&0, 

(/an) 

14 7 US,' 



8| 



23.7121' 



ab 



08) 



±(S) 



PLEASANT [/ALLEY 



I345L 



~'fM, 



I/wood 



m 



JHB2 Sherman Creek 



X 

(30) 
t 



f 

H55 



it 



C30 MW 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWER FLOW DIAGRAM 
STUDY NO. 13 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PK- 47 



PLATE 112 




PLATE I I 3 




PLATE 114 




PLATE 115 




PLATE 116 



ST. LAW /PENCE 



124 
(49) 



-(SO) 



PLEASANT VALLEY 



/£9/IS/° 



Western 
Croup 



/io — l 
O) — ll^i 

Brown's 
Falls 

444 (285) 



71 



34 — ■ 



Oo)~ 




(S4) 



SYPACUSE 

/33~ 

7347= 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWER FLOW DIAGRAM 
STUDY N0.25 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PK-52 



ST LAW PENCE 



PLATE 117 




PLEASANT VALLEY 

§ 37.?— I3/1££° 

(EZJI 



(55) 



NEW YO&K 



Western 
Croup 

(276) 



«3?5 MW 

Spier Fa/Is Croup 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
8ARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWER FLOW DIAGRAM 
STUDY NO. 42 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PK- 



53 



PLATE 118 



ST LAWRENCE 



Each represents 
2-55,000 KVA generators 




Western 
Group 

(379) 



, PLEASANT VALLEY 

18 318^ 13315$' 



NEW YO&K 



328 MW 

Spier Fa/ls Group 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWER FLOW DIAGRAM 
STUDY NO. 47 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PK- 54 



PLATE 119 



577 LAW PENCE 



Lach represents 
i-55,OCO KVA genera 'or s 



PLEASANT VALLEY 




NEW YOBK 



Western 
Group 



426 

(Z70) 



Spier Falls Croup 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWER FLOW DIAGRAM 
STUDY NO. 49 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PK- 55 



PLATE 120 



£ Units 



ST. LAWPENCE 



7 Units 



714 <o 
(4?£) " 

O 



Western 




(79) 



PLEASANT VALLEY 



(o) 



02) 
i — I Brown 's 

Falls 

Croup f44 

(92) 



234 
(75) 



Spier Falls Croup 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWER FLOW DIAGRAM 
STUDY NO. 66 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PK- 56 



Browns Falls 




PLATE 12 



Impedance Values on 
Board Base of 400,000 KVA. 
Capacitance in 
Beard Microfarads. 

Resistance is Corrected 
f n >~ 4% of Reactance 



gOTTEZDAM 



To Massena 



Boonville 



— \ 



vw 



Oneida 



Deer fie Id 
OJtica ) 



2 3* J 97.2 



9+ J la 4 



07, 




Spier Falls 
Croup 



_ Sy/'20G 
1 J 



Oreenbush 
HI. 27 



I'.n-r 



13 si 



1 



Olji 4 



t- Lapeer 



HellOate 



— .07 

Bmghampton 



Waterside ; 

( 

East River 

Hudson Avenue 




T 

74 



To Rotterdam H. T Bus 



z 6 - 



T^ 



1 



.£» 



/V£"n/ YORK 









PLEASANT VALLEY 



Millwood 



"X" 

27 



u 



Sherman Creek 



Assoc /a fed (Croup 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

IMPEDANCE DIAGRAM 
STUDY NO. 1-24 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAOO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PK- 57 



PLATE 122 



ST. LAWRENCE 



O Units 



Impedance Values on 
Board Base of 400,000 KVA. 
Capacitance in 
Board Microfarads. 

Resistance is Corrected 
for 4% of Peacfance. 



PLEASANT VALLEY 



Western 
Group 




| Falls 
4i>j57.S 



Spier Fa/Is Croup 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

IMPEDANCE DIAGRAM 
STUDY NO. 25-66 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO 

SL-PK- 58 



PLATE 123 



I* A 



^ 



pan 

A 



M\ 






CABLE 



OVERHEAD 



OVERHEAD 



EL 






C 



n 



rH^-i 



CABLE 






~1 



-^H 



f«I> »H.I 



FOWIR , CAILI 



SECTION A -A 



X 



L\ 



/ 



\ 




Sf--' J 



ni 



9- 



I i 



i 



1 




r^= 



H 



SECTION B - B 



SECTION C - C 



SECTION D-O 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POWERHOUSE ARRANGEMENT 
OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 

CHICAGO 

DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 59 



DATE 
JUNE 17 1941 



PLATE 124 



ET B H i H 



ra 






k L. 



ra 



H Kl E 



H H 



S S 



n ! 



Kl S H ' S 









-'„l^N- 



230 KV SUBSTATION 



{ 

o 






J 







PLAN 



gl X 



KB IS H 

K K a Kl 



H 8 8 ! B) 

"MP" 

XI 2! 



9 

is i a 






iK— \y— "LP- 1 - 

3 13 IS K B B 

1/ 



8 ! X 



x x a ' a si a s 



LP- 



LI 

xi a 



x k a 

? 

a i* ki s s a 



a 
3 



"7" 



115 KV SUBSTATION 




I 




534' -0" 



SECTION A-A 



LEGEND 

V. Tower 

O Power Polheod 



fl 



Oil Circuit Breaker 



- > - Disconnect 
i Outgoing Line 

-B- Reactor 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER DEVELOPMENT 



TYPICAL SUBSTATION 



HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY 
• CHICAGO 



OATF 
JUNE 17 1941 



DRAWING NO. 

SL-PN- 60 



PART II 



BARNHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE 



REPORT ON INVESTIGATIONS AT 
POWERHOUSE SITE 



Appendix 111-24(3) 



REPORT OH INVEST IG ATIONS AT POWER HOUSE SITE 

TABLE OF CONT ENTS 

Par. No. Paragraph T itle Page N o, 

I INTRODUCTION 

1 Purpose and Scope 1 

2 Description of Site 1 

3 Regional Geology 1 

II FIELD EXPLORATION OF FOUNDATION PRIOR TO OCTOBER 

19^0 

k General • 2 

III FIELD EXPLORATION OF FOUNDATION SINCE OCTOBER 

19UO 

5 General 2 

6 Drill Holes 2 

7 Seismic Investigation 2 

IV LABORATORY TESTS ON SOILS 
g General 3 

V LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS ON ROCK 

9 General 3 

10 Classification 3 

11 Pressure Tests 3 

12 Shear Tests k 
lU Freezing and Thawing Tests 5 
15 Slaking Tests 5 
18 Solubility Tests on Dolomite, Limestone and Sandstone 6 
21 Solubility Tests on Gypsum 7 



Par. No. 



Paragraph Title 



Page No. 



28 
30 



36 



I 
II 



II-l 

n-2,3 
1 1-5 
1 1-6 

11-7,8 
11-12 

11-13 

n-ii* 

11-15 

11-16 



71 CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUNDATION MATERIAL AS DETER- 
MINED BY FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 

Overburden 
Bedrock 

VII RECOMMENDATIONS 

Powerhouse Foundation 
Excavation for Powerhouse 

TABLES 

Results of Water Content Determinations 
Gypsum Solubility Test Results 

PLATES 

Site and Rock Contour Map 

,k Record of Foundation Exploration 

Results of Pressure Pumping Tests 
Freezing and Thawing Tests, Photograph 

,9,10,11 Slaking Tests, Photographs 

Solubility Tests, Photograph. 

Gypsum Solubility Tests, Photograph 

Gypsum Solubility Tests, Results of Procedure C 

Geological Profile along Centerline of Powerhouse 

Typical Grain Size Curves of Foundation Material 



10 
10 



11 
12 



REPORT ON INVESTIGATIONS AT POWERHOUSE SITE 
I. INTRODUOTION 

1. Purpose and Scope . - This report describes the exploration, the 
field and laboratory tests and the geological studies completed November 
1941 at the site of the powerhouse of the St. Lawrence River Project as 
conducted by the St. Laurence River District, U. S. Engineer Office, 
Massena, New York. It also presents the results and conclusions of all 
these investigations so that these data may be available for the design of 
the proposed powerhouse structure. The preliminary design of the power- 
house structure, to be located across the north channel near the downstream 
end of Barnhart Island as shown on Plate 1-1 is being made by the Harza 
Engineering Corporation, Chicago, Illinois. In order to present all of the 
data which is pertinent for the design of the powerhouse structure, the 
exploration in the vicinity of the powerhouse site completed for the South 
Forebay Dike on Barnhart Island and the New Cornwall Canal Diversion on the 
Canadian mainland has also been presented. Laboratory tests and studies 
which are only pertinent to the adjoining structures to the powerhouse 
have not been included. It is intended that such tests and studies will 

be presented in the Analysis of Design for each structure. 

2. Description of Site . - The powerhouse site extends across the north 
channel of the St. Lawrence River from the eastern end of Barnhart Island 

to the Canadian mainland. The powerhouse will be connected with the South 
Forebay Dike on Barnhart Island and a dike forming part of the New Cornwall 
Canal on the Canadian mainland. There are no bedrock exposures at the site, 
the river being entirely controlled by glacial drift. Both abutments rise 
steeply from the river's edge and are composed of glacial till. Above the 
glacial till on the abutments are subsequent deposits of alluvial and glacial 
debris. 

3. Regional Geology . - The region in the vicinity of the site is one 
of low relief which has been greatly modified by glaciation. The bedrock 
is a series of almost flat-lying sedimentary beds of lower Ordovician age 
and is buried beneath the deposits of the last glacier or the Champlain Sea. 
The Chazy and Beekmantown formations occur in the region. The Chazy for- 
mation was deposited after the Beekmantown, and it consists mainly of dolomite 
interbedded with limestone, sandstone, and shale. The Beekmantown formation 
is massive dolomite with minor beds of shale. The Chazy formation occurs 

at the surface of the bedrock along the river in the vicinity of Barnhart 
Island. The Beekmantown formation is at the bedrock surface at the Grass 
River and Robinson Bay Lock approximately two miles south of the powerhouse 
site and in the vicinity of Cornwall Island a few miles downstream. Rock 
outcrops are found only at a few places where the rivers have cut down 
through the drift cover. One large outcrop area occurs along the north 
shore of Barnhart Island. The small relief of the region is due to the 
low hills of glacial till which rise above the wide flat valleys. These 
flats are valleys in the till topO£raphy which have been filled with marine 
silt and clay deposited in the waters of the Champlain Sea, an estuary of 
the Atlantic Ocean which occupied this region after the retreat of the ice 
sheet. The present rivers flow in valleys which are almost entirely con- 
trolled by glacial drift. 



-1- 



II. FIELD EXPLORATION OF FOUNDATION PRIOR TO OCTOBER 1940 

4» General . - Prior to October 194°* the governments of Canada and 
the United States and various private companies made investigations in the 
vicinity of the present site of the powerhouse for the purpose of determin- 
ing the foundation conditions. Most of the field exploration was of a pre- 
liminary nature for the purpose of studying various plans and layouts. The 
exploration consisted of drilling holes through overburden by wash boring 
methods and into bedrock with core bits. The field logs of the drill holes 
completed from 1919 to 19-<5 by the Joint Board of Engineers are on file in 
the district office. The location of all drilling prior to October 1940 
is shown on Plate II-l 

III. FIELD EXPLORATION OF THE FOUNDATION SINCE OCTOBER 1940 

5» General . .- Field exploration conducted by the U. S. Corps of 
Engineers since October 1940 at the powerhouse site for the purpose of 
obtaining information for design has consisted of extensive geological 
reconnaissance, drilling in overburden and rock, and the determination 
of the elevation of bedrock by seismic methods. Similar exploration was 
conducted for the South Forebay Dike on Barnhart Island and the New Corn- 
wall Canal on the Canadian mainland, some of .vhich may be pertinent for 
interpretation of the soil and bedrock conditions at the abutments for the 
powerhouse. The location and extent of all exploration since October 1940 
in the vicinity of the site is sho.vn on Plate II-l. Complete reports of 
drill holes, test pits and test trenches, and the notes and computations 
of seismic investigation are on file in the district office. Records of 
the drilling exploration are shown on Plates II- 2, 3 an ^ L 4» All soil 
samples and rock co-res are stored in the District Soils Laboratory. 

6. Drill Holes . - Holes for the purpose of determining both over- 
burden and bedrock conditions were drilled with diamond core drilling 
equipment using 3£-inch casing in the overburden and a 2-1/3-inch bit to 
obtain bedrock cores. Holes drilled specifically for overburden investi- 
gations for the South Forebay Dike have been drilled using 2^-inch casing. 
The overburden was dry-sampled with a 2-inch sampling tube and a 1^-inch 
sampling tube when 3i-i ncn and2^-inch casing was used, respectively. Fifteen 
of the holes were entirely wash bored through the overburden, and no soil 
samples were obtained. At the other twenty-five holes drilled, dr./ sampling 
was attempted at approximately 6-foct intervals or at changes in material 

to obtain soil samples and wash borin._; bet-.een samples was permitted. A 
total of forty holes was drilled at the site and immediate vicinity with 
a total footage of 2,102.6 feet in overburden and l,7S^.j feet in rock. 

1 

7. Seismic Investigation . - Seimir invest igations were conducted on 
both abutments at the site to supplement the informs: .on from drill holes 
regerding the elevation of bedrock. The work was coj ..-ted by A. S. food, 
Associate Geologist of the Binghamton District and E. R. Shepard , Senior 
Physicist, Office of the Chief of Engineers, using the method developed 

by Mr. Shepard. (For brief description see article "The Seismic Method of 
Exploration Applied to Construction Projects" by E. P. Shepard, The 
Military Engineer, September-October 1939). A total of fifteen seismic 
lines was fired in the vicinity of the site. No difficulties were en- 
countered during trie investigation, and the rock ele-< :v. ;.ons as obtained 
by the seismic methods ire considered e reliable. A complete detailed 



-2- 



report of the seismic investigations conducted for the St. Lawrence River 
Project will be placed on file in the district office. 

IV. LABORATORY TESTS ON SOILS 

8» G eneral . - Because of the type of overburden materials at the site 
and the small significance that their characteristics has on design, no ex- 
tensive program of soil testing was deemed necessary. Tests were only made 
to determine the types of material that must be excavated and the character- 
istics of the materiels for foundations for the lower cofferdams. The 
foundation of the powerhouse structure will be constructed on bedrock. All 
soil samples were classified using the M.I.T. scale of classification and 
recorded in a final report of each hole. The grain size distribution of a 
sufficient number of samples was determined by the usual sieve and hydrometer 
method to serve as a guide in the classification of all samples. For all 
tests it was assumed that the specific gravity of the soil particles is 2. 70. 
From the laboratory classification and the field log, geological descriptions 
of the overburden at esch drill hole was prepared. These descriptions are 
shown on Plates II-2, 3, and k> No natural density determinations, shear or 
permeability tests were made on samples taken within the foundation areas. A 
few water content determinations were made on samples of glacial till from the 
right abutment, the results of which are shown in Table I. 

V. LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS ON ROCK 

9. General . - To determine the quality and character of the bedrock, 
field tests were conducted at some of the drill holes, the cores obtained 
were classified in detail by visual inspection, and laboratory tests were 
performed on selected samples. The laboratory testing program was made in 
conjunction with the program for the Long Sault Dam. The proposed Long Sault 
Dam is located at the head of Barnhart Island, approximately- four miles up- 
stream from the powerhouse site. The bedrock at each site is of the same 
origin end composition, and therefore, samples were selected regardless of 
the site to obtain the most suitable specimens for tests and the most repre- 
sentative of the various beds in the rock formations. The test results on 
samples from one site are considered valid for both sites. 

10. Classification . - The rock cores obtained from drill holes were 
classified by a geologist. The condition of the bedrock was determined by 
interpretation of the field log and pressure test data, and visual examina- 
tion of the cores. Detailed and general classifications are recorded in 
the final report of each drill hole. The general classifications are shown 
on Plates II-2, 3, and k- 

11. Pressure Tests . - D-iring the current field investigations, 
pressure tests using standard pressure pumping equipment were conducted in 
the bedrock in the vicinity of the site-, at eleven of the twelve drill holes 
which extended k0 or more feet into rock. The data of the tests were re- 
corded in the report of each hole, on file in the district office and the 
results are shown graphically on Plate II-5. The leakage in these tests 
were apparently confined to seepage along natural bedding planes and joint 
cracks in the rock. 



-3- 



-. . -_;- 3--Jx: .eer.%.4e occurec : i z .ine? where smexi solution. 
cavities exist in 'ere rock. 

12. Shear Tests . - Tests- were made in the Binghamton District 
laboratory on core drill samples tc determine the shearing strength 
of the various rocks which occur in the foundation. Three types of 
shear tests were performed, namely direct shear for breaking end 
sliding, double shear with and without axial loading and compression 
tests. Testing in the direct shear machines was limited to shale 
specimens. In the testing procedure each sample was firmly set in 
plaster of paris in the upper and lower housings of the shear box and 
tested in shear at various normal loads. It was possible to break 
several specimens of one class of shale and thus determine the cohesion, 
but in most instances, the specimens -were intentionally fractured along 
a bedding plane prior to testing, so that actually a sliding test was 
conducted. All tests were run submerged. In preparing specimens for 
the compression test, a 2 to 1 ratio of length to diameter was adopted. 
The ends were capped with •Hydrolite* and then faces off in a lathe. 
The rate of loading in the Universal testing machine was approximately 
2,000 lbs. per minute. A description of the double direct shear tests 
is omitted since the accessory equipment did not function satisfactorily 
and the results are not considered valid. 

13« The results of the compressive strength tests ere as follows s 

Material Site Hole Elevation Compressive Strength p.s.i 

Shale Long Sault Dam D-lOib 124.0 7900 

Shale Long Sault Dam D-lOio 96.8 6950 

Dolomite Long Sault Dam D-1057 148.? 7100 

Dolomite Powerhouse D-IG37 95.2 9300 

Limestone Long Sault Dam D-IOic 136.0 5750 

Limestone Long Sault Dam D-1016 I36.O 7450 

Limestone Powerhouse D-1024 111.7 495° " 

Sandstone Powerhouse D-1026 84. 1 132OO 

The results are somewhat erratic, due in several instances to the variation 
in structure and composition of the specimens and the fact that 
irregularities in the relatively small specimens (2-1/8 inches in diameter) 
influenced the type of failure. Fracturing cf the sempies wa? in general 
quite irregular, occurring in vertices creeks and inclined at varying 
angles to the axis and occasionally along joint planes. However, the 
direct shear tests on shale indicated fairly consistent results. For one 
set of specimens obtained at elevation 126 from drill hole D-101t t a 
friction angle of 23*5 degrees was indicated with a cohesion of 0.8 tons 
per square foot. It was possible tc brear. only one shale specimen of 
another set obtained at elevation 98 fiom drill hole D-1016, in the direct 
shear machine, which indicated a high cohesion value. The material of 
this set also nad a high value of maximum sliding sheer due to interlocking 
on the sliding plane si.d an ultimate sliding sheer friction angle of 31 
degrees. 



14. Freezing and Thawing Tests . - Specimens of shale, dolomite, 
limestone and sandstone were taken from the following holes and subjected 
to nine cycles of freezing and thawing. 



Material 


Site 
Powerhouse 


Hole 
D-1026 


Det 


>th 


Elevation 


Sandstone 


81.2 


- 8I.5 


80.8 


Shale 


New Cornwall Canal 


D-1122 


k3-3 


- 43-6 


153.0 


Dolomite 


Powerhouse 


D-1025 


60.4 


- 60.7 


102.1 


Limestone 


Powerhouse 


D-1028 


51.9 


- 52.1 


109.1 



The tests were conducted during the winter. A cycle consisted of freezing 
the specimen in water outdoors for a period of sixteen hours followed by 
thawing at a temerature of approximately 22 degrees Centigrade for a 
period of eight hours. The condition of the specimens before testing and 
after nine cycles are shown by the photographs on Plate II-6. The dolomite, 
limestone, and sandstone showed little or no effect from the tests. The 
shale, however, broke into numerous thin discs, wafers and small flakes. 
These breaks all occurred along bedding planes in the shale, and there was 
no tendency of the rock to break down to its original silt and clay. The 
tests were discontinued only when weather conditions did not allow freez- 
ing outdoors at night. 

15. Slaking Tests . - Specimens of shale, dolomite, limestone, and 
sandstone taken from the following locations were used for initial slaking 
tes ts • 



Test 


Material 


Site 


Hole 


Depth 


Elevation 


Oven dry 


Sandstone 


Powerhouse 


D-1026 


79.2-79.5 


82.8 


Oven dry 


Shale 


Powerhouse 


D-1028 


56.6-56.9 


104.4 


Oven dry 


Dolomite 


Powerhouse 


D-1026 


95.5-95.8 


I66.5 


Oven dry 


Limestone 


Powerhouse 


D-1027 


38.O-38.2 


152.9 


Air dry 


Sandstone 


Powerhouse 


D-1026 


79.0-79.2 


83.O 


Air dry 


Shale 


Powerhouse 


D-1028 


56.2-56.4 


104.8 


Air dry 


Dolomite 


Powerhouse 


D-1026 


91.7-91.9 


70.3 


Air dry 


Limes tone 


Powerhouse 


D-1027 


30.2-30.4 


130.7 



Each specimen was subjected to eleven cycles of wetting and drying. A 
cycle consisted of soaking the specimen in distilled water for a period 
of three days followed by drying the specimen for a period of four days. 
One set of specimens was air dried at approximately 22 degrees Centigrade, 
while the other set of specimens was oven dried at approximately 105 degrees 
Centigrade. The condition of the specimens prior to testing and after two 
and eleven cycles are shown on Plates II-7 to 9» inclusive. 

l6. During the initial tests, the shale broke down into numerous 
wafers. Therefore, a second series of tests was started using specimens 
of shale taken from the following locations to determine if various beds 
of shale had the same characteristics. 



-5- 



T«3t 



Site 



Hole 



Depth 



Elevation 



Oven dry Long Sault Dam D-101? 

Oven dry Long Sault Dam D-101 6 

Air dry Long Sault Dam D-1019 

Air dry Long Sault Dam D-I016 



38.4-38.6 

854-85.6 
36.6-38.7 

85, 6-85. 8 



13^.1 
88.3 

135.9 

88.1 



The condition of specimens prior to testing and after two, eleven, and 
fifteen cycles are shown by the photographs on Plates 11-10 and 11. 

17. During the tests, the dolomite, limestone and sandstone were not 
greatly affected. The shale, however, as in freezing end thawing tests, broke 
down into numerous wafers and flakes* There was no tendency to break down to 
its original silt and clay. In the same number of cycles, the shale subjected 
to oven drying broke down more than that subjected to air crying. The second 
series of tests indicated that the shsies from the several beds selected ap- 
parently broi.e down at about the same rate end to the same extent. 

18. Solub i lity Tests on D olomite , Liraestone and Sandstone . - 
Solubility tes+s were conducted to determine the solubility of dolomite, 
limestone, and sandstone. No tests were performed on samples of shale since 
it was evident from slaking tests that valid measurements could not be made. 
The samples which are considered representative were chosen for these tests 
and were taken from the following locations: 



M ateria l 

Sandstone 

Dolomite 

Limestone 



Site 

Long Sault Dam 
Long Sault Dam 
Long Sault Dam 



Hole 

D-io6o 
D-1004 
D-1006 



Depth 



37. 

40. 



g leva t ion 

I54.6 
93.0 

1334 



The procedure consisted of immersing each sample in St. Lawrence River water 
for a period of six days and on each seventh day the sample was oven dried 
at e temperature of 110 degrees Centigrade for a period of sixteen hours, 
cooled in a dessicator and weighed. The three samples vers immersed in one 
storage jar containing 700 c.c. of water which was changed daily. Preliminary 
tests were made to establish the procadure for drying. These tests showed 
that consistent results could be obtained by air drying the sample. When 
the sample was oven dried for more then 16 hours, however, the weight did not 
change . 

19. The samples had the following apparent specific gravity, initial 
weights, and surface areas prior to the starting of the final tests: 



Limestone Dolomite 



Initial dry weight in grams 
Approximate surface area in sq. cm. 
Apparent specific gravity 



■■'.' V3 
201.6 

2.7 



54748 
192.0 

2.8 



Sandstone 

425.58 
162.0 

2,7 



The results obtained are as follows; 



Weighing No. 



Orams dissolved per 6 d?y period 
Limestone Dolomite Sandstone 



.:• 






:ti 



-•.. 



.00 


.01 


.00 


.10 


.15 


.03 


.20 


.13 


.06 


.03 


.11 


.01 


.14 


.13 


.09 


.13 


.12 


.01 


.12 


.13 


.10 


.29 


.01 


.02 


.08 


.02 


.03 


.13 


.15 


.07 


.08 


.11 


.01 


.09 


.06 
1.32 


.01 


1.60 


0.46 


0.114 


0.094 


0.033 



3 

4 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
Total grama dissolved 

in 84 days 
Average grams dissolved 
per 6 day period 

The above talulation shows that the quantity dissolved during each six 
day period was not constant or uniformly varying. The large variation 
in some cases was due to the formation of fresh cracks as determined by 
study of the photographs and notes. Plate 11-12 is a photograph showing 
the initial and final conditions of the samples. . 

20. The procedure used in the tests did not produce the conditions 
which exist in nature and therefore the results of the tests must not be 
considered as valid for natural conditions. The main variations from 

the natural conditions were (1) the water was not under pressure, (2) 
the samples were oven dried after eech six days of immersion, and (3) 
the water was obtained from the river surface. However, the results 
indicate that if St. Lawrence River water flows very slowly over fresh 
surfaces of limestone, dolomite and sandstone, in a period of three 
months, approximately 7«4» 6.4. and 2.6 grams respectively will dissolve 
from each square foot of surface. It is believed that these results are 
sufficiently accurate for the problem involved and more refined tests are 
not required. The depths to which the three types of bedrock will dis- 
solve in the same period cannot be determined since it is believed that 
some of the constituents of each type dissolves faster than others. 
However, assuming that all constituents do dissolve at the same rate, the 
corresponding dissolved depths in the first three months for the limestone, 
dolomite and sandstone would be approximately .0012, .0010, and .0004 inches, 
respectively. 

21. Solubility Tests on Gypsum . - Tests were made in still and 
running water to determine the general solubility characteristics of the 
gypsum which occurs in the foundation for the powerhouse. No gypsum was 
encountered at the Long Sault Dam site except a stratum approximately 4 
feet thick at elevation -15 which is about 165 feet below the general rock 
surface. Apparently the same stratum was encountered at the powerhouse 
site at D-H31 and D-I384 at elevations -15 and -33 respectively. Above 
elevation -15 at the powerhouse site, the gypsum occurs as thin films, 
disseminated crystals, and thin beds, from 1/4 to 2 inches in thickness. 
No satisfactory samples for the tests could be obtained from the thin 
films and beds. The samples were, therefore, selected from the 4-foot 
bed which occurs in D-H3I between elevations -I4.6 and -18.6. These 
samples were mostly rock gypsum with some selenite, a crystaline variety 
of gypsum. Small shaly veins, carboneous material and other impurities 



_7_ 



were also jpreaent in the samples. The ends of the samples were filed in 
order to obtain accurate surface area measurements. The initial volume, 
surface area and apparent specific gravity of the samples prior to the 
first set of tests were as follows: 

Sample No. 1 Sample No. 2 Sample No. 3 

Initial Volume 153« 2 c » c » 151*5 c.c. 110.4 c.c. 
Initial air dried 

weight 354 • 9 gms. 351*7 gms. 257. 1 gms. 

Initial Surface Area 153*9 sq.cm. 15 2 -4 sq.cm. 125-4 sq.cm. 
Apparent Specific 

Gravity 2.32 2.32 2.33 

22. Preliminary tests were made to determine the quantity of 
water that should be used to give satisfactory results for the first 
set of tests and to develop a method of drying which would produce con- 
sistent weighing results. It was finally decided that each simple 
should be immersed in 300 c.c. of water. To determine the length of 
the drying period, the samples were immersed for eight hours, then air 
dried. The air dried samples were weighed at various time intervals 
during a period of sixty hours. The results showed, that after 16 hours 
of air drying, the weight of the samples did not change. Therefore, in 
the tests, the samples were air dried before weighing for a period of 
approximately sixteen hours. The samples were not oven J ried as in the 
solubility tests of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone (see paragraph 
18) since heat readily transforms gypsum to plaster of peris. 

23. After the preliminary tests, the samples ?;ere tested according 
to the following procedures for the first set of tests, respectively! 

Procedure A . - Each of the three samples was immersed for 
l6£ hours in St. Lawrence River water. The water was not changed through- 
out the series. The samples were air dried and weighed after the periods 
of immersion shown in Table II. 

Procedure B . - Procedure A was followed except distilled 
water was used and the total period of immersion was 10£ hours. The 
periods of immersion are shown on Table lie 

Procedure C . - Each of the three samples was immersed in 
St. Lawrence River water for successive periods shown in Table II to a 
maximum period of 16 hours. After each period, the samples were air 
dried and weighed. The water for each period was fresh river water. 

Procedure D . - Procedure C was followed except distilled 
water was used and the maximum period of immersion was 14 hours. 

24. The results of the first set of tests are tabulated in 
Table II and those of Procedure C are shown graphically on Plate 11-14- 
The conditions of the samples after the first set of tests is shown on 
Plate II-I3. The time required to obtain saturation by Procedures A 
and B were slightly greater than by Procedure C and D. This difference 
is probably casued by the fact that each time the sample was replaced 
into the solvent, a period of time was required to produce the correspond- 
ing solubility rate for the particular concentration of the solution. 

-8- 






For this reason, it is believed that the results by Procedure C may be 
the most representative. A comparison of the results shown on Table II 
does not indicate any appreciable difference in rate and quantity of 
solubility between the river water and distilled water. An analysis of 
the St. Lawrence River water made in 1906 and 1907 by the U. S. Geological 
Survey gpve the following average results (see U. S. Geological Survey 
Water Supply Paper No. 236): 

"Average analysis of water from the St. Lawrence River at 
Ogdensburg, New York September 13, 1906 to August 18, 1907 in parts per 
millions* 

Silica (Si02) 6.6 Bicarbonate (HC0«) 122.0 

Iron (Fe) 0.05 Sulphate (SO. ) 12.0 

Calcium (Ca) 31.0 Chloride (Cl} 7*7 

Magnesium (Mg) 7.2 Nitrate (N0„) 0.3 

Sodium and Potassium (Na$K) 6.3 Total dissolved solids I3/4. 

25. After the first set of tests, a second set of tests were made 
on samples Nos. 1 and 2 in running city water. The samples were placed in 
a battery jar containing approximately 1200 c.c. of water. Running water 
entered at the bottom of the jar and overflowed at a rate of approximately 
1500 c.c. per minute. The samples were dried and weighed as described in 
paragraph 22. In 20 hours and 30 minutes of immersion, there was dissolved 
from samples Nos. 1 and 2, 8.5 and 6.9 grams respectively. 

26. The results of Procedure C of the first set of tests and those 
of the second set of tests c c jn only be considered as indications of the 
results that would be obtained under actual field conditions. The field 
conditions that are different from those used in the tests are as follows: 

(a) The water is under pressure. 

(b) The temperature of the water is probably lower. 

(c) The chemical composition of the water probably varies with 
depth and differs from the surface water used in the tests. 

(d) The purity of the gypsum is probably greater in the thin 
films and some beds than in the stratum from which the tests samples 

were obtained. 

27« If it is assumed that the field conditions would produce com- 
parable results to those obtained in the tests, the general conclusions that 
can be made by converting the data shown on Plate 11-14 and given in para- 
graph 25, are: (1) that if still fresh water comes into contact with gypsum 
in the foundation, that each cubic foot of water will dissolve approximately 
65 grams (O.lij. lbs.) of gypsum; (2) that if water moves so that a gypsum 
surface of 15 sq. ft. is covered every two hours with one cubic foot of 
fresh water, 275 pounds (approximately 2.0 cu. ft.) of gypsum will dis- 
solve in one year; (3) that if fresh water swiftly moves over a gypsum sur- 
face of 15 sq. ft. 700 pounds (approximately 5 cu. ft.) of gypsum will 
dissolve in one year. It is concluded from these results, although it 
i3 believed that they must be considered as very approximate, that if 
fresh water has &cc^33 to the gypsum beds and films in the foundation of the 
powerhouse site that an appreciable quantity of the gypsum would rapidly 
be dissolved. 

-9- 



VI. CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUNDATION MATERIAL AS DETERMINED 
BY FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 

28. Overburden. - The general overburden relations along the proposed 
center line of the powerhouse structure (see Plate II-l) are shown by the 
geological profile on Plate 11-15 and the classification of the overburden 
at each drill hole is shown on Plates II-2, 3 and 4« The overburden in the 
river channel and the abutments is mainly glacial till composed of compact, 
clayey and gravelly sand with occasional boulders. A boulder pavement and 
superficial deposits of sand and gravel may be present in the stream bed 
above the compact till. On the left abutment there is a deposit of clayey 
3ilt varying from 3 to 6 feet in depth overlying the till. On the right 
abutment above the steep river bank, deposits of stratified sand occur to 
depths of 40 feet. Typical grain size curves of the soils encountered during 
drilling are shown on Plate II- 16. 

i 

29 • No tests have been made to determine the permeability and shearing 
strengths of the overburden materials. Based on experience with similar 
materials, it is estimated that the glacial till has a co-efficient of per- 
meability of approximately 0.0000001 cm. per sec, a cohesion of 0.2 tons per 
square foot and an angle of internal friction of 36 degrees. It is estimated 
that the gravelly sand in the right abutment has a co-efficient of permeability 
ranging between .0001 and 1.0 cm. per sec. and an angle of internal friction of 
36 degrees. The sand is cohesionless and may be water bearing. Using the re- 
sults of the water content determinations shown in Table I, it has been com- 
puted that the unit dry weight of the glacial till is approximately I32 pounds 
per cubic foot corresponding to a saturated weight of 145 pounds per cubic 
feet. 

30. Bedrock . - The bedrock at the site as shown by cores recovered from 
drilling is dolomite interbedded with«thin strata of shale, sandstone and 
limestone, minor thin deposits and one major stratum of gypsum. The general 
rock classifications at each drill hole are shown on Plates II-2, 3 and 4» 
Ifore detailed classifications are given in the reports for each drill hole on 
file in the district office. The shale beds vary in thickness from thin 
stringers to 3 feet but in general are less than 12 inches in thickness. The 
strata of limestone and sandstone vary in thickness from 1 inch to 3 feet. 
Gypsum occurs at the site above elevation -15 as thin films and veins in joints 
bedding planes, and fractures, as local disseminated deposits in the dolomite 
and in beds from 1/4 to 3 inches in thickness. Two drill holes, D-II3I and 
D-I384, which were drilled 200 and 170 feet, respectively, into bedrock, en- 
countered a bed of gypsum 4 feet thick at elevations -15 and -33t respectively 
This bed appears to be continuous under the site, sloping gently from right to 
left. A similar bed of gypsum occurs at the Long Sault Dam site at elevation 
-15 which indicates that these may be the same bed and may be persistent 
throughout the region. All other deposits of gypsum at the powerhouse site 
appear to be discontinuous, thin and confined to local zones. 

31 • The upper strata at the site were deposited as part of the Cbazy 
formation as determined by characteristic fossils found in the rock cores and 
in the outcrops along the north shore of Barnhart Island. In the rock core ob- 
tained at elevation H3.9 fromD-1131, there is a disconformi ty which indicates 
an erosion interval and therefore, the lower strata at the site are of a 
different age than the upper strata. The lower strata may be part of the 



-10- 



lower Chazy or the B e ekmantown formations. A similar, and apparently the same, 
disconformity was found at elevation 96 in D-1059 at the Long Sault Dam site. 
It is known that the contact between the Beekmantown and Chazy formations is 
in the vicinity of the site. The Beekmantown formation is known to occur 
at the bedrock surface approximately 2 miles south and also 3 miles east. The 
original gypsum beds which include the 4 foot bed and probably a few of the 
thin beds at the site were probably deposited in salt lakes in a region of 
arid climate. The thin beds which are apparently discontinuous were deposited 
in separate pools. The films and veins and disseminated zones of gypsum found 
in the bedrock are the result of crystalization from gypsum-bearing underground 
water percolating along natural openings. 

32. Plate II-l shows the bedrock contours drawn using the information 
obtained from drilling and seismic investigations. The rock contours have 
been extended beyond the area of intensive exploration to show the general 
trend of the bedrock surface. The contours in the vicinity of the actual 
foundation areas for the powerhouse and the lock for the New Cornwall Canal 
(between D-1135 and D- 1121) are considered sufficiently accurate for design 
purposes. The validity of the contours outside of these areas may be eva- 
luated by the intensity of exploration. The surface of the bedrock slopes 
generally toward the southeast and is cut under the present river channel 
by a shallow rock valley. The configuration of the surface is the result 
of pre-glacial erosion. 

33 ♦ The rock is generally sound, hard and unweathered. The bedding 
is nearly horizontal as determined by examination of the rock cores and the 
outcrops approximately 1 mile upstream from the site. The bedrock is inter- 
sected by several joint systems, apparently haphazard in pattern. Porous, 
weathered rock in a few zones form 1 to 3 feet thick was found in some cores. 
It is believed that these are zones from which gypsum has been leached by 
percolating ground water because these zones occur immediately above the 
existing gypsiferous zones. The largest open cavity encountered during the 
exploration is 2\ feet thick at elevation 80 at drill hole D-1039* At this 
same elevation, the rock core loss during drilling in hole D-1065» 20 feet 
from D-1039* indicated that the cavernous zone is not entirely open and 
that the open cavity at D-1039 is probably not extensive. A few small cavities 
were encountered during drilling at other locations and it is believed tha.t 
they are unconnected and not completely open. At a few places in the river 
channel near the Canadian abutment the rock may be badly broken. Between 
elevations f47 to -23 at drill hole D-13 q 4» the rock is badly fractured which 
may have been caused by slight faulting which is indicated by breccia and 
slickensided fragments obtained during drilling 

34* The limestone, dolomite and sandstone in the foundation are 
structurally sound but slightly soluble as determined by the test described 
in paragraph 18. The shale which occurs is hard and will not break down 
to its original silt or clay when subjected to weathering agents. However, 
the shale will break into thin fiat fragments. The shearing strengths of rock3 
in the found: tion are indicated by the results given in paragraph 13< The 
gypsum as determined by test, is very soluble. 

VII. REC OMMENDAT 1 0N5 

35* Powerhouse Foundation . - To insure the watertightnass of the 
foundation rock and to help prevent solution of gypsum deposits, the 

-11- 



bedrock should be thoroughly grouted to a depth of 20 feet below the 4-foot 
bed of gypsum (see paragraph 3°) which is believed to be continuous at the 
site. It is doubtful if thorough grouting will prevent the solution of 
some of the gypsum beds and, therefore, provisions should be made in the 
design so that the bedrock may be re grouted to seal new openings produced 
by dissolving of gypsum. Observation wells should be installed during 
construction downstream from the grout curtain to aid in determining when 
regrouting is required. If beds of shale are found at the elevation of the 
base of the powerhouse foundation, they should be excavated so that the 
footings will not bear on shale. 

36. Excavation for Powerhouse . - Most of the earth excavation for the 
powerhouse structure will be compact clayey and gravelly sand (glacial till) 
except on the right abutment where gravelly sand will be encountered. Since 
the glacial till material is quite impervious and has a high shearing strength, 
the construction slopes may be steep. The gravelly sand on the right aburment 
is cohesionless and pervious and if excessive ground water is present, some 
difficulties may be encountered. Fcvever, with proper pumping or drainage 
methods, safe excavation slopes can be maintained. The materials from the 
excavation may be used for cofferdam, dike and fill construction, and the 
glacial till may be best used in impervious sections. 



-12- 



TABLE I 



POWERHOUSE SITE TEST DATA 



WATER CONTENT 



Water Content 



Drill Hole 


Sample 


Elevation 


% Dry Weight 


D-2034 


14 

15 
16 


156.2 
151.2 
147.2 


9-3 
12.8 

7.7 


D-2035 


9 

10 


166.2 

161.4 


9.1 
13.2 


D-2036 


9 


151.0 


9-1 


D-2037 


12 

13 

14 

15 
16 


159.6 
154.8 
149.8 
146.2 
141.8 


16.7 
6.3 

6.6 

7.7 

7.5 


D-2038 


9 
10 


169.5 
164.7 


8.2 
9.7 


D-2039 


5 
6 

7 
8 


181.0 
172.1 
I67.6 
162.8 


11.2 

9.3 

10.9 

9.2 



-13- 



TABLE li 
GYPSUM SOLUBILITY TEST 



Period Weight in grams 
immersed dissolved during total 
in hoars immersion period 

Sample Sample Sample 
#1 #2 #3 

PROCEDURE A 



t 


0.07 


0.07 


0.07 


3/4 


0."l6 


0.11 


0.17 


1 


0.12 


0.11 


0.14 


2 


0.24 


0.18 


0.24 


3 


0.35 


0.32 


0.34 


4 


0.42 


0.37 


0.44 


$h 


0.51 


0.46 


0.53 


el 


0.61 


0.55 


0.58 


7* 


0,61 


0.56 


0.63 


8 ? 


0.69 


0.56 


0.64 


9f 


0.70 


0.57 


0.68 


10? 


0.75 


0.64 


0.72 


U t 


0.75 


0.67 


0.73 


12$ 


0.77 


0.67 


0.75 


13t 


0.80 


0.67 


0.75 


14* 


0.81 


0.67 


0.75 


15} 


0.82 


0.69 


0.81 


16| 


U eu4 


0.69 


0.81 




PROCEDURE B 





0.04 
0.13 
0.20 
0.35 
0.43 
0.49 
0.54 
0.58 
0.60 
0.62 
0.69 
0.69 



0.06 
0.13 
0.19 
0.35 
0.38 

0.43 
0.49 
0.50 
0.57 
0.59 
0.59 
0.59 



0.05 
0.13 
0.19 
0.33 
0.42 
0.47 
0.53 
0.56 
0.63 
0.63 
0.71 
0.69 



Period 


Weight in grams 


iiamersed 


dissolved during 


total 


in hom'S 


immersion period 




Sample 


- Sample 


Sample 




11 


#2 


#3 




PROCEDURE C 




i 
Z 


0.07 


0.06 


0.07 


1 


0.12 


0.19 


0.14 


2 


0.34 


0.28 


0.32 


3 


0.44 


0.40 


0.31 


4 


0.50 


0.50 


0.42 


5 


0.56 . 


0.54 


0.48 


6 


0.54 


0.50 


0.43 


7 


0.60 


0.60 


0.49 


8 


0.70 


0.70 


0.53 


16 


0.71 


0.72 


0.53 



i 

i 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

U 



PROCEDURE 




0.04 


0.06 


0.05 


0.20 


0.19 


0.19 


0.31 


0.32 


0.28 


0.42 


0.42 


0.32 


0.52 


0.51 


0.43 


0.55 


0.52 


0.45 


0.60 


0.60 


0.49 


0.61 


0.60 


0.45 


0.70 


0.73 


0.57 


0.71 


0.75 


0.57 



FILE NO. BP-A-2/7 



-14- 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



T 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY ' 



•NRI46 



•RI29 






/, 



/' 



-*<k 



'Ini W»f Com 
Hon No M 



V 



AT 



^ 



*7^r 



/ 



/ 



M 



•nn 



)B A\ RISTFT^' 



\ 



/ 



XlTrtp 



(8)D20J 






-,02034 
!>NRI47.2 



»RI04. 



^ 



v: 






-•^•ri: 






XX// 

/ 
'•" •— £1)1034 



V .? 



®K5ly 



.•f>° 



i,0IO3 



/ 



\ 



'RI42 



f. v 



ti 



RI35#\ 






o 



.PH4638 



64 W>H4555 

01273/ J \ 

•PH4556 -»»_*" . \ 

OM \ \ ' : 

* // \ 1 

)JL.A 

SO /IT 



*PH464b I.PH464I.I 



.'®Rlll 



o 



r 



,2,0106 
WRI03.0 



/ 



•R100J 

/ 



1 /i 

« I / \ •BB/O/ 

/ \\U 

*/.>,™ \ «\M0S2 • ^ 

MBtiS \ ® R "?- 7 \ 



J ( 



»PH4648 

/ 

130 !3S 



"rots 



AI23 



J0I039 

RII7.2 



^ <m\ 

^H4650> y- 

O ° NlPH4el.i 

<5 



•PH4646 



»S-36 

*RI56 



PH4733* 



M 



&. 



\ 



C H A 



( V J 



•Rill 



\ 






JDI364 
?R 105.5 



/ 



# PH4B5^ 



;\ 






/ 



•PH4656 PBH4657 , 



# PH4659 



v^ 



Q 



X 



Ox 



\ \ 



o 



/ 



\ 



.* 



,01136 



W 



Q 



H A W K I, N 



\ 



•kmi 



\ 



\. 



(I 



V 



D I NT 



SX 



LEGEND: 

<§) CM// Holts met Oct. 1940. 

■ rtst pits. 

m-. Ttst trench. 
R denotes Rock iteration. 

NR Denotes Bottom elevation of Holt not drii/'td to Rock. 
A £*?/»/■ o/ - Seismic Lint 
• Probing 3 Drill Holts prior to Oct. 1940. 

PH Denotes Holt Probed by Higtmark Probing Machine. 

— — Dtnotes Rock Contours 
NOTES: 

Elevations conform to U.S.G.S. dotum,M.S.L,t9l2 adj.. 
Location f Holes drilled since Oct. 1940. obtained by svrtty. 
Map obtained by Ross Survey. 
Accuracy of location of Holes drilltd prior to 
Oct. 1940 not known. 



•Rill 



\ 



JL 



^ 



t> 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER HOUSE 
PLAN OF EXPLORATION 
ROCK CONTOUR MAP 



IN SHEETS 



SCALE I" . 100' 



too 



U S ENGI NEER OFFICE," MASSENA NEW YORK rea 1942 



■7^:i utr. I gprA-2/l 

,.,«.. .1 a.g.s I tile no 



.trrm o" iboomi'w 



□I ATF TT-I 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



D-1024 



EI-I77-* 



D-/Q25 

.£±.1623 



D-1026 



WASH BQRM&, apparently silt, 
sano% and grovel with 
oc c asional boulders . 



5>+ 

EL- l»J 

DOLOMITE interbedded with 
limestone and shale- 
Occasions/ thin beds of sandstone. 
Rock apparently sound 77.Z 

bl 96.2 w ,f/j n o indications of fractures 
or weethermg. 
Core recovery 96% 



WASH BORING, apparently 
clayey sand and gravel with 
boulders 



DOLOMITE with occasional thin 

beds of limestone, sandstone, 

and shale. 

No apparent free tures or 

weathering. 

Core recovery - ZOO % 



D-1033 

EL. 132 S 



D-1033 



i5«(S| |n.7« 



D-JQ27 



WASH BORING, apparently 
clayey, sand <$nd gravel with 
boulders. 



DOLOMITE. 

Occasional thm beds of liemstewe, 

sandstone and shale. 

Qypsun? zones from izo.o' to 

Open cavity from 126.0' to 126-5' 
Few broken and weathered zones. 

Core recovery -98 Vo 



WA5H 0ORW6 . 

Material appertntly fairly compact 

send, ciay oed bouldery gravel. 



DOLOMTE mtetoedded with time- 
stone. 7. .?■ t '. a ^ 
Occasion*/ beds of sandstone «9 
and shale. 
Appmrentty sound. 
No indications of fractures or 
weathering. 



D-JQZ8 

OS, SJIUL 



LUKW UrLNOIINLCKO U.3.AKMY 



0-1029 



WASH BORING, eppenntly 
fsir/y compott c/ayay sand 
and gravBl witn boulders. 



BLMf 

DOLOMITE mterbedfed will! 
limestone and shale- 
Few broken zones. 
Core recovery 96,7 U 

am 



WASH BORING apparently 
s/lty and gravelly sand mth 
boulders. 



D-1030 



ELJ46.9 

DOLOMITE intebbedded with thin 
— | e t- WJ | beds of limestone. 

Weathered seams from sat' to 
L'and from «s.y to 4+.a* 



- aa 



ZU1223 LIMESTONE with occasional 

thin beds of shale — *** 

Fossitiferous zone at sea' 
Weathered seams from S2.0' to 
52.2' and from ss.o' to as. 3'. 
£ore__recevery - 9/2 % 



TORS OIL 

fairly compact, gravelly, 
st/ghtty clayey SAND and 

SILT. 

Occasional cobbles. 



0-1032 

HA\ CL.xa-7 



LIMESTONE, few stringers 

of shale. 

Broken but unweathered 

from si. a' to S3 a' 

■Sound a nd unweathered below. 



WASH BORING, apparently varieble, 
sand, gmvet ahdbmodees to zo'and 
4ampatf.~silt sand and gravel befow. 



EL U2.7 

DOLOMITE, with occasional thin 
bed of fimestone. 
No indications of fractures or 
weathering. 
gL.9p3 Core recovery 84 % 



DOLOMITE. Broken along occa- 
sional Mmlfr parting. Sound and 
unweathered 

Core recovery 98 7b. 



tL. 55.9 

r£355 SHALE, sound, unweathered. 

DOLOMtTE interbedded with limestone 
and shale. 

No indications of fractures or 
weathering, 
Et-JWCore recovery- 97 % 



9-J035 



D-10'36 



v-wr 



D-J038 



LM039 



D-1040 



WASH PORING, apparently send 
gravel, clayey silt with few 
boulders. 



Inter bedded LIMESTONE, 
DOLOMITE, SANDSTONE 
and SHALE. 



DOLOMITE, interbedded with thin 
beds of time stone. 
Occasional stringers of shale- 
Films of calcite on few partings 
and joints . 

Broken along few horizontal 
partings. 
Core r ecovery - -46.8 V« 



£L 125. ff 



EL.I0S-2 



WATER J 

I 
WASH BORING, apparent/y a _ 
fa/rly compact gravel, sand -. 
and clay with occasional 
boulders. 

DOLOMITE, alternately bed- mo 
ded with sandstone . 
Occasional stringer of shale. 
Rock is sound with no indications 
of frac fares or weather/rig. 



LIMESTONE interbadded with bed's 
of shafe up to /.o'. 
Few small calcite fitted cay/ties. 
Rock snows no /ndicefions of 
fractures or weathering . 
Core, rec overy - 76.5 % . 



- 1 " WASH BORING, apparently graret, 

sand, c/sy with boulders. 

EL.143.7 ' * 14.5 

f^f^LSME STONE, fossitiferous with 
occasional stringers of sandstone 
sod shale. 

Rock sound, no indications of 
fractures or weathering. 

4A3 
SHALE, fossifferous mterbedded 
with limestone- 

Occasional smell ceictte- filled cavity 
Roch sound, no indications of 
fractures or weathering. 



LIMESTONE mterbedded with MB 

thm beds of sandstone and shale 

Few small calcite -filled cavities. 

Rock /s apparently sound with 

no indications of fractures or 

weathering. 

Core reco very- 92.2 % 



WASH B0RIN6, apparently a 
sand and sandy gravel. 
Probably a variable washed 
material with occasional 
boulders. 



DOLOMITE, numerous stringers 

of shale. 

Unweathered, but broken to a 

depth of +9-0'. 

Roch sound and unweathered 

below. 

Core reco very - S3. 1 % 



esa et-jjfi.* 



105.* 
I OB AT 



J±Q_ 



4ZO 
At.* 



1041 

f(. 1 2 % j 



D-1042 



D-1065 



D-1066 



Compact, brown, slightly 
grovel/y.^ilty, SAND, with 
occasional cobble^. 23 .# 



Very compact, grey, slightly 
silt/ ^AND and GRA VEL, 
with ferw cabbies- 



Compact; grey j hah tlv 
gravelly sandy -SILi and 
CLAY 



DOLOMITE, interbedded 
with shale Few small 

\ ^3*arr?& ,\ . 

Core recovery 80% 



WASH 80R/N0, apparently a 
fairly compact gravel, sand£ 23 c. 
clay with occasional boulders. 



DOLOMITE with numerous 

stringers ofshafe. 

Slightly weathered and broken 

zones from s2-o' to 55.2' ana 

from c-f.i' to e-e.3'. 

Gypsum- dolomite zone from 

66-Q to 67.0. 

- Core recovery - 72%. 



£LJ6&2 



Loose, grey, slightly J'lty 
SAND £ GRAVEL. 



E.L.137.2 

Compact, grey, gravelly and 
EL 1312 slightly silty and clayey SAND. 

Compact, grey, slightly sandy 
,. \end g ravelly SILT <£ CLAY. 
*■£- ' * 43.0 

Compact, grey slightly clayey, 

SAND £ SIL T. 

DOLOMITE, few stringers of 
shale. Considerable calcite 
stringers. Numerous small 
calcite filled cavities. Few 
smsi/ broken and slightly 77.2 

weathered zones- Two small 
possible open cavities- 



£L.€3J Core recovery - 7-4.0 <fi> 



EL. IflS* 
1 elh» TOPSOIL 

Brown, soft, clayey and 
gravelly SAND &. SIL T 
] CL.|7*3 o ccasional boulder. 



WASH BORING, apparently 3 
fairly compact, gravel sand 
and clay with occasional 1 
boulders. 



WASH BORING apparently 
clayey sand and gravel with 
boulders. 



EL.N4.7 

DOLOMITE 

Few stringers of sbste. 

Slightly weathered along' 

bad/y broken joints. 
EL. 9*6 Core recovery - 86 % 



DOLOMITE, with occasional thm 

bed of shale. 

Numerous eo' and vertical 

calcife stringers. 

Some weathering along few 

broken zones and seems. 



S^J^° QVPSUM and DOLOMITE, 

I rock s ound and unweathered- 

DOLOMITE, occasional stringer 
and thin bed of shale. 
Some small zones of gypsum . 
Occasions! small dolomite and 
calcite filled cavity. 
Numerous stringers of calcite. 
Rock broken hut unweathered. 
Core recovery ' 89-3 °/t> 



1093 

Il2fl 



WASH BORING, apparently very— 
compact, gravel, sand, silt and — 
clay 



DOLOMITE, with occasional ^ BA 
1' beds of Shale. 
' Few stringers of shale and _„ 
catate. 5*? 

Alumerous cavities partly filled 
with cai&te. (,0.9 



Broken along few Shaly perhigs. 
Calcife^ films an partings. 
| L - aa * Rock unweathered. 

\Apparen tly open cavity— no recovery. 

£U66 7 DOLOMITE, interbedded with Shale 
ECEXI <?nd occasional small bed of lime- 
stone . 

Abundant calcite and pyrite on 
numerous partings and also in 
filled and partly filled cavities. 
Numerous S hate and Calcite 
stringeets. 

Rock broken along few Shaly 
parfingsand occasional Joints. 
5e ver&f weathered zones- 



TOPSOIL. 

Compact^ variable brown, slightly 
gravelly SAND<£SIL T. 

Compact, grey slightly silty 
SAND & GRAVEL. 



Compact, grey, gravelly SAND 
end SIL T. 



DOLOMITE and SANDSTONE alter- 
nately bedded. Few broken but 
1 unweathered zones , 



ELJQ5.3 DOLOMITE, broken along occa- 
\sional unweathered Joints and 
I partin gs. 

Core recovery 94.6 %■ 



D- 



0-0 



1067 

EL. 158* 



feitfd 



Compact, g r ey, slightly silty 
SAND <f GRAVEL, numerous 
ex. 146.4 boulders and cobbles. 

Grey, very compact, slightly 
clayey, gravelly, SAND and 
SIl. T, with occasional boulders 
and cobbles. 



DOLOMITE, interbedded with 
sandstone, limestone and ' sha/a . 
Occasional clsy filled seam. 
No indication of weathering. 
Cote recovery 90. B 76 



WASH BORING, eppe/ently gravel, 
sand, and silt with occasional boulders- 

DOLOMITE with occasional stringer 

and thin bed of shale, few thin beds 

ofgypstvm ■ 

Rock stigbt/y broken and weathered 

to a depth of 6*', 

Rock sound and unweathered below. 

Core recovery - 66.-4 "A 



SHALE^Jtroken along occasionat 

partings 

Rock appg ren tly sound and unweathered. 

DOLOMITE, interbedded with variable 

beds of Shale. 

Numerous stringers of calcite, 

and filled and partly filled soiuttin cavities 

A zone with few stringers of gypsum. 

Occasional weathered zones 



SHALE, broken verticat/y along osteite 

stringers. 

Abundant* of calcite and pyritv. 

Occas ional variable estate filled cecity- 



mrs: 

Oiscricft've Terms 

Si.yhtly silly, eft. dei>0f** 
approximately l*A.f~<> 20 '** 
by dry weiybf af silf,efc, 
Stfhfetc. dene t'es &y>pm/- 
ima-fe/yza » he 4a*A> by 
dry tdeifbfaf'-si/f, etc 
5 fit a* a Saitd, erh. da n* fes 
ajt/>nst,m*fs/y 4d% toSOH 
oy rveifhf *r s//f, e>£. 
*Mcefr "ant/c/ey' 'denote 



f4ee 3d** t>y MtotyAt 



CALCI T& - large crystals- open cavity. 

DOLOMITE , interbedded with wimble bids 

of Shater 

Numerous calcite filled and partly fitted 

cavities aad \10rtlcat stnhgers. 

Broken along many of calcite stringers 

Rock unweathered. tpnd s/>*'y /oortm 9 3. 

Core re to very^ 812 % 



c/a f . 



Fxcepf- whert no/ed Wash 
8onnfy analysts of over 
bi/rder? /naterta/ ore based 
on drive samp/inq. Analyses 
of roeft ore frajed on 
cores obh?'/r?e>d from drift- 
inf. 
Erections refer to M.S.I. 
Datum, /Sit ad/. 



HOLE 



LOr-JTIOAf OF Urtt-RS Br TffrtNJtfCftSC MCRd-* 7-<1R CaafrO/fMTE^ 
r * ' ^ n A? t urjfr E. , £L 



SfO^T" 
DfC^9 
OIOJ3. 



J30, 3fJ~ 

380, OJ '/ 
3>73, &/*■ 
373, 70/ 
-7SO, 4Jc? 
300, f70 
J73,S<S3 
773, £70 



_^kl 



I^Stff.J-eTe? 
/, 0£J~ eus 

t62& 7&I 
1,027,/^/ 

j,ez7. fj-j- 

/,£XJ:-'l*X3 
/,02J~.e?37- 

/ ( 4>*e,-T3J- 



f-f#i-r~ 




300,^77 
37S>j -?7J~ 
S7£>, 07<? 
37S, c?<S3 
373. ^T-*J~ 
3 73 , a 63 
3.30, 130 
379,03'-'' 
38/, £97 
373,£>Je7 



/,a2-*,S*9 
/,S£4,J-^<3 
/,a£J-,/9S 
/, S^^f, <3<37 
/, 8*3; f^O 
/, 08*, /A3 
/, 083, 8/0 
/,0^3~, 79J~ 
/,8£a.893 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER HOUSF 
RECORD OF EXPLORATION 



20 10 



NOVEMBER 15, 1941 




WAR DEPARTMENT 



DII30 



■K£_ 



D-II3I 

n?*.H 



D-H5I 



D-H6Z 



D-U63 



Compact, brown, jliahfly j/lfy 
SAND ond ORA V£L . &£. 



Very compact jhght/y sandy 
GftAVfL. Apparently nvajnea 

£ t,co7 Soft, brown, 5 AMD 

Compact; shah hi/ sandy 
Gf?A\f£L. Apparently wished. 



&J4Q£ 

Compact, are* st/ahtJy 
clayey, slightly s'tffjt 
£ltzs .3 gravelly S/fffO. 

SANDSTONE, ca/coreous 
fl//rj few jha/e str/ngesj. f?ock 

L/r> weathered. Possible smalt 
seam at ft lit 7 



iljo^g^ DOLOMITE, with occaj/onotszA 
sho/e\ sfr/n'gers Pock un - 
weathe red and sound 

83% *** 



Core recover* - 



D\33l 



28 6 
3SO 



fitt£Z3~ 

Water: 



c nja 



Et.i24jr° // '/y /aose, grey, slightly 

^Clayey, J-illy SAND 

O l/S. 7 Fbir/v compact fo compact, 
'grey, slio-hh/y cloye y, s/ightlr 
grovel/y, silty, SAhIO 



fo/rly compact grey, 
slightly clayey, silty.. 



$* 



ND A GPA VEL- ■ 



DOLOMITE, v^ar/acle, hard, 
r/$£ iWorfieracs sfr//;aer$ of 
ap ? rr= *if73 sAo-Ze- OccasJono-t «aa 

gg^ l ^^^ gg/^g^gc/ /o/nt bportma. 
Rock rr}G>a *er&f-e>/y droM<sn. 



S ft ALE L/tff 9r**y, med f cm 

fiard. Sf/ghtly w*a/fhereot<>*&° 
mo cf*rq-fe fy hrok&n 



,. ^ DOLOMITE, medium grey 
V^V hard. Pew thin teds of *^- 



£/.S?.6 



SttALE, dark grey, medwm 
hard- Rock moderately 

broken, on wea the red- 



Pock cor-G 
r~e c O v&ry 3 J. J* 



shafe. Consfderahfe 
GYPSUM throughout Few 
■w<satherrd and solution 
zones' with poss/ole open 
cay/t/e^s. Rook broken 
and \r\/ea> th e r<?d. 



DOZiOM/TE, /nfer-fredded 
with shafe. Con^/deno-tite 2222. 
QyPSUM thraughout. few*-*** 
weathered ana 1 s-ofutfor? ZIKX 
zone-s. flock broken and' zs2J> 



Loase r broi*/nuh -gray 
grore/iy JAND and S/lT 



Foirty loose to compact 
grayef/y uery s/lty JAND 



DOLOMtTEjhord, occas- 
ional stringer of shale 
Pock frrofren but un - 
yveathe red. 



Compact, hrovvn.skffhtfy 
fr&reffy sJlty SAND 



Ca/np/rc/, prey, sftyhffy 
gr-'i/ef/y s//iy. SAftp 



£LMMJ~ Ttp-OLfiOiJc 

LIMESTONE, mterbetfded ' 
w/H> e/o/omife a/>et sandstone . 
/Tack" &roken, $ol t//}we*tf}erefif 



SANDSTONE, mterbed ■ 
ded rv /th l/m^tone and 
sha/e Brokerhafong few 
70°jo>nts. Pock broken 
but unw cafhered. 



Core recovery 7F.I 



i 





DOL OrlfTE, iiard, occcu/o/?a/ 
slr/ngers of ' shafe. Consid- 
erable co/c/fe throughout 
Tew shghtty tveothered 
and broken zones few 
sma// op<?r?s earns. Pock 
•jhght/y weathered and 
moderate ly broken 
JffALE, med fiord, conj/der 
able ca/c/fe, numerous 
thjnfreds ofGrPSUM. 
Pock fproken t>utunt~ 
weathere d. 



S3 



DOLOhilTE, interbedded w/th shafe. Pock hard,broken and 
un*^ea th ered. 



SHALE ha rd, broken afona occas/anaf parf/r?<ys J un weathered 
DOLOMITE, hard, numerous stnngers of s^ha/e. Cons/derobfe 
O YPS UM thro ugh oi/f Te w snoaff open -seams- f?ock broken 
ond $/t]g hf/y vveathervgl 



DOLOMITE ond SHALE /nteroeddedCons/derobie ca/c/fe 
throughout Pew sm a// open cay/ 1 fes ond seams'. Pock 
broken g nd s/tc/ntfy weathered. 



DOLOM /TE, hard occasional fh)n bed and str/naers of shale 
Considerable GYfAjL/M throughout Numerous ca/c/te string- 
ers, pew smatf tphen seams. Pock broken t fewst/ghtly 
we a ff\e red zone 



iOcl.0 

tto* 



^UM4 0.0 

r#/'r/y compact, arey, stighffy 
M . sanefy. S/lTe CLAY 



Compact, grey, si/gh'ffy 
ar*ve//y sdtj, SA NO. 
0cctrsionc*f coSStes 4 Aov/e/e/s 



£UB&f-^_ Too or' /Par i, 

DOLOMITE, hare* wi/h 
0cc#$/On/x/ befits of sttn fits/on fi 
and occastbna/ sha/e stringers 
k'ack Sraken &*/ unweetfhered 



Core recovery 84.3% 



£A/SZ d 

Wafter- 



Pcn/r/y {•or&yo&cA g^^K 
sffgh't/y c/crysy, s-f/phf/y 
qra-i/et/y, s//fy ^szrfAtD. 
Ocea~j/'anof bou/der-s: 



1SSJ. 



/6AA 



DOLOM/TE, f/y/rt fo med/urn, 
f/.Sjrt f'cf'* har-at Pew s-/r//?f- //fi9 
- — \enr of s-ha/e. EZrofrer? and 



fft/rty compact ta cempacf. 
frown, st/yhffy grave /ty.s//$hl/y 

s//fy f 6 s//fy snrvn -** 



Comptrc/j grey,s//ghffy 
gravetfy S/tfy SAfftt. 
ticcas/one*/ eooffifers 



Compact, grey,si/yhf/y 
c/ayey, sf/Q^t/y aravet/y, 
s/'ffy SnrtD 



D-M64 

— QJ3 r-/ /{a 7 



CORP-5 OF ENGINEERS, U5./4RM r 
— t 



i of /to ck 



OOIOM/TE. l£ arey. f/arvt. 
rfvmer'ocs fhln 6eds #f saadsfe/i*, 
aotf strafe. /Tock Sattfy Srvken 
st/e/if numerous zfia/y part/'nys 
and ' sf/fht/y weathered 



SAND5T0NE fL/tffSTONC 
£_ Inter iettded. few stringers of 
I sfa/e. fbcfc moderatefy 
\ Srotrenj 6vt vnweatherea 1 

DOL OMiTC, hard fine grair, 
Tew 3tr/naers #f shale. 
XLS3S\ Broken atony eccas/onat 
Joints, few small seams 
Slight amount of solo f/bn 
evident '. tfaek broken and 
slightly weathered js. 

DOLOMITE, /me yramed f/ard. 
Cons/derfitafe solution fhroughouf. 
few possible open e&v/f/es and 
open seams. Tew beds of » 
GYPSUM throughout, foci- 
bad/y bryfren and weatbered 



D 

JUL 



■Soft, grey, slightly sancfy, 
sJ/ty CLAY 

SofTormy ai/jAt/y *i//y 

7 

Compact grey CLAY 
t 
Compact, grey, sl/ghtly sandy, -,. 
Sl/ghtfy grave /ty, si/fy CIA V "^ 

*-. =, Top nfscoc/c 

bQlQMITE and SH^lE 
interbedded. few smalt 

sandstone 3ones . .fock broken 

but un weathered 



SANOSTOrvEharfif fev, 
,jj shale beds, few possible 



seams. A^ock Sr-oken but 
unwegth ere/a* 



165 

£U£2S 

Sof, grey, 51 l/y, CLAY 
„ f4S , Loose , brown, SrIND. shell 'fragments 
JorXfrey. CLAY 



Loose to f&/rly corrtr^ctcf, grey, 
clayey r s'dty.SAhfD fGtcAVCl 

ri.io/if . T op o f rTnrff 

DOLOMITE, with occaS/onat 
beef 0/ sh/rfe. hJock broken but 
un weath ereaf 

£LOA3 

SAttOSTONf, hard occas/onat 
£i a£j^$haty strfngers. tfock sound and 



A-\ 



DOLOMITE, dk , grey hard. 
Occas/onat stringers and 
beds of shale throughout M 
Considereibfe cafcile on 
nu merous jomfs . few sma.'l 
broken sones and seams- 
ffoclc stighfty weathered 



tnweath eretf 



DOLOMITE hard, occas/onat 
beats of Shale, 'ew apparent 
smstll seams. r?ock weathered 
and meder-afety broken 



DOLOM IT£ , meet/ urn hard 
Cons/dei-able GVP5i/M throughout 
few apparent open cawf/es. .rock 
broken d weathered 



£f..i/.s 



fl 15.7 



asis. 



weathered a/ang nt/me-rous 
parf/ryg^ or?d oc-cos/or?o/ yoinfs. 

DOLOAdtTE, f/ga/ to m&d/um gney 
/bard /Vurpferous" strfnaerj of 
s-ha/e. 7?*ace o-f cTy/^^L/A^ POCA 
yer-y b&d/y £r~aAer? or?d 
weaf<her~eaf thrac/g'r^ otsri 



y the re . 
<=>S(?M t 



ft. 49. S 

Y/*?Z S- SHr-JLE, m^d/um gr^ey medium 
hard. /Vumer-ous ca/c/fe sfr vnp&(?* 
ffoc/i baeffy. bs-a/fes? crs?d 
wea ff?/2s-&cr- 



O yPJ OfM appant V) fly a be d. 



-DOS. few s'noaf roperi seams. Pock broken^ slightly weathered 
\olong s'ea rnxs. 

DOLOMITE, ho/fd. Numerous shafe stringers and thm beds 
of shafe. Considerable GYPSUM throughout few smoff 
open seo/ n^ p'ocft brofren, s^f/ighffy weathered ofong seams. 



SHALE, dor A gney. medium 
hard. PocA moofer-Q'te/y 
broken, ttn wea; thereof. 



DOL OMl TE, in her bedded 
with shale. Alumenous 
stringers - of shafe ottof 
cofc/te. Pock Erezcfuretd 
and cor7?ptetefy r-eemmetrred 
wth? cafeffe . fewjuodfy 
broken and s-f/gnffy 
yy&ryfhered j-o/yes: 



tj(ALE, ha rd, rock sound and unweathered. 

) OLOMtTE,bord J considerable GffZSlffd throughout Broker 
unweatftered zone at Ef. E8S.O. fPocfr broken and un - 
jweofhered. 



iSHALB, med. hard, considerable GYPSUM. Rock sound un- 
weafhered. 



Core recovery 9l.7y* 

D13Q2 

a. a p/s-z J- 

VBbter 



QI383 

0.0 a/sri 



/99.0 



&£-0 



jLoc/it/on of roies 


BY 


iciKsvEasi. McecAToe cooeoiNArts 


HOLE 


£A3T 


KOGTH 


DII30 


379, OBO 


1, 821, 566 


Oil 31 


J78,J$I 


1,824,373 


Due/ 


361.345 


1,326,280 


DII62 


331, 765 


1,825,930 


Ol 163 


3BO, 940 


/, 823, 785 


01164 


380, 243 


1,826,074 


ones 


380,40/ 


I.S2S,368 


DI38I 


380,273 


1,324,973 


DI382 


3SO,<3 77 


1,824,875 


DI333 


331,050 


/,825, ISO 


OI33a 


380, 928 


1,823,450 



r/. /4?. e M. 

Tvfr/y compact fo com- 
pact, grey, jj/p/it/y 
c/a/ey, j/iol>f/y oroye/M 
s///y SJA/d 
Occ9JionO/ bou/de/-j. 



ZIMJ& 

DOLO*f/r£, hard, feu/ 
stringers ond tfttn 



beds of Jho/e. WroMer- 
,_, so 4 along occcrj/onct/ 
££J2L-J&££fye 0m ^ ,~ffooAr > 
Rock Core \ate/y t>roAen 

fiecoveryS^Z*— 



z&a. 



7<S-.9 



d0.7\ 



»/*«■„ 



aib. 



Sl/Al £, b/acA .~med. haty*. , 

Co/73,(?er*&/f G YPSUM Throughout 
rfoclc sound 4 unwea/t> er-&d 



DOLOrllTr, harKf", inreriejet'ecf 
win sn*le. 3rr>all f/nouot o/ 
ffyp&tr/r, throughout"' 
SroMen alono occoj/onet/ 
~lolnlf. r?ocfr sound e* no" 
unw father-eel 



a**- 1 — VaoAA ;HALt-,blaclr. medium nard 

MS oJH-^'easidertiifo GYPSuMHrouqhout' 

\rfocA SroAen * s/iohf /y weafhered 
. O0L0l*!IT£. hard,/iw ihale 
Cer, recover-/ 697. Ml I I flJf 5 lr,no-ers . Small amounl 0/ 

1 GYPSVhf. rrbek broken iul 
j on*/ec*rhered 

Core /recovery 91. 3 '/ a 



Jen j/reel no- 3 far 012 71, DI2 72 and DI2 73 



SHALL" black hard. 
zg.gr.fr sound. . 



weafh ervd 



OO/OMire. f~,ne grained 
hard. Sma// amount/or 
GYPSUM, aind s/igh/ *mounl 
of ao/ul/or>. fewtnin s/iafe 
beds- rfoc/c Src/ren, uowea- 

thered - , 

Cora recovery 33.3 Z 



DOLOM/TE, medium grey few 
strf/iaer-j- of Gri°^UM A/v-™- 
eraus" str-//JOers of shale. 3ome 
safufion. fiocA very oad/y broken 
o/onp nu-rneraua parf/rjiys ond 
jo/nrs. A/vmerocs weofhered 
seams 



El -tt 9 , , 

DOLOMITE, light grey, /yard. 
, - Wumerot/j- thin beds and 
^-jtr/nger-s of GyPSUM. Occasional 
weorAsrecf ^ecrms ar/d Joints. 
ftocrt mo derately tiroAen 



£1 -3S.9 



£1.-41* 



d ~475 



Xi -an 



tir/fly compodta co/npoct Q2/.s\ 

gnrxslig/itfycloyey. slightly 

groue/ty, si/fy ^A/\/£>. ffoaA 

Occaj/or/a/ boulder^, ffecoycr/ 

8S-7V. 



cypsUM . soft, light grey to 6/acA 



DOLOMITE, shofy , numerous 
stringers arid ft//// bed J of 
r-yrpiJL/A rl. ffocA moderately broAert. 
5M/1LE 6/ocA. medium hard few slrinpers 
and thin beds of G-yPSU/vf. PocA 
sliaht/y weathered, moderately broJien. 



DOLOMITE, med/ um grey tiard- 
few s'fr/r/gerj- of j'Aa/e and 
few s-haly ^roi/es- PPocA . 

weothered o/or?g ocr-atj-zc/iool 
^^yjeams and /o/zpfs. Corrs/oteraife 

USXoAjo/ut/ar? ar/cf las^- of cons 

aaoeA//, ft/Is zone. 



DOLOM/TE, light grey, fiord. Tew troces 
or eyPSL/M. Oecos/ono/ thin bed of shots 
PocA s/ighf/y weothered ond moderofe/y 

broker/. 

Sht/ILE b/ock, medium hord. Few jtr/ngers 

of- colc/te . ffocA moderotsly broken. 



ffock core 
rocovery 7S. 0% 



Z&Oif/OLOM/TE. dorA grey, hord, 

lumerouj- sfr/ngers- of \rbate.- 
Mumerous sfr/ngerj or/d 
thin bedJ- of G?yp?jL/At. PocA 
broken and jf/gbtly 
W^aftier e-d. 

3/iftLE, bhcA, hard. tVumerocs 
str/ngers of £ yp/J-l/M . ffocA 
broken. u niAleotnered. 
DOL OMI TE, dor A grey, bard fe w 
str/n/jers at crriPSCIM. ftbcA jAaly. 
ftxssi&ie open s-eovn, and s//ar,//y 
^ /fathered rave- PocA /broken. 



OCSCeiPTIVf TERMS- 

3/ighl/y si/ty etc. denotes approximately <*% to 20 v. 
by dry weight of Jilt etc. 

Silly etc. denotes approximately 20% to 40% by 
dry weight of Jilt etc 

Silt ond sand etc. denotes approximately 40 7. to 
607. by weigbt ofsi/t etc. except "and clay "denotes 
more than 30 X by weight of day. 
fxcept when noted ' wash boring, analyses of over- 
burden material are based on drive sampling. 
Analyses of rock are based on cores obtained 
from drifting. 

Elevations are based on mean sea tevet, 
IWZ adj. 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER HOUSE 

RECORD OF EXPLORATION 

NO, 2 




WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 



0_ 



211 
oji&i. 



D-1272 



P-1273 



^i, 



Loose reddisn- Pro eU7 
sightly sllty SAAID. 



-|— I* 



Compact grey, 
grayelly SAM 6 



jligiitlg 
and SICT. 



loose Protvn to grey, 
■■1206.1 stlgnfty gratel/y, 3ii/ty SAiTO. 



loose t>ro»/n isn - n rey, cir-e/e /In, 7 
^ very s, Ita SJAfD. J 



Compac t are g* rarfa Ale 
gratre/ty ro s/tj ih fly yra ye//y 
SAiVO and SILT. 



L-IMESTOiVF, ar-anaceous 2il 
/ford- Conslderoole sAale- 
sfringerj fhrouffhov?: PfocA 
bra/ten out uhnieother&d. 



Fi. //■>' a Core r-ec OVG ru SS.S % 



L/MSSTO/Yf, dorA y re y y 
t7C7rd. Numerous si ringer* 
of shale- <&roker> along 
numerous shaty partings 
and s/lghf/u weathered' 

Joint*.* J 

gifts Core recoferu 67'ri 



Loose reddls a- f>rOwn r 
s/ifntly ei'/ty sliynf/y 
most 3 rare/la S^AIO. 



D-2034 
SJL 



S°ff, 

t7/9 



r f f fray s/,y/i t/y sandy 

• <Ts./? V to s,/ty ci/r. 



33.6 



Compact, grey, ~s/ightitj 
gravely 5 A NO and s tLT. 



D-2035 

0£_, £/2ff<t 



ra/r/y /ease-, reddish- St-oivn, 
to <?/- ey, s/yA t/y 9ra rs //y, 
s/iyA+ty -si/ry to si/ty, tine 

to C£>&rse SA/VsO. 



f^/'r/y /oose, prey, s, /fy. 

yrdve/ty, SAND. 



f/./s/.z I fair/H compact s/iyAt/y 
yrer* //y> s/iyA t/y -saney 



w*z s/j. r. 



D-2036 



D-3037 



Compact to fatr/tf Zoos*, 
yr-*y/s h - J> fry* ■/* S*-*y. 
■i/iyAfty yore/ty, s/iyttt/y 
si/ty to si /ty, s/iyAt/y 
c/ayay SA/Vb. 



('■0 



ra.r/y compact; yrvy*s A- trow* ~~ 
s/iyAt/yyt-oymAy SAAtO a n d SILT 

fl. 

r a ,rJu compAeiyrtvy,*}- brew, 

a mo s ''?*r/yyr« r *Wy J s/ifht/f 



- \cfo '/my, sey/fdy Sill 






f&ir/y COtrrpa'Ct oroetfftt&A- 2\i\ 
yoy, j/iyA'/y yrtire //y, s/tj/,//* 
c/ayey S/IT o^a 1 S4M D 



Co mpa c /, yj-ay, s /;yA t/y 
fr-ar*//y, s/,y%t/y <r/#yey, 
soncty, SiL T. 



/^v/r/y compact, yray,sh- Arotvn, 
■*/;^*//y yz-arez/y, s/yAt/y *itty SJA'Z). 






foir/y Com/act g r<sq, s//yfit/y 
yr*A//y s/,yA//y s,/fy SAtfO. 

fcf too* 0, 6 ro ivn, s/yAt/y si/ty 5AA/& . 



£t./S*.9 xantty SUT. 



1 £/. /J/ 



foo 



loosm /br»n» §*#£> and GRA¥£L. 
t CobbUs. 
' fajriy cempact^grey, s/iyAt/y 



Compact, yr*y, s/'jhtiy 
c/eyey, s//yAr~U grave /7y t 
*/iyAt/y *a»a'y "SUT. 



DOLOpltTE, ctor-t<$reij, very 
sAa/y. /fock broker?, t//t*rer/fAer*d. 

^-^- L/AtfsfOA'E inter be</c/ed with 
s/ta/e. *=?oc* £>&dfy >6r-o>Ae/l 6"t 
t/sttyeat'/rerecr' ^Va^S'd'e/'aA/e* 
cra/dfe tfyt-etsytouf: 

£?M£e_Cof-e recove ry 6S% 



Commact, yartaa/* br*irv» to 
fr*y, ^/iyAt/y yrare/iy, 
*/iyAf/y x.fjy ft> J///V 
SAA/D. 



44.S i \ euuA 



D-2038 

OO l £L2ldiZ 



D-2039 



D-l 1 32 



yrJre//y, si/ry SAA'O. 



Com*oc/, yrey s//°<*//y 

orare/Zu. s,/fy SJ/VO. 



>//y 



Cornioc/, yoriab/e AroWtl 
rt. /r-eu s/iy*f/r yraie/Zy, 

*/,?/,?/* s,7ty J fo *;/fy 
SAAfO- 



TRANSVERSE MERCATOR COOR. 


HOLE NO. 


NORTH 


EAST 


<ZT/ 


/s^e. szo 


30 o, J 04 




i.nze.&io 


360. Z60 


'£73 


/.SZ&. 7.QO 


3&0. 06S 




I.B24.3/0 


379. 030 


Z03S 


I.P.Z4 ZOO 


37A. 6ZO 


Z036 


/. B24. OZO 


3 73.360 


H0b7 


/ azo.ooo 


.17.9 ozs- 


Z038 


) 9Z4. OZO 


378.400 




I BZ3. 740 


378 .100 


























2014 


/.3Z3.8S0 


377. SZ S 




/.SZ^ t <f3 7 


3 7-1. ?7A 















Fotrly compoc^greytgro/vo/Jy 
»/y sl/ty SAND, few 
bou Iders. 



LIMESTONE medium hard. 
Numerous sholy stringers. 
Rock sound ond unmeorhereo 



7B.O \ £l./4Z.e Rock core recovery* 95% 



note: 

Descr/pf/re Terma. 

Sly/tt/f silty.erc. denefeis approX'tr-tre/'/ 
/** /o ZO'A &y (fry n>e/yeS of si/f etc. 
Sl/ty etc. de/ietas uyproiimete/y 20 X to 

4&* 6y dry irt/git of s/H;tto. 
S/'/t and Sard etc. denotes oyjproiiinet*/y 
«•/. reSO'-t tj irelg/i-r of sit f. etc. eicopT 
'aeJC/try' denotes more titan 30 9i tuy 
Heloiit of cfay. 

Cacept n-tie n ire fed '"^jrit Boring -analyses 
ofeiertuirden material are eased l>n dnie 
sampflnf. -fee/foes of rack are 6esad 

oncorei oitelne-d from drilling. 

Elevations are based an Mean Sea Level, 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER HOUSE 

RECORD OF EXPLORATION 




PLATE H- A 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY 



Drill Hole 
Top of Rock 
Bottom of Hole 



fit* 




0/026 O1027 
£1.107.4 El/310 
El. 7.2 Et 30.1 



D1037 QIOM 
51. 1/5.4 El. 117.2 
El. 14.4 El 16.2 



DlO€5 DIP 67 

El. 1166 El 103.0 

El. 62.1 El. ^2.4 



D//3I DH63 DH64 DII65 

El 125.9 EL 1/4. 5 El. III. 7 El. 108. 3 
Ei-74.2 El. 9.6 El. 6.7 El 6.3 



DI36I 

El. 115.7 
E /5.5 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
BARNHART ISLAND POWER HOUSE 

RESULTS OF PRESSURE 
TESTS IN ROCK 



US.ENGR. OFFICE, MAS3ENA,M.Y. FEB. 1942 



SUBMITTED: 

ENGINEER 



FILE NO. BP-A-2/2 PLATE 







-A 





WUVlI HO 4 

SANDSTONE 
D iom DC "m «it-*> a 



&AMPLC NO * 

SHALE 
O i>22 DEPTH <OJ-4i« » 



Sfc. 



SAMPLE NO 12 

DOLOMITE 

DI025 DEPTH SC4-4D7 







5«UPLt NO l« 

L'M£ STONE 
>IOi* M>T»i, M; , 



FREEZING & THAWING 



PRIOR TO TESTING 





Plate TI-6 




MM *» * 
SANDSTONE 

i 2« OC*TX TO-*** § 



SAMWlC wo • 
SHM.E 

> IO>« DCfTM BH-J*« 



DOLOMITE 
I0*« OCPTM •&»-•«• 



WETTING t. DRfiNO 
"OVEN dry" 
PRIOR TO TESTING 



BAunx wo ' * 

LIMESTONE 

»*T <»T»< »0-J».I 





SANDSTONE 
o >0J» Otrm r»»-7«j 









Plate IT-7 





i 






•~i, 



MM 



^M& 



S*MI»L* HO I 

SANOSTONt 

CM0 26 0«.#TH ?»0-TW 



SAMPLfc NO 3 
SHALL 

oio«» otrrn iti-M 



1AU9LI WO * 

DOLOMITE 



*ET1 INC 6. BHTiNC 

V.IR DRY* 
PRIOR TO TESTING 



SA»*LE NO. I 3 
UIMESTONf 



Plate TI-8 




MO I 

«AMOS?ONC 

o MM mrnt m*-»* 






SAW^UE MO 9 

SHALE 

o «*» stem «*.»-«*« 



SAMfLC MO • 

DOLOMITE 

D !0*« otflHIIJHi 



WETTING & DRYING 

rt « 

AIR DRY 

CYCLE NO 2 




LIMEJTONC 
ew*r oti>TH»oi.»», 




Qt'rn M».M« 



Plate II-9 









' ,": V : :.■■ 



Shale Samples 



Plate TI-10 




Shale Samples 



Plate TT-11 




IP MR 

FT 



*i«*iifc~»>»*"^ Sw» ... J& 







SAMPLE NO 2 

DOLOMITE 

3I004 DEPTH 070' 



SOLUBILITY TEST 



SAMPLE NO 3 

SANDSTONE 

DI06O DEPTH 53.0' 



Samples after test 



Plate 11-12 




PLATE 31-14 



D<?037 
'2O'C/0 



D/O30 

lOO'UJ 

#114:7 



0130/ DI3BJS 

asov.A looas. 

R//J.7 Ft. IIS.S 



d/383 0/334 
//oas- 2/o'uj. 

R/09.0 R/OS.J 



O//02 

TO 'OS. 
f>/03.4 




/00 



so. 




3 go 
\ 



\ 

-JO 



-4Q 



Approxirrtof -> /foe A Surface - 



Compact, c/o'yey 
and p/-cn/<?//y <Sos?Q< 
Occo's/ona'/ Sots/cfer s. 



Do/0/77/f<E>, OCeO'S/Oncr/ t/>/n &<?<£? of 

sha/e, josjois for?& and //me stone. /?ocA 

genera/ty rr?od&ro?<?/y £>r"0/fter) &r><d 

umvea/hered exe-epf in o few /oca/S^ed 

areas where /'/■ /Lr aad/y <V"^<?/7 and'~ 

snovKj some sn?a// so/t/t/orj cois/f/es 

ond wea/her/rra aiona fr-acfl/f-&s>. 

Gypsum oeec/r's diss emmo/ed >*/?s-ottx?/? 

foundation noc/f /n beats ond wastes 

os snows? m faS/e />/ fne cosies t/>e 

oypsum ex/sts as -fdn/s st/~/npess 

! ond tnin beds from 4 to J* 'A/cA- 

' One37' &eaf of gyps-cm &ccrc"~<& 

\ ot <aAo<st tf»/fK -33.0- 



— 1- 



y Pro£x. 0(y , var/o^te sand, 
&r&r< V and toais/des-s. 



VWMW/M 




Compact, c/ayey 
'and oraiset/y Send 
■Occas/ana/ £oc/des\r. 



mmffiM0i ¥ 



##^ 



OCCURRENCE OF GYPSUM AT POWER HOUSE SITE 



D/039 
D/042 



D/067 
0/IS/ 



ELEVAT/CW 



3SO 
29.0 to ^0.3 
2J-.0 So £4 J 

24 .3 /oa 7 
/SO to/ 7. 
73. 07o 703 

7*? to 70.2 

J-3.4 
23.0 to2~0.O 

03.3 
3/7 to30.7 

33.3 
33.2 to 9/3 
09.0 to 0/3 
20.2 to /S.s 
77.2 to 70. / 
-4.2 to -/£/ 
-0.0 to-70 

-7.7 to -3.2 

-0 S to -9.2 

7^.3 
-/4 47a -/<?. 
-/3.6 
-24.3 
-20.0 
-23.4 
--?42<k^?4 4 
- -472/o-477 



MOOC Or OCCURRENCE 



Th/n st/-/rto~er'j <sf erysto/s 
D/sjem/ho/ed zone 
D/sje/nt/?ated zone A 
t/7/0 s t/-/s? a es-*r 
r///nj A Csy^ to*/s 
Tfyjr? beds * s7r/n?qft 
Jt/'/noifr'j , t/>in derfj, A 
f//ms 

0?r/r?oe-s'*s £ f//ms 

fi/m 

Th/n beds & 3t/-/nges* 

Tfyj/t 6edj t jtf/no ej^j. fi/m. 

Sf-r/nae/'j- * f//ms 

*f?r*//?&e*-J Jt fi/mj. 

ff<?d 

J?t-/i70*?ss & tn/n jbadi 

Bed 

/ - Bed 
4' Bed 
/- Sed 
/~///72J 

r,/m ■& tr/~fj/o/j 



DII04 



ELEVAT/OA/ 



43-3 7-0-4S.7 
SaS>£-J734-J*4 

-^0.3fip-J3.4- 
-00.2 /O-00.7 
-6TS.4 to-070 

-&7.S 

-773 To -77-7 

-7/.7fo-7*^ 

47 /7a 40. 7 

4j:j-/a 4j:0 

4^PS 
40.J-/S303 

33.3 /to 37 J- 

/3.0 
/<?./ /o //.J 
3*./ fo 33.0 

3/. 2 
^S.7 /o^7.0 
/3.0 TO 3.9 

30.0 
33.^ 

32.4 1>a3/-*9 
20O-/O2S.3 

2/.o-tO^0-0 
/3.4/O0.3 



M0DE OF O0CURRENCE\ /-/0LS 



Str//7?es-^ \D/33/ 

r//mj 
3/r/sjpe'/~*r £ r///7?s 
3//-//7^e , s-j A 0s-fj/<?, 
3~/s~/s7&t?/-J & r//r7?j 
■r/r-snoss-j <S 7t/r77j 

r//m 

Sed 
^Sr'/rpesxr A 7/?"7 ted. 
T/}in beds £ str'no-erj 
Sea 1 
r>'//*rs 
fosr* vriM J/'-;„ er3 

Sat/ A ~S/7-/r?<?e'/~j 
0rys/o~/ 

r///n 
Beats & •Str/no^f-j 
Beds £ Jfr/noe-rj 

Bed 

Bed 

ov/y/yerj- 
Cr^j/<r/ 

Bed 
T/>"? £>edJ & -77*-//?&e/v 
Beds <t Jf^/nperj 
Cs-ys/o/j, f/r/trperj 
tk f/r/nj>e-dj 



D/333 



D/30.4 



CLEVATIOH 



~S37S 
<a=. / 

B/.O/oTS.B 
70.0 
70 / 
74.2 /■O73.0' 
7^./ 
70 O 
6/^0 
0O.3*oJ-3.J- 
00.2 to 37.^ 

So-.a 

3/O-/O3O.0 
30.0 to 70S 

37. o- 
47 /to 40./ 
-AS to-/0O 
-247 to -2o~3 

-J>So- 
-3X3.2 to- 30 9 
-30.9-to-4/.S 

-43-/ 

-43.JT 

-4J-.f 
-4j:0to-47^ 



MOPE or OCCURRENCE 



r/ //77s 

r/ /n?s 
T/>itr treds & -^tr/tTptts 
T/p/n /?ed 

r//m 

Tn/n tied 

Cs-yjto/s 

r//m 

0*-yjtcr/j 

Bet/j j/s-ssrees-j A rs-ysjbt 

^o*7e? 

^ot7e 

r/7/n beat j <*• ^/v^tn 

iS t*-/s?o* e ** 

0s-jss to/ 

Tt>/f? f//ms A cs~y-^/o/J 

3tr,n<?e/~s 
07-y^to/j <£ s tr-/n?er 
J '■ Bed 
/~//tt?J 
3.7' Bed 
3/r/ryper^ & rt//n beo<l 
r///7?j 
J Bed" 
ri/mj 
7"^//? t?edj 
f/tmj 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER HOUSE 

GEOLOGICAL PROFILE 
ALONG CENTERLINE 



IN SHEE-rj 



sheitt no 



, . , 3— 



U.S. ENGINEER OFFICE. MAS3ENA. NEW YORK, OC7~Ot3E'R £?J. I$4/ 




PLATE n- 15 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS 




These sites not included in original M IT Classification 



FILE NQ BP-k'2/5 PLATE I- 16 



SL-S.OO 



PART III 



BARNHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE 



ANALYSIS OF DESIGN OF DIKES AND 
COFFERDAMS 



Appendix 111-24(3) 



ANALYSIS OF DESIGN, 3ARNHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE DIKES AND COFFERDAMS 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Par. No. Paragraph Title Page No, 

I INTRODUCTION 

1 Purpose and Scope 1 

II FIELD EXPLORATION 

2 General 1 

3 Methods of Exploration 1 

III EXPLORATION OF MATERIALS FOR THE EMBANKMENTS AND 

COFFERDAMS 

k Earth and Rock Fill 1 

5 Sand and Gravel Filter and Backing 2 

IV LABORATORY TESTS ON SOILS 

6 General 2 

V RECOMMENDED FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS 

7 Field Exploration 2 

VI DESIGN OF DIKE AND COFFERDAM EMBANKMENTS 



S 



I 



B General 2 

9 Description of Sites and Toundation Conditions 3 

10 Availability and Characteristics of Embankment Materials 

11 Dike Sections 

12 Cofferdams 5 
Analysis of Embankment Sections 5 
Economy of Construction 5 

PLATES 



III-l Plan of Exploration, No. 2 
III-2 Record of Exploration 



ANALYSIS OF DESIGN 
BARKHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE DIKES AND COFFERDAMS 

I. INTRODUCTION 

1. Pu rpose and Scope . - This report describes the exploration, the 
field and laboratory tests and geological studies completed Noveoiber 1941 1 
at the Barrhart Island Powerhouse dike and cofferdam sites (See sheet 

BP- 1-1/1 of the contract drawings) as conducted by the St. Lawrence River 
District, U. S. Engineer Office, Massena, New York. It also presents the 
results and conclusions of all these investigations and the design of the 
proposed North and South Forebay dikes and cofferdams A, B, and C. This 
report presants all the data that is pertinent to the design of the dikes 
and cofferdams; however, only the additional exploration not described in 
Part II is Hscussed in this report. All laboratory tests and studies which 
are per tine it to the embankment designs are presented herein. 

II . FIELD EXPLORATION 

2. General . - Prior to October 1940, the governments of Canada and 
the United States and various private companies made investigations in the 
vicinity of the present powerhouse site as explained in paragraph 5 (Part II). 
The locatio ■ of ell drilling prior to October 1940 is shown on Plates II-l 
and III-l. Field exploration conducted by the U. 3. Corps of Engineers 
since October 194° at the dike and cofferdam sites for the purpose of ob- 
taining information for design has consisted of extensive geological re- 
connaissance, drilling in overburden and rock and the excavation of test pits 
and trenches. The location and extent of all exploration since October 1940 
in the vicinity of the sites are shown on Plates II-l and III-l. Complete 
reports of all exploration are on file in the district office. Records of 
drilling and test pit exploration are shown on Plates II-2, II-3. II-4 an & 
III-2. All soil samples and rock cores are stored in the district soils 
laboratory. 

3. Methods of Exploration . - The description of the drilling methods 
are given ir paragraph 6 of Part II. One hole with a footage of 57*9 feet 
in overburden and 20.1 feet in rock was drilled in addition to the drilling 
given in Part II. Test pits and trenches were excavated and sampled to de- 
termine the characteristics of foundation materials at the South Forebay 
Dike site. The test pits and trenches were excavated to a depth of 
approximately 6 feet. In general bag samples were taken of the different 
materials. A total of 10 pits and 4 trenches were excavated and sampled. 

III. EXPLORATION OF MATERIALS FOR TOE EMBANKMENTS AND COFFERDAMS 

4. Earth and Rock Fill. - The exploration described in paragraphs 5 
and 6 (Part II) for the overburden and bedrock served to determine the 
suitabili ty of the Barnhert Island Powerhouse foundation excavation for 
earth and rock fill materials for backfill, dikes and cofferdams. No 
specific exploration was made for the location of earth fill borrow areas 
because from the general geology of the vicinity and the results of the 
present exploration it is known that suitable materials are available. The 
borrow areas which contain suitable materials are located because of their 
respective positions to the structures and are shown on Sheet BP-1-1/1 of 
the contract drawings. These areas are considerably larger than required 
and it is planned to do exploration within each area to determine which 

-1- 



sections contain the more suitable materials. A large quantity of rock is 
available from the powerhouse excavation. However, this rock will not be 
available for cofferdam construction and therefore considerable rock will 
have to be borrowed. Bedrock is exposed for a considerable distance along 
the north shore of Barnhart Island between cofferdams "A* and "B". During 
exploration for concrete aggregates for the St. Lawrence River Project all 
rock outcrops and probable quarry sites which were economically located were 
investigated and the report of these investigations is on file in the 
district office. 

5. Sand and Grav el Filter and Ba cking,, - Exploration was conducted to 
locate deposits of suitable material for the sand and gravel filters and 
backing of the dikes and cofferdams. It is believed that all deposits with- 
in a radius of 15 miles of the site have been located. The most feasible de- 
posits were sampled and tested to determine the gradation of the material. 

A complete report of these investigations will be placed on file at the 
district office, 

IV . LABORATORY TESlS ON SOILS 

6. General . - Because of the type of overburden materials encountered 

at the sites no extensive program of soil testing was deemed necessary. Tests 
were made to determine the type of materials existing in the foundations of the 
Fore bay dikes and cofferdam "C r as well as the types of materials available 
for embankment construction. All soil samples were classified using the Bfi.I.T. 
scale of classification and the results recorded in final report of each hole. 
The grain size distribution of a sufficient number of samples was determined 
by the usual sieve and hydrometer method to serve as a guide in the class- 
ification of all samples. For all tests it was assumed that the specific 
gravity of the soil particles is 2.70. From the laboratory classification and 
the field log, geological descriptions of the overburden at each drill hole were 
prepared. This description is shown on Plates II-2, IT~3t and II-4« No natural 
density determinations, shear, or permeability determinations were made on 
samples of glacial till, the results of which are shown in Table I in Pert II. 

V. RECO&MEJNiSED FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS 

7. Field Exploration . - prior to construction of the dikes and cofferdams, 
it is recommended that sufficient additional exploration be conducted to 
ascertain that the present designs adequately fulfill the necessary design 
criteria. The type of foundation materials existing in the abutments of coffer- 
dams "A" and "B" should be definitely determined. This can be accomplished 

wi b a few test pits and auger holes. The nature of the relatively pervious 
deposits in the South Forebay Dike foundation should be thoroughly investigated 
before the design of the drainage and impervious features of the dike can be 
completed. Deep test pits are recommended for this exploration. The borrow 
areas should also be explored to assure the selection of the most suitable 
materials. 

VI . DESIGN OF DIKE AND COFFERDAfo EM3AMMEM5 

8e General . -The design of the dike embankments and cofferdams involved 
a study of the foundation conditions and characteristics, a study of the 
characteristics of the available embankment materials, the choice of sections 



-2- 



which will utilize economically the available embankment materials and will 
be safe under any conditions. The method and extent of the investigations 
to determine the characteristics of the foundation and embankment materials 
have been described in the preceding paragraphs. Included herein is a des- 
cription of the results of those investigations completed which are pertinent 
to the design and a discussion of the choice, economy, and design of the em- 
bankments based on the available information. The locations of dikes and 
cofferdams are shown on sheet BP-1-1/1 of the contract drawings. 

9. Description of Sites and Foundation Conditions . - 

(a) South Forebay Dikes . - The dike extends from the southwest 
end of the powerhouse along the crest of a range of low till hills until it 
terminates approximately in the middle of Barnhart Island. Where the dike 
joins the powerhouse the foundation apparently consists of partially water 
laid materials which are relatively pervious to depths of 50 feet. The re- 
mainder of the foundation is. generally glacial till but occasional small 
superficial beach deposits may occur. 

(b) North Forebay Dike . - The dike extends from the northeast 
end of the powerhouse to the New Cornwall Lock West dike. The foundation 
is relatively flat and the overburden consists of approximately 10 feet of 
marine silt and clay overlying compact glacial till. 

(c) Cofferdam «A ? - Cofferdam "A" is located between Barnhart 
and Sheek Islands at a narrow point in the North Channel approximately 2i 
miles upstream from the powerhouse. At this location bedrock is exposed 

in the river channel and along the shore of Barnhart Island. Both abutments 
at the site are glacial till. 

(d) Cofferdam "B " . - Cofferdam "B" is located between Barnhart 
Island and Canada approximately 3*000 feet upstream from the powerhouse. The 
river channel at this point is relatively narrow. The Barnhart Island abut- 
ment is composed of firm material however on the Canadian shore a shallow de- 
posit of clay may occur over the firm material. 

(e) Cofferdam "C *« - Cofferdam "C" is located between Barnhart 
Island and Canada i+OO feet downstream from the powerhouse. The Barnhart Island 
abutment and the channel bottom are firm material, however, the foundation 
material on the Canadian shore may consist of 10 feet of soft or loose material 
overlying firm compact glacial till. 

(f) Overburden Characteristics . - The glacial tills existing at 

the various sites are variable but consist mainly of silty, gravelly sands. In 
general the top 10 feet of till is loose to fairly compact below which the 
material is compact. It is estimated that the natural density of the material 
is approximately 140 lbs. per cubic foot, that the coefficient of permeability 
varies between 0.00001 snd 0.0000001 cm. per sec, and that in nature the 
angle of internal friction is greater than 30 degrees. The shallow marine silt 
and clay deposits which may be encountered are impervious but have a very low 
shearing strength. The partially water laid silty sands and gravels which 
exist in the foundation of the South Forebay dike near the powerhouse have ample 
shearing strength but their coefficients of permeability may vary between 
0.01 and 0.0001 cm. per sec. Typical grain size curves of these materials are 
shown on Plate II-16. 

10. Availability and Characteristics of Embankment Materials . - 

(a) General . - The materials for the dike and cofferdam embankments 
will be obtained from the powerhouse excavation, from the borrow areas shown 
on sheet BP-1-1/1 of the contract drawings and from gravel and rock sources 



-3- 



selected by the contractor. The borrow areas for earth fill contain the most 
economical materials in the vicinity which are suitable for a safe design. 
The following paragraphs describe the characteristics of the deposits and 
materials to be utilized, es determined by the investigations described in 
the preceding paragraphs. 

(b) Earth Fill . - The materials for backfill and earth fill sections 
of the dikes and cofferdams will be obtained from the powerhouse excavation 
and from borrow areas. The material will be mainly glacial which in nature 
has the characteristics described in paragraph 9(f)* The silty sands and 
gravels found in the Barnhart Island abutment of the powerhouse may be used 

in cofferdam construction or in themore pervious sections of the dikes but 
this material will not be used in the impervious features of the dikes. Prior 
to construction the borrow areas will be explored to determine the locstion 
of the more suitable materials. To permit such selection the quantities of 
materials within the areas shown are in excess of that required. The materials 
within the areas are compact silty sands and gravels with scattered boulders 
and numerous cobbles the same as the glacial till in the powerhouse excevation 
area. The material for the e?rth fill is very well graded and it is estimated 
that when compacted it will have a wet weight greater than 125 lbs. per cu.ft.t 
a permeability of less than 0.00001 cm. per sec. and an angle of internal 
friction of at least 30 degrees. 

(c) Sand and gravel . - Sand and gravel for the filter and backing 
materials for both dikes and cofferdams will be obtained from sandy gravel 
deposits as selected by the contractor. There are within 15 miles of the 
sites small superficial deposits of sand and gravel containing material which 
is believed to be suitable. 

(d) Rock Fill and Riprap . - Ifeterials for the dike rock fills and 
riprap will be obtained from the rock excavation at the powerhouse and by 
removing stones from embankment materials. Rock fill for cofferdams will 
have to be borrowed. 

11. PiKe Sections . - 

(a) General ? - As the design progressed to the present stage, the 
section shown on sheet BP-1-15/1 of the contract drawings were developed. 
Initial sections were the same as those shown except for rock fill fchd filter 
details. Any silts or clays existing in the formation of the North Forebay 
dike will be removed to insure a stable foundation. The essential features 
of the dike embankments will be described in the following paragraphs. 

(b) Impervious Features . - The dikes will contain earth fill sections 
of material having a small coefficient of permeability. The sections de- 
signated as Class I (see sheet BP-1-15/1 of contract drawings), material will 

be heavily compacted with a sheepsfoot roller and therefore slightly more 
impervious than the sections designated as Class TI material (see sheet BP-1- 
15/1 of the contract drawings). The compacted ©erth will extend a few feet 
into the foundation overburden to provide a cutoff in the upper overburden 
materials. If required, a blanket of compacted earth material will be ex- 
tended upstream in the vicinity of the pervious materials existing in the 
foundation of the South Forebay Dike. This blanket would extend as far as 
necessary to reduce the danger of excessive seepage through the foundation. 
Compacted earth will encase the powerhouse bulkheads where the dike adjoins. 

(c) Drainage Features . - Adequate provisions have been made to 
control any foundation or embankment seepage that may occur. Where the 
height of dike, is less than 35 feet seepage control consists mainly of a 
3-foot filter blanket provided under the downstream section. Where the 
dikes are greater than 35 feet in height, the downstream slope is «lso oro- 



-4- 



tected with filter material to elevation 240. In the pervious section of the 
South Forebay dike foundation a drainage trench is provided if required. 

(d) Stability . - As the dike sections have maximum heights up to 
70 feet, a rock fill section has been provided in the downstream section to 
lend stability to the structures where the heights are greater than 35 feet. 

(e) Slope Protection . - The upstream slopes of the embankments 
will be protected against erosion by wave action and ice action by heavy 
riprap underlain by small rocks and gravel. The downstream slopes other than 
the rock fill sections will be protected by light riprap or seeding. 

12. Cofferdams . - To control the water elevation and permit the 
dewatering of the powerhouse excavation it is necessary to build three cof- 
ferdams. These cofferdams consist of dumped rock and earth fill sections 
to 2 feet above the water surface at the time of construction and compacted 
earth sections from those elevations to full height. Based on informs tion 
to date, adequate measures have been incorporated in all designs to reduce 
seepage as much as practical, to control the seepage that will occur and to 
protect all slopes against erosion by wave action. Provisions have also 
been made to flood the powerhouse excavation in case of" the danger of either 
cofferdam "B" or •C" being overtopped. Typical sections for the three 
cofferdams are shown on sheet BP-1-5/2 of the contract drawings. After the 
completion of the recommended future exploration it may be necessary to 
revise the designs of cofferdams "A* and »B". 

13. Analysis of "Embankment Sections . - No mathematical analysis have 
been made for the embankment sections of the dikes or cofferdams. Based on 
the information to date, experience with similar materials and foundation 
conditions, it is believed that the sections have safety for stability and 
that the quantity of seepage will be relatively small. Sufficient free board 
has been provided in the dike sections for any settlement which might occur. 
If unsuitable conditions are disclosed by the recommended future exploration, 
mathematical analysis will be made if necessary. 

14. Economy of Construction . - The embankments will be composed of 
suitable earth end rock fill materials from the powerhouse excavation and from 
borrow areas. Provisions have been made to Utilize all stone and boulders 

from the earth fill materials. The quantity of sand and gravel filter material 
has been kept to the minimum believed feasible in the designs necessary to 
fulfill all design criteria. As much of the powerhouse excavation materials 
will be used as possible in the dike and cofferdam sections. 






WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. ARMY 



Mi,»«op« 



Ni.8s9.000_ 



H i .82 6,000 



Nl, 82 7,000 




PLATE DI- 1 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U. S. A R KAY 



T5t 



T6, 



T7i 



T6| 



T9, 




Top soil- 



Loass OriA/D <&nd sSig//& 

cobb/es &r?c/ &ou/ders i/p 
to £ fee+. Aio sAro>rjf/C3- 
~Yion. 

I 



Top so// 



Greyish- brown, comp&cT* 

s//ghr/y c/eyeu d?r?c/ 
c?r<s> rej/y &A AID <3nd S7J- T, 
occ<ss/'ar>s/ ^obe?/es <3>/?c/ 
£?04//de r~s. A/a &+r-&Mfi~ 
osf/'or?. 



2.Q 
3. a~ 



0.0 



Topsail. 



Z.O 



Top&oi 



/e/i/£/?. 



S-ANO y^/rh shet/s. 
£?€"/tvc&r? ne/msrous 

**/> fo J? fe&-+. 



grows? /cose s-//p/?//y 
3//A& y&rty &/-<5>r&//& 
<Ss1f/D 4 &/%:/.£&£&? wees, 
s?essr?& ro<ss czo£>£>/&s 



Gs~<?ytss?- brays/? ■zrcs??£><3cr 

V<& **&//# ^AA/0 4 S7/.T 
yv/'fn ooc&s/c?r7&/ <-ro6& /&$ 
&s?a/ & oes '/a* '<&/-&; /Vo 
S /r<£> // />' c & /~/o S?~ 



Gree/is-h - esrovYr? comp&c? 
&r-<&y*e//es &/?c/ c-A&e/ey 
&/4/Y& £ S/IT.OCC-&S/0S7- 
&/ C&&&/&S <s>r?cf £>0f/O*~ 

&rs. A/a &f>p&rTS?7- 



(Na! foci 



T 12 t 



TI3. 



T I4p 



TI5p 




Topsoii' 



O.O 
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Top so it 



F&ir/y oo/7?pocf. *s/fy ^stcA 
&r-&re//& ^si/V/O. F&*v 
boe//des& *Jj& to /£ S***cs'*cfS. 

yVO s-fr&^/f/c&s/o/? 



r~&/r/y L:a/?7p<9c/, <3*-<9r^//y t 
s>sry ■&■//?# J^/Iw, fasv 
&0£s/des~s- *'/3 A& /&" sVo 

SAS'Sf'/f/ ££>^/ C7S7. 



0.0 




Topsai/ 


/.s 




t.3 




4.0 




fS&r-^ ^iPr?^^ .*-/'//, /7?SS?0r- s?r&r&f 


S.0 




AAo ^yt/^fPT*/ f/&<5>S/0/7. 




Co/7?p&cf ^rf/c?r?s'/ey ^s^rrcVe/ *s>/7c/ 
<g/~<& is^//^ Ss'/r eSVT-c/ er/^^S, /Vo 

aYr~ t &//f/ c&f/'os?-. 




Corrrp>&cf JV'/X &S?cf eZ/tc?^ **//*/? 
/&S7S~&^ t?f s i '/'r?& fa sn&af/t/sry 



T I 6 t 



TI7i 



T I 9 t 



TII3p 















* / 

* / 


\ ^X^-I - Surf see - 

\. \*>£ trench \ 






1 X 






i 










L/nder/y/no /.o~ fee+ \^ ""N* 
of hopso//, /he /ws»*tf/"/ , «?/\ 














Top so i f 



^^^c/y, rare/ si/ty, C£ /4 K A/o 
•s-fr<5>f/'f/'c ^rVos7. 



. /P/P£X> 



is <9 brown ftsirfy trosnp&ci 1 
zr//Ae/ <9r>af cj>r~c£> *"&//*/ ^rlA/L, 
Wtsms ro ej 's- ,&c/4s/Gfer~.& . /Vo 



TII5p 




Tqpsoii 



F S ,rty hose, sandy GRAVEL, 
with numarous cobbles' 
&nd boil/o'er?. 



(A/or located j/> p.'an of eMp/orstior>) 



SZ/ph-f/y s///y e*fc o&sTOf&j- c7/Cior*xr/n?&A<?/y 

/% hz &><2<S6 by <dsy w£s&/?roy j-//f <=&■ 
S//Sy >*&■ o/tS'sxj/'is'-s orp>0r-0jr//7>oy fc/y *?o % 

to 40 5£ £>y oSs-/? we/g-ftr ar~ j-i/r G>Ac 
JV// o>W Sar?<d etc. o f <?s?o*<£'j- a&0r~Gi*/sr>c?re£/y 
4&5Z yh <5'&>Z by W&/&/?/- of j//f is/c- 
<~rc e?/./- 'W c/a'y " attf/tajs^ r??c>*"<s 
■A/xy/? &&}'- 6y ive?'0-s?r o/- cr/cry. 

HOTS'. ' 

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C?r& ZcVfO' as? <3/r-/t*C *3O"*y0//S7&>. *4*?Q-/y^*s 
of s~a>c/t os"<? ^ou-<eo' or? ccPr'tf-j- o&fo~/'}e<f 
-f/"OS& c/r-////>7?* 

£~/&f&A/o/7*3- &>r<2 s?ou-&o/ os? rr?eo"? 
^rccr/&r&/ do turn, 1312 adj. 



Under/f/inq /. S 
fern? of fopsoi/, r/i£ 
sr?&r&r/&/ /& <*■ 6ro*Vs? f 
oom/O&cT 1 , g> r~*> y or //jf, ye? 
js/'/t-i/ Sr1/V£>. A/l//77>s> 
<sr?g>es/*r- c:e?£6/&s' ^r? 
*jp to 3,0'. /Vo sfr&S/'f' 



7RANSVER5E MERCATOR COORDINATES 



HOLE HO 

YSt 



~Te 



7/Cf 



&o 



JTJp- 



T/2f 



T/Jp 
i-/*0 



m- 



se 



~T77. 






NORTH 



/, ez^q& e 






/,az3St4Q 



.,823,333 



/,a£6,332~ 



■ ,8Z4, 09/ 



i,e£3,06/ r 



/.32 3.Q3 7 

/,e£4,/3T ~ 



/,ez*>. 3Q3 



/,aZ3,/36 



/&26,S3~Z 






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3T s, joT 



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3Tgs7B 



3 T2, 96 



370.SK 



£ 



3GJ.49I 



36 7, siJr 



3 77. 7/3 



3 7 7, 7/0 

3 77,,,3r 



3 78,383 



3 77, //Z 



3 78,327 



Topsot/ 



Fairly /ooso, sandy Gr?A V/TL, 
w,rh numerous cobb/es anc/ 
bou/c/ers. 



(Not located on p/an of axp/orar/on) 



ST LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 

BARNHART ISLAND POWER HOUSE 

RECORD OF EXPLORATION 



rTO. a. 



tz^: 



SHEET NO. 10 SCALE : 1 



-j'V^Wlc*/ 



u. 9. EJisiNIin orF.ce. m»ssb~«. New «»^ FFBSUAOY l$4l 




PLATE m- 2 



PART IV 



1 1 



BARNHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE 



ESTIMATE OF COST 



Appendix 111-24(3) 



BARNHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE 
Estimate of Cost - May 7, 1942 

SURMARY 



1. General Contract $34,285,000* 

2. Materials & Equipment 17,494.000 

Subtotal $51,779,000 $ 51,779,000 

3. Additional Powerhouse Contracts 93,285,000 

4. Access Railway and Highway (Feature No. 29) 5^8,000 

5. Crab Island Shoal & Tailrace Excavation 2,412.000 

(Feature No. 32) 

Subtotal $96,265,000 $ 96,265,000 

TOTAL COST OF FEATURE N0S. 23, 24, 29 & 32 $148,044,000 

Engineering and Contingencies included in each item. 
* Includes $1,200,000 for the cost of Feature No. 23 



-1- 



BARNHART ISLAHD POVTHWOUSE 
Estimate of Cost - may 7, J9£2 
Bid Xte«a 



. Designation 



s t 



1 t Tieber 3riba 

2 t Crib Sheathing 

3 t Steel Sheet Piling 
i i Crib Pill 

5 I Berth Fill; Compacted, Class I* 
i Cofferdam 

6 t Earth Fill; Compacted, Class II, 
s Cofferdam 

7 * Earth Fill; Class III, Cofferdam 

8 t Book Fill; Cofferdam 

9 t Riprap; Cofferdam 

10 i Onwa taring Cofferdams 

U t Cofferdam Removal 

12 i Excav&tlon; Common 

13 i Excavation; Rock 
U t Line Drilling 

15 i Excavation; Borrow 

16 t Drilling Exploratory Holes, to 30 Ft. 

17 i Drilling Exploratory Holes, 30 to 60 Ft. 

18 t Drilling Exploratory Holes, 60 Ft. and 
t over 

19 t Drilling Grout Holes in Rock, to 30 Ft. 



3&.B.M. 

Sq. Ft. 

• m 

On. Id. 



AcreFt.s 

t 
Cu. Yd. i 

i 



Sq. Ft. 
Cu. Yd. 
Lin. Ft. 



Quantity 


i Unit s 
i Price it 


2,100 


{200.00 t 


28,000 


t .50 i 


27,500 


i 1.50 i 


£8,000 


« 1.50 % 


£6,000 


t .35 t 


6£5,000 


t .32 t 


1^5,000 


r .30 i 


135,000 


% 2.50 $ 


£9,200 


: 2.00 i 


90,000 


: 6.00 j 


776,300 


I .50 i 


3,321,000 


i .35 t 


225,000 


i 2.00 : 


£0,000 


J 1.00 t 


250,000 


» .30 : 


1,250 


i £.00 « 


1,350 


t £.50 i 


2,50C 


l 5.00 t 


3.750 


« £.00 « 



Amo 



£20, 

uj 

72,i 

16, 

206,, 
55, 

337, 
9*1 

540,1 

338| 

1,337,: 

£50/ 
£0,C 

75,0 

SO 

6,0 

12,% 
15,« 



-2- 









Unit i 


Amount 


Designation ; 


Unit s 


Quantity } 


Price $3 


1 ... 


Drilling Grout Holes in Eock, 30 to i 
60 Ft. j 


tLin.Ft.t 


i 7,800 i 


4.50 x 


35,100 


Drilling Grout Holes in Rock, 60 Ft. and i 
over i 


. n n . 


i 4,250 i 


i 5.00 t 


21,250 


Drilling Grout Holes in Concrete i 


1 » M , 


t 2,000 j 


t 2.50 i 


5,000 


Drilling 6" Drain Holes ! 


. « * j 


t 15,000 j 


t 10.00 : 


150,000 


Drilling 6" Concrete Cores i 


> n « 


i 1,000 j 


t 10.00 i 


10,000 


Core Boxes I 


t Each i 


i 1,800 i 


l 2.00 x 


3,600 


Grout Pipes and Connections i 


i Lb. 


\ 125,000 


! .15 i 


18,750 


Pipe j Black Steel, 8" Diameter i 


t " i 


i 53,000 i 


t .15 'i 


7,950 


Pressure Grouting j 


*Cu, Ft.i 


t 50,000 i 


\ 1.00 8 


50,000 


Sand in Grout i 


, n m 


i 2,500 i 


i .25 * 


625 


Rock Flour in Grout 1 


. M fl j 


i 3,000 j 


i .50 i 


1,500 


Earth FU2; Compacted, Class I 


;Cu. Yd. 


i 1,530,000 


t .12 j 

' 2 


189,600 


Earth Fill j Compacted, Class II 


j M fi 


1 

s 103,000 


t .10 x 


10,300 


Additional Compaction . j 


t Square 
i (lOOsf ) 


1 250,000 


5 .02 j 


5,000 


Earth Fill; Class III i 


iCu. Yd. 


i 250,000 


t .08 : 


20,000 


Rock Fill I 


. it a 


i 151,000 


I 1.00 X 


151,000 


Riprap j Dumped, Class A ! 


j * p 


I 75, COO 


i 2.00 x 


150,000 


Riprap; Dumped, Class B I 


. it h 


t 90,000 i 


I 1.50 : 


135,000 


Sand and Gravel Backing 


, n « 


i 56,600 


t 3.7^ x 


102,550 


Filter i 


. « t» 


: 101, 300 


\ £.00 x 


202,600 


Seeding j 


t Acre 


i 15 


[250.00 x 




3,750 


Concrete, Class A i 


tCu. Yd. 


s 134,000 


t 8.00 x 


1,072,000 


Concrete, Class I) i 


. n « 


i 281,000 


i 5.00 x 


1,405,000 


Generate, Class C ! 


. n n 


i 1,503,000 


\ 3.50 i 


5,260,500 



-3- 



Ho. 


Designation 


i i 
t Unit i 


t J 

Quantity ! 


t Unit : 

[Price $: 


A* 
{ 


44 


Straight Concrete Fonts 


tSq. Ft.! 


, 7,100,000 j 


! .25 i 


1,775, 


45 


t Concrete Fonts Curved One Way j 


■ n w . 


t 446,000 i 


\ .40 : 




46 i 


t Concrete Forms Curved Two Ways i 


i " * : 


t 460,000 i 


1 .50 : 


47 i 


i Absorptive Fom Lining 


> « • , 


5 2,200,000 ! 


! .10 1 


220, 


48 


t Concrete Portia For Ceilings 


, n «r , 


s 600,000 : 


5 .30 : 


1%, 


49 


i Concrete Foras for Construction Joints i 


t * " 


! 3,220,000 1 


.20 $ 


764, 


50 ! 


i Monolithic Concrete Floor Finish i 


1 * ■ ! 


i 160,000 i 


t .05 x 


*, 


51 


i Reinforcing Steel i 


i Lb. i 


[103,000,000 i 


t .065: 


7,020, 


52 


s Drilling Holes for, and Placing Dowel 1 
i Bars 


iLin.Ft.: 


t 1,000 i 


I 5.00 j 


5, 


53 : 


:. Metal Reglets i 


, w m , 


t 17,000 i 


1 .25 i 


4, 


54 : 


i Membrane Waterproofing i 


iSquare i 
r(100sf)i 


1,250 ! 


l 20.00 5 


25, 


55 i 


t Copper Metal Work I 


i Lb. i 


i 80,000 j 


1 .40 : 


32, 


56 ! 


i Copper Water Stops i 


t " 


t 40,000 \ 


E .40 8 


16,i 


57 j 


t Lead Sleeves and Flanges ; 


t * i 


\ 15,000 j 


t .40 t 


6,. 


58 \ 


t Sheet Iron and Steel i 


i « j 


i 65,000 : 


.15 : 


9, 


59 j 


i Special Bituminous Filler, Type C 1 


{Cu. Ft. j 


3,500 i 


i 1.50 1 


5/ 


60 


i Halved Concrete Pips I 


illn.Ft.i 


t 11,000 i 


! .20 t 


2,: 


61 i 


i Poured Grout s 


iCu. Ft.i 


t 115,000 i 


.65 1 


74/ 


62 ! 


Special Won- Shrink Grout i 


, : M « , 


t 1,000 j 


1 2.00 1 


2/ 


63 


i Structural Steel i 


I Lb. ! 


il9,000,000 i 


.10 t 


1,900,C 


64 i 


Steel Track Rails I 


» 1 • 3 


! 2,720,000 i 


1 .08 s 


217,* 


65 ! 


i Miscellaneous Black Steel and Metal Work j 


• j 


430,000 1 


! .18 t 


77,/ 


66 1 


Miscellaneous Galvanised Steel and j 
i Metal Work i 


* < 


600,000 i 


.20 1 


120,0 



-4- 



Item: 
No.: 


De si matron j 


Unit j 


Quantity 3 


Unit 1 
Price ti 


Amount 
* 


X 

67 a 

• 


Plain Gratings j 


i Lb. i 


e 360,000 i 


I .15 ! 


\ 54,000 


63 : 

• 


Galvanized Gratings i 


t M i 


i 3^0,000 i 


1 .18 j 


57,600 


69 : 


Safety Treads and Thresholds i 


« i 


i 110,000 j 


I .20 3 


t 22,000 


70 i 

m 


Cast Iron Frames and Covers 3 


> * 


! ^0,000 j 


, .16 3 


t 6,400 


71 s 

• 


Forgings, Steel i 


E n 1 


t 2,000 j 


, .30 j 


! 600 


72 j 

• 


Bronzo j 


1 " 3 


t 3,000 i 


1 1.00 3 


s 3,000 


73 : 


Miscellaneous Non-Ferrous Metals i 


1 * 1 


l 2,000 i 


i .50 i 


i 1,000 


74 s 

* 


Pipe Handrail j 


B 


t 70,000 3 


t .15 i 


i 10,500 


75 i 

• 


Conduit and Fittings 1 


1 " j 


I i 

e 1,225,000 j 


i .25 i 


i 306,250 


I 

76 «. 

• 


Cutlet Boxes I 


M . 


t 25,000 i 


t .20 i 


i 5,000 


* 

77 • 

• 


Turbin3 Embedded Parts, Installation i 


1 Ton 1 


i 5,500 i 


! 60.00 j 


i 330,000 


It i 
: 


Installing Guides, Sills and Embedded i 

Parts i 


> » • 


i 1,66A i 


e SO.OO i 


t 133,120 


79 : 

• 


Installing Gates, Stop logs, Racks and i 
Gate Hoists I 


t " i 


( H,A96 j 


i 60.00 i 


t 869,760 


80 : 

• 


Installing Gantry Cranes I 


t " ! 


\ 200 i 


e 60.00 


i 12,000 


3i i 

• 


Installing Overhead Cranes I 


E N i 


t 1,520 i 


I 60.00 


i 91,200 


9 

82 i 


Steel Pipe and Fittings, Black j 




\ Lb. i 


I 570,000 ; 


i .15 


i 85,500 


83 : 

■ 


Steel Pipe and Fittings, Galvanized i 


t * i 


i 750,000 


i .IB 


I 135,000 


• 

• 


Wrought Iron Pipe and Fittings 


. V 


t 27,500 , 


i .25 


i 6,875 


85 t 

■ 


Pickled Wrought Iron Pipe and Fittings 


, r , 


e 500 


i .32 


I 160 


36 I 

• 


Cast Iron Pipe and Fittings 


t n 


i 1,500,000 


i .15 


i 225,000 


67 : 

• 


Duriron Pipe and Fittings 


I * 


: 500 


l .20 


i . 100 


• 

88 | 

• 


Forged Steel Fittings 


t * 


1 1,000 


I .75 


I 750 


• 

89 : 
s 

90 t 


Coating Underground Pipe and Fittings 


c " 


t 4»ooo 


t .01 


1 40 


Brass Pipe and Fittings 


t " 


: 12,600 


5 1.00 


I 12,600 



-5- 



Itemi 

So.» 


1 
Desi/jnat^pn j 


i f 


Quantity i 


i Quit i 
[Price $; 


t Amount 

i . i 


s 
91 i 

■ 


Copper Tubing and Fitting* 1 


i Lb. t 


100 i 


t 1.00 i 


i ■ .'" loo 


% s 


Inserts. Pipe Hangers and Supports 1 


t * s 


500 i 


1 .20 i 


t 100 


93 t 

ft 


Brass Valves 1 


t * i 


500 i 


i 1.90 i 


i 950 


I 

9a, i 
i 
» 

<*5 f 


Iron-body Valves, Brass or Bronze i 
Mounted I 


i * t 


67,500 i 


\ 2.50 i 


: 168,750 


F •••" Drains i 


i * t 


7,100 i 


i .25 i 


i 1,775 


I 

96 i 

i 

* 


■ 
Floor and Deck Drains, Brass or Bronse i 
Strainers 1 


t t 
i t 

\ * 8 


6,000 i 


.25 


i 1,500 


97 $ 


Floor and Trench Drains, All Cast Iron i 


1 * t 


6,000 i 


.16 i 


i 960 


?8 J 
t 
1 

99 i 

8 

a 


Precast Concrete Roof Slabs I 


(Square s 

l(lO08f)8 


1,400 i 


i 50.00 i 


i 70,000 


Precast Concrete Roofing Tile 1 


(Square 8 
i(100sf)t 


2,900 i 


\ 65.00 i 


t 188,500 


* 

100 t 

8 

■ 


Built-up Asphalt Roofing i 


iSquare t 
((lOOsf)t 


1,400 ! 


I 20.00 ! 


t 28,000 


101 i 


Lead Collar for 4" Toilet Vent i 


t Each t 


10 i 

• 


t 3.00 i 


i 30 


102 t 


Tile Gage j 


[Lin. Ft. t 


70 J 


\ 2.00 i 


i 140 


103 8 

• 


Class Block i 


iSq. Pt.t 


20,500 i 


i 2.00 i 


i 41,000 


104 t 

a 


Storm Drain Pipe, 10* i 


tLin«Ft«i 


525 i 


i 1.50 i 


i 787 


105 s 

• 


Stom Drain Pipe, 12* i 


1 * * 8 


525 i 


i 1.75 I 


91* 


106 s 

* 


Storm Drain Pipe, 18* j 


I * * 8 


400 i 


i 3.00 i 


i 1,200 


107 i 


Storm Drain Pipe, 24" i 


1 * * 8 


950 i 


t 4.50 i 


\ 4,275 


108 8 


Concrete Cradles for Stom Drain Pipes t 


tCu. Id.t 


30 i 


i 6.00 i 


! 1ft 


109 s 


Catch Basins, Rectangular I 


i Each s 


19 i 


i 50.00 i 


i 950 


110 8 


Catch Basins, Circular i 


t * i 


6 i 


i 75.00 i 


450 


111 1 


Culvert Head Walls, Standard i 


1 * 8 


28 i 


i 40.00 \ 


i 1,120 


112 8 


Pipe; Corrugated Iron, 12" Diameter 1 


lUn.n.t 


800 i 


t 2.00 i 


! 1,600 



-6- 



Item: 
No.: 


Designation 




: : 

: Unit : 


Quantity 


: Unit 
: Price$ 


t Amount 
$ 


113 : 


Pipe; Corrugated Iron, 
24" Diameter 




• • 
> • 

: : 
i Lin. Ft 


268 


t 

1 

1 

t 4 .50 


t 1,206 


114 ! 


Pipe; Corrugated Iron, 
30" Diameter 


( i 

: t 

: » ■ : 


254 


> 

i 5.75 

1 


: 1,4^0 


115 : 


Gravel Fill Base 


# • 

tCu.Yd. t 


7,230" 


5 1.80 


J 13,014 


116 ; 


Ballast 


5 : 

x * " J 


6,200 


1 

t 2.50 


: 15 ,500 


117 \ 


Cross Ties 


• • 

: Each : 


7,240 


t 2.00 


: 14 ,480 


118 \ 


Track Laying 


• < 

:TrackFt 


16,185 


1 3.00 


« 48 ,555 


119 :' 


Road Surfacing 




i 

Sq.Yd.: 


29,000 


! 1.60 


: 46 ,400 


120 : 


highway Guard Rail 




• 

Lin. Ft j 


7,4^0 l 


1 1.25 


1 9 ,325 


121 : 


Field Office 




• 

Sum 1 


1 

Job 


1 


1 6 ,500 


122 ; 


Field Office Extension 


• 1 < 

, H . " j 

Total 




: 3.100 




$29,055,180 




Engineering, Overhe 
and Contingencies 


ad, Omissions 
at 1Q% 


5.229.932 




Total 


Cosl 


;, General 


Contract 




$34,285,112 



Note: The •Total Cost, General Contract" as 
given above includes $1,200,000 for 
the cost of Feature No. 23. 



-7- 



BAKNHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE 
Estimate of Cost - Hay 7, 1942 



Materials and Equipment Furnished hy the 
Government for General Contract 



1. 


Portland Cement 


$5,5*4*000 


2. 


Aggregate 


4,354,000 


3. 


Turbine Sissbedded Parts 


2, 200, COO 


4. 


Service dates f Sills ? Guides, Stop Logs, 

Racks, and. Hoists 


1,753,000 


5. 


Ice Galen and Stop Logs ( Including 
SHls *M Guides) 


367,000 


6* 


Crases 


567.000 




Total 


♦U, 825, 000 


7, 


Engineering, Overhead, Omissions and 
Contingencies at 18jt 


2.669.000 




Total 


$17,494,000 



«•' 



~5_ 



BARKHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE 
Estimate of Coat - May 7, 1942 



Additional Powerhouse Contracts 



Turbines (less embedded parts) D. S« 

Canadian 



Generators 



Canadian 



Coctpletion of Superstructure 
(Items not included in General 
Contract) 

4 

Miscellaneous Minor Powerhouse Equipment 

Fire-Fighting Equipment 

Ventilating Equipment 

Plumbing 

Drainage Pumps and Piping 

Machine Tools 

Oil Filter and Piping 



Yards and Grading 



U. S. 
Canadian 



Powerhouse Electrical Equipment U. S. 

Canadian 



Tunnels and Cables 



U. S. 
Canadian 



$12,655,000 
12.655.000 $25.310.000 

13,100,000 

15 ,472,000 ??,572 t 000 



1.500.000 



100,000 

100,000 

50,000 

34,000 

400,000 



20.000 


704.000 


223,000 
241.000 


464.000 


7,069,000 
6,153.000 


13.227.000 


371,000 
1.447.600 


2.318.000 



Total 



E.0.0. & C. at 21% 

Total Additional Contracts 



177,095,000 

16.190.000 

193,285,000 



-9- 



BARNHART ISLAND POWERKOTBE 



Estimate of Cost - May 11, 1942 



Access Hallway, Highway and 



Bridge to Canadian Powerhouse 
(Feature No. 29) 



a. Access Railway and 


Highway to Canadian Powerhouse 














Unit 




Item: Designation 




: Unit t 


Quantity 


1 


Price 1 


Amount 


t 

1 ', Trackage 




S i 

iLin.Ftt 


14.100 


• 
• 


5.00 1 


t $70,500 


2 : Pavement 




iSq.Yd. 1 


10,820 


1 


2.50 1 


1 27.050 


3 : Gravel; Shoulders 




1 * " t 


5.400 


t 


1.75 1 


1 9.450 


4 t Excavation 1 Common 




sCu.Yd.t 


8,000 


s 


.50 1 


4,000 


5 i j&nbankment 




: " * t 


146 ,000 


1 


.30 1 


t 43.800 


6 j Sand and Gravel Blanket 


t " ■ t 


1,200 


t 


3.00 1 


1 3,600 


7 1 Riprap 




1 • ■ t 


2,300 


1 


3.00 1 


i 6,900 


8 : Embankment (between b: 


ridges) 


x Each t 


1 


1 


L.S. 1 


[ 5.000 



Total 

Engineering and Contin- 
gencies $ IdX 

Total Cost 



$170,300 

30.700 

$201,000 



ges on Access Rout e s 



Swing Span 









Unit 




Items Designation 


t Unit 


t Quantity 


: Price 1 


i Amount 


• 

1 1 Machinery j 


t 1 

< 

t Lb. 1 


1 

t 100,000 


1 45 i 


t $45,000 


2 1 Steel; Structural 1 


1 " 1 


1 883,200 


1 .10 j 


t 88 ,320 


3 t Steel; Reinforced Concrete 1 


t " i 


t 21,900 


t .0651 


1 1.424 


4 s Concrete 1 


Cu.Yd.i 


t 800 


1 25.00 1 


20.000 


5 * Counterweight 1 


t ■ * 


1 225 


1 80.00 1 


t 18,000 


6 $ Decking; Road 1 


Sq.Ft.i 


1 3.160 


1 6.00 i 


1 18,960 


7 : Decking* Walk 1 


. t • j 


t 700 


t 2.00 1 


t 1,400 


8 t Track and Ties 1 


iLin.Fts 


t 178 


1 3.00 1 


1 534 


9 .• Guard Rail 1 


H • ( 


350 1 


t 2.00 i 


700 


10 s Piles 1 


N « j 


1 5ko 1 


t 2.50 « 


i,W 



Subtotal 



$195,708 



-10- 







Fixed Span 




Unit 




I tern : 


Designation 


: Unit j 


Quantity 


t Price : 


Amount 


1 : 


Steel; Structural 


t * 

, : Lb . : 


736,000 


1 .10 t 


$73,600 


2 : 


Steel; Reinforced 


Concrete i ■ i 


14.700 


! .065 t 


955 


3 i 


Concrete 


:Cu.Yd. j 


380 


*25.00 t 


9.500 


4 : 


Decking; Road 


jSq.Ft. » 


3.370 


t 6.00 t 


20,220 


5 * 


Decking; Walk 


t * ■ t 


750 


t 2.00 t 


1.500 


6 : 


Track and Ties 


:Lin.Ftt 


160 


: 3.00 1 


480 


7 : 


Guard Rail 


• • 


320 


t 2.00 : 


640 


8 t 


Piles 


, N N . 

• • 


310 


: 2.50 $ 


775 



A. 



Subtotal 

Total 

Engineering and Contin- 
1 gencies ^ 2\% 

Total Cost 

Summary 

Estimated cost of Railway, Highway and Bridges to 

Canadian Powerhouse 



B. Estimated cost of Bridges on Access Routes 
Total cost of Feature No. 29 



$107,670 

$303,378 

63.622 

$367,000 



$201,000 

367,000 

$568,000 



BARNHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE 



Estimate of Cost - May 11, 1942 



Crab Island Shoal and Tailrace 
(Feature No. 32) 

Estimated cost from report of January 1941 
Engineering and Contingencies + 2$% 



$1,929,380 
432 .620 



Total Cost of Feature No. 32 $2,412,000 



-11- 



BARNHART ISLAND POWERHOUSE 



Estimate of Cost - May 11, 1942 



DIVISION OF COSIS 



I Structure 



Canada 



U. S 



Total 



Contract 25 (except cranes) $34,163,000 

Materials by Gov't, for Contract 25 (except cranes) 16,825,000 
Cranes for gates, etc. 177,000 



Superstructure not incl. in Contract 25 

Yards and Grading 

Plumbing 

Oil Filter & Piping 

Drainage Pumps & Piping 



Access Railway and Highway 
Railway and Highway 
Bridges 

Crab Island Shoal & Tailrace 

Sub Total 

II Machinery 

Turbines (except embedded parts) 

Generators 

Fire Fighting Equipment 

Ventilating Equipment 

P. H. Cranes 

Machine Tools 

P. H. Electrical Equipment 

Tunnel & Cables 

Sub Totals 



; 25 


1,815,000 

561,000 

61,000 




24,000 
41,000 




201,000 
367,000 


» 


2,412.000 




$56,647,000 $56,647,000 


$ 15.313.000 

18,721,000 

61,000 

60,000 


15.313.000 
21,901,000 

61,000 . 

60,000 


307.000 

242,000 

7.451.000 

1,751,000 


307.000 

242,000 

8,553.ooo 

1.054.000 



$43.906.000 $47.491.000 $91.397.000 



Totals 
GRAND TOTAL 



$43,906,000 $104,138,000 



$148,044,000 



Engineering and Contingencies are included in each item. 



•12- 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 

PROJECT 



FINAL REPORT 

1942 



ESTIMATE OF COST 



DOCUMENTS Room 8 




E 




ITU 



II 








i^ 



CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U.S.ARMY 

U.S.ENGINEER OFFICE ♦ MASSENA.NEW YORK. 



APPENDIX ISt-O 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 
PROJECT 



* * * * * 



FINAL REPORT 
1 9 k 2 



ESTIMATE 07 COST 



CORPS OP ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY 
U.S. Engineer Office - Massena, New York 
July t 191*2 



/ 



APPENDIX 17-0 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Detailed Estimate of Cost by the United States Engineer 
Department, Jane, 1941 



Detailed Estimate of Cost from the Joint Report of Canadian 

and United States Engineers, January 3» 1941 17 



ST, LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 
CONTROLLED SINGLE STAGE PROJECT 
"238 - 242" 

UNITED STATES ENGINEER DEPARTMENT 

DETAILED ESTIMATE OF COST 
JUNE 1941 



WAR DEPARTMENT 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY 
U. S. ENGINEER OFFICE 
MASSENA, NEW YORK 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 
CONTROLLED SINGLE STAGE PROJECT 

"238 - 242" 

UNITED STATES ENGINEER DEPARTMENT 
SUMMARY OF ESTIMATE 



Canada 



U.S. 



Total 



A. Works solely for Navigation ; 

I. Upper Pool $ 10,967,000 

II. Lower Pool 37,890,000 $48,857,000 

B. Works Primarily for Power: 

I. Structures , head and tailrace 

excavation 40,600,000 

II. Machinery and equipment 37,950,000 37,950,000 116,500,000 

C. Works Common to Navigation and Power: 

1. Channel excavation i.... 44,291,000 

2. Ice cribs 514,000 

3. Control dam at Iroquois Point 11,071,000 

4. Dikes 6,210,000 

5. Supply channel and weir at Massena 2,085,000 

6. Diversion cut through Long Sault 

Island 2,217,000 

7. Main dam at Long Sault Rapids 16,063,000 

8. Guard g&te, 14* lock, and weir at 

Maple Grove 4,149,000 

9. 14 ! lock and dikes at Iroquois.... 604,000 

10. Railroad relocation. 3,646,000 

11. Clearing pool 500,000 

12. Rehabilitation of Morrisburg 5,024,000 

13. Rehabilitation of Iroquois 3,379,000 

14. Acquisition of lands in U. S 6,200,000 

15. Acquisition of lands in Canada.... 14,011,000 

16. Highway relocation 2,660.000 122,624.000 



60,364,000 227,617,000 287,981,000 



-1- 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 

CONTROLLED SINGLE STAGE PROJECT 
"238 - 242" 

UNITED STATES ENGINEER DEPARTMENT 
DETAILED ESTIMATE OF COST 

(A) WORKS SOLELY FOR NAVIGATION — (27 FT. DEPTH) 

I. Upper Pool at Point Rockway 



No. 3 


Item J 




Unit 




Quantity : 


! Unit 
! Price 




Amount i 


: Total 


1 ; 


Guide Pier in j 
South Galop- j 








! 


• 


: 

• 
• 

• 
• 


j 

« 

i 

50.000 ! 

< 


> 
t 












i 


: 


: 


50,000 


2 ; 


Point Three | 
Points Lock 






t 


! 
1 


: 










and Ent. Pier : 








i 
i 


X 








(Point Rockway) 






i 

< 


» 
> 










Concrete (ln_ ! 




• 




! 


. 








eludes rein- | 






• 
i 


» 
1 


: 










c.y. 




353,784 ; 


1 10.13avg! 


3,582,840 | 






Pumping during 1 








! 
















i 


i 




109,500 : 

4 


\ 




Excavation- 






4 


i 

i 




1 






c.y. 


*1,224,805 


5 0.65 


: 


796,120 s 


1 
1 




Rock (Inc. 




• 
• 


i 
< 


i 

i 


: 


i 


S 


j 






: 


43,854 


[ 4.43avg: 


194,190 ' 










: 





i 


• 


450 ! 






' Lock Gates, : 




• 
• 


i 


> 


• 
• 


*T^ V 






! Valves, Operating 




• 
• 

• 




i 
i 

i 


• 
• 
• 












• 






• 


573,000 s 

i 






Fenders , Lighting 




• 
• 


i 




• 
• 


t 








• 




i 


• 


216,000 ( 






Buildings ,Bridges 


t 


t 




• 


• 
• 






^Central Control 


c.y. I-] 






* 
x 


283,000 
555.020 






.,387,559 


i 0.40 

• 
i 








' 6,310,000 


3 ; 


Approach chan- 1 






: 




I 


X 




i 




1 nels to Point ' 






: 




• 
1 


: 


■ 


i 




' Three Points 






: 




J 


: 




• 
» 




: Lock (Point 










• 
* 


: 




: 




: Rockway) 










t 


: 








8 Excavation 






: 




: 












c.y. 


:2, 878,600 


x 0.50 




1,439,300 






: Dredging... 




c.y. 


« 
• 

: 


255,000 


: 1.05 

: 


s 


267.750 








x 1,707,050 














• 
• 


• 




X 



-3- 



I. Upper Pool at Point Rockway (Cont'd.) 



No.! 


Item ; 


Unit : 


Quantity : 


Unit 1 
Price 


Amount : 


Total 


4 ; 


Dikes - 
Earth fill : 














(from borrow) s 


c.y. l 


! 501,200 ! 


0.65 s 


325,780 s 






Earth fill ! 




: 


t 


3 


■ 




(from excava- 5 














tion spoil)..! 


c.y. s 


' 167,000 •' 


0.35 ! 


58,450 ! 






Rock fill....! 


c.y. '' 


! 43,700 « 


1.50 > 


- 65,550 •> 






Stripping s 


• c.y. J 


- 114,100 « 

i 

t « 


« .50 s 

4 
1 41 

i 


57.050 > 








506,830 


5 : 


Land Damage 
(Canadian figure 


- s 


> 4 

i 


> 4 

e : 


1 200.000 






.Sub-Total Items j 
Engineering and! 

,Total of A - 1. 1 


,1 - 5 ina 

• Contingent 

i i 
t i 


[ j 






200,000 




8,774,000 
i 2.193.500 


6 ! 








7 ] 


> 4 

► 4 




! il0.967.500 




II. Lower Pool: 


* i 

> i 

> t 

> 4 

ODDOsite 1 


t 4 

> < 

> 4 
» 4 

Barnhart Islai 


* 4 
I 4 

> 4 

t i 

ad : 




, — *'-•*' — 


1 : 


Canal Excavatioi 


a 


• ' 








: (a) Above Long: 










» 




, Sault Isd. to : 




• j 










: Robinson Bay : 














: Lock : 














: Excavation : 














: Dry Earth. . . . 


c.y. 


il,902,200 : 


I 0.50 : 


s 951,100 : 






: (b) Robinson : 














s Bay Lock to 














: Grass River 












! 


; Lock 

i Excavation 














: Dry Earth.... 


: c.y. 


: 2,944,000 


i 0.50 


5 1,472,000 






: (c) Grass River 












: Lock to Shore 














: Line 














: Excavation 
















: c.y. 


: 318, $00 


: 1.05 


I 334,740 






: (d) At Lower 












t end of Cornwall 












: Island : 




: 




: 





II. Lower Pool Opposite Barohart Island (Cont'd) 



• 

No, : Item 


» 
:Unit i 


: Quantity 




Unit 
Price 


: Amount : 


Total 


. Excavation 














. Dredging 


: c.y. . 


I 615,400 




1.05 | 


| 646,170 ! 




. Overdepth 


: c.y.. 


. 160,900 




1.05 . 


t 168,950 . 




: (e) At Mouth of . 














. Grass River . 












■ 


. Excavation . 














: Dredging 


\ c.y. . 


| 174,700 


: 


1.05 i 


i 183,430 J 








! 3,756,390 


2 ' Drainage Ditch i 














: Excavation ' 














1 Earth. • ...' 


'' c.y.J 


: 10,200 


: 


0.65 i 


: 6.630 i 








• 6,630 


3 : Dikes 














: (a) Above Robins oi 


i ! 








i j 


■ 


s Bay Lock 














| Earth fill (from 


i i 


! 




i 


: i 




: excavation spoil; 


! c#y# ! 


! 1,342,000 




0.35 | 


• 469,700 j 




| Earth fill (from' 
















' c.y. ! 


1 4,025,800 




0.65 ' 


• 2,616,770 ! 






! c.y. ! 


'• 270,300 




1.50 ! 


! 405,450 ' 






1 c.y. ! 


; 598,100 




0.5Q ; 


: 299,050 ' 




: Trimming (lnclud< 


»d 








i 


! 


: in embankment) 


> i 

ft < 




: 




: i 


i 


* Sodding (Included 


1 




• 

• 




> i 


> 


: in embankment) . : 


1 
I 


» 
i 


: 

• 




t ! 


1 




t 


i 3,790,970 


i (b) Robinson Bay 


1 


i 


• 




» 1 


> 
> 


: Lock to Grass 


: I 


i 


: 




1 i 


! 


: River 


» 


i 


: 




ft < 

ft i 


1 
ft 


: Earth fill (froi 


B 


t 


• 
• 




ft 4 
ft < 


ft 


: excavation spoi." 


L)c.y. 


i 410,300 


: 


0.35 i 


5 143,600 i 


I 


x Earth fill (froi 


D 


i 


. 


i 


l s 


> 


: borrow) 


i c.y. 


i 1,230,800 




0.65 


i 800,020 


ft 

» 


: Rock fill 


: c.y. 


i 111,200 




1.50 


i 166,800 


{ 


: Stripping 


: c.y. 


i 288,800 


t 


0.50 


i 144,400 


5 


: Trimming (In- 


: 


• 


: 




t 


I 


t eluded in em- 


i 


t 


* 




• 


• 

i 


: bankment) 


• 

• 


• 


t 




: 


t 


: Sodding (lnclud< 


id 


• 
• 


: 




i I 


I 


: in embankment) 


• 


t 
t 


t 
: 




'. 


I 




i 


i 1,254,820 


: (c) Rock fill 


: 


t 


: 




i 


i 

» 


* guide dike below: 


t 


: 


: 




> 


: 


* Grass River Lock 


• 
i 


• 
• 


• 
• 




: 


: 




t 


: 






i 


l 



-5- 



II. Lower Pool Opposite Barnhart Island (Cont'd) 



Item 



:Unit : Quantity 



Unit 
Price 



Amount 



Total 



Rock fill, 



Guard Gate and 
Supply Weir above 
Robinson Bay Lock 
Concrete (Piers, 
YJeirs,& Weir Silll)c.y. 

c.y. 
c.y. 



Concrete • • . • 

Fill-earth 

Excavation. . 
Earth. •••••••••• 

Lock gates, oper- 
ating mach. etc.. 
Sluice gates, 

hoist, etc 

Fenders, Lighting* 
equip. & misc. steel. 
Wood & Sheet Piling 
Other items not : 
shown on Lindsay J 

Est :. 



c.y. 



171,733 



2.00 



34M70 



c.y, 



27,174 

70,783 

242,915 



20.54 av£. 
10.00 
0.40 



571,892 : 0.65 



Robinson Bay Lock s 
Entrance Piers and : 
Weir ; ; 

Concrete ,: c.y. : 522,524 

Fill-earth : c.y. : 2,135,859 

Excavation : : 
Earth ! c.y. J 1,876,522 
s Rock (incX. ; ; 

: channeling) : c.y. : 30,565 

* Lock gates and : : 

operating mach.... J, 

'flood and Sheet : 

Piling I, 

Lock valves and : 

operating mach. . • • i . 

Emergency gate....:, 

Fenders, capstans, 1 

lighting equip., ete, 
: Other items not : 

shown in Lindsay est, 



10.09 
0.40 

0.65 
3.82 



Regulating Weir at 
Robinson Bay 

Concrete 

Excavation 



i c.y. 



558,240 

707,830 

97,170 

371,500 

154,400 

57,800 

97,000 
240,670 

146.600 



5,270,240 
854,344 

1,219,739 

116,635 

784,000 

245,662 

109,000 
72,000 

255,000 
240 i240 



23,000 : 23.00 avg. 529,000 

: 

-6- 



343,470 



2,431,210 



* 9,166,860 



II. Lower Pool Opposite Barnhart Island (Cont'd) 



No. 



Item 



..Unit : Quantity 



Unit 
Price 



Amount 



Total 



8 
9 

10 
11 
12 



Rock trench icy. 

Earth : c.y. 

: Sluice gates, hoisi, 

s etc. s 

: : 

1 Grass River Lock 
and Entrance Piers s 

Concrete *c.y. 

Excavation 
Jsar wn. .•.......*. c.y. 

jcto ok ............. c.y. 



4, 500 
J 22,000 



3.00 
0.60 



13,500 
13,200 

15.000 



363,860 | 10.12 avft.3, 683,600 



i? 1JLL .............. 

Cribwork 

Lock gates, emer- 
gency gate and 
operating machinery' 
Lock valves and 
: operating machinery 
Fenders , capstans , 
lighting e quip . , e tc 
Wood and Sheet : 

Piling : 

Cofferdam : 

Items not included 2 
in Lindsay Estimate 

N.Y.C. Rly. Div- • 
ersion & Bridges..! 



Canal Lighting and 
Office (Included 
in Lock estimate) 



c.y. 
c.y. 



: 1,929,092 
J 28,340 
s l,630,702 



0.65 : 1,253,910 

4.04 avfc 114,460 

0.40 652,280 

: 297,960 



856,000 

109,000 

225,000 

121,120 
80,000 

276,740 



Clearing Pool 
Clearing 




Roads (Canadian 
figures used) 



Property damages- 
Lower Pool (Incl. 
in item C-14) 
Sub-Total Items 
1-12 incl .; 



570,700 



7,670,070 
1,187,000 



16,000 
117,750 



30,311,870 



-7- 



II. Lower Pool Opposite Barnhart Island (Cont'd) 



Item 



Unit 



Quantity 



fnit 
ice 



Amount 



Total 



Engineering and 
Contingencies 25$. 



7,577,970 



Total of A-II, 



$ 37,889,840 



B - Works Primarily For 



Power 



Structures, Head 
and Tailrace Exca- 
vation , 



Machinery and equip 
ment •• 



£0.600.000 



75.900.000 



Total of B-I&II (Engineering & Contingencies Incl.) 



• * • 

C - Works Common To Navigation and Power 



Channel Excavation 

(a) Chimney Point 
Excavation 

Wet Hock 

Dredging. 

(b) Removal of 
Spencer Island Pier 

Excavation 

(c) Removal of Gut 
Dam 

Excavation 



c.y, 
c.y, 



c.y, 



c.y, 



(d) Removal of center 
wall Locks 27 & 25 
and Canal Bank 
Excavation 



Dredging 

(e) North Galop 
Channel to below 
Bay craft Island 
Excavation 



c.y, 



159,000 
450,900 



124,000 



44-,600 



40,600,000 



75.900,000 



$116,500,000 



4.75 
1.05 



755,250 
47M ?0 



1.05 



130.200 



195,600 



1.05 



46.830 



1,228,700 



130,200 



46,830 



1.05 



205.380 



205,380 



-8- 



C - Works Common To Navigation and Power (ContM.) 



No. : 



Item 



Unit 



Quantity- 



Unit 
Price 



Amount 



Total 



Dry earth 

Dry rock 

Dredging 

Wet rock 

(f ) South Galop 
•Channel from Butter? 
nut Island to south 
of Bay craft Island 
Excavation 

Dry earth. ....... 

Dry rock 

Dredging. 

Unwatering 



c.y, 
c.y. 
c.y. 
c.y, 



2,878,700 
250,800 

2,229,000 
22^,600 



0.50 
1.60 
1.05 
4. 75 



c.y, 
c.y. 
c.y, 



1,615,600 

2,288,500 

425,300 



0.50 
1.60 
1.05 



(g) South of Bay- 
craft Island to 
below Lotus Island 
Excavation 

Dry earth. 

Dry rock 

Dredging 

(h) South of Lalone 
Island, Island to 
south of Bay craft 
Island 
Excavation 

Dry earth 

Dry rock. 

(i) Sparrowhawk 
Point 
Excavation 

Dredging 

Dry earth 

(j) Galop Canal Bank, 
Pre squ 1 isle & 
Toussaints Island 
Excavation 

Dredging 

Dry earth 



c.y. 
c.y. 
c.y. 



c.y, 
c.y, 



c.y, 
c.y, 



c.y, 
c.y, 



1,976,300 

115,100 

1,572,900 



609,000 
225,200 



1,266,400 
2,824,800 



987,500 
1,706,400 



0.50 
1.60 
1.05 



0.50 
1.60 



1.05 
0.50 



1.05 
0.50 



1,439,350 

401,280 

2,340,450 

1.066.850 



807,800 

3,661,600 

446,560 

I t#?i000 



988,150 
184,160 

1.6?l t ?40 



304,500 
360.320 



1,329,720 
1.412.400 



1,036,880 
853.200 



5,247,930 



6,268,960 



2,823,850 



664,820 



2,742,120 



1,890,080 



•9- 



C - Works Common To Navigation and Power (Cont'd.) 



No. 




Unit 
Price 



Amount 



1 

1.05 
0.50 


i 1 

! 2,310,630 1 
! 1,064,600 ! 


1.05 
0.50 , 


! 1,133,580 I 
! 1.046.500 ! 


1.05 ! 

o.5o : 

• ••••••••4 


631,580 ! 

1,889,500 ! 

231.200 ! 


1.05 i 

o.5o : 

4.75 ! 


1,443,960 ! 

883,350 J 

90.010 ! 


1.05 ! 


: 

• 
• 

1,850,620 ! 


0.50 ! 
1.05 ! 


• 
• 

• 
• 

• 
• 

253,200 | 
' 1.355,660 ! 




• 
• 



Total 



(k)iPoint Three Points 
Excavation 
Dredging 



c.y. 



Dry earth < c.y. 

• 

(1) Irishman's Poin^ 
& Opposite Leishman'.s 
Point 
Excavation 

Dredging . . c.y. 

Dry earth c.y. 



(m) North and South 
side of Ogden Island 
Excavation 

Dredging. • . 

Dry earth. 



c.y. 
c.y, 



Unwatering 



(n) Morrisburg Canal 

Bank and Canada 

Island. 
Excavation 

Dredging 

Dry earth 

Wet rock (corres- 
pondes to masonry 
and rip rap) 



c.y, 
c.y, 



c.y, 



c.y. 



(o) North side of 
Cornwall Island 
Excavation 
Dredging 

(p) South side of 
Cornwall Island 
Excavation 

Dry earth 

Dredging 

Sub-total Items (a) 
(q) Engineering and 

(r) Total of item r 1 - 



c.y, 
c.y, 



2,200,600 
2,129,200 



1,079,600 
2,093,000 



601,500 
3,779,000 



....... 



1,375,200 
1,766,700 



18,950 



1,762,500 



506,400 
1,291,100 



to (p) incl » 

Contingencies 25$.* 



3,375,230 



2,180,080 



2,752,280 



2,417,320 



1,850,620 



1.608.860 



35,433,260 
8.858.310 



$ 44,291,570 



-10- 



C - Works Common To Navigation and Power (Cont'd) 



No.. 



Item 



Unit 



Quantity- 



Unit 
Price 



Amount 



Total 



Ice Cribs above 
Prescott and above 
Galop Island. 

(a) Cribs, booms 
and rockf ill 

Cribwork. 

Booms . • 

Rock fill 

Sub-total item (a). 

(b) Engineering and 

(c) Total of item 

Iroquois Point Dam 

(a) Dam 

Concrete 

Concrete 

Concrete 

Excavation 
Rock (includes 
line drilling 
and found, 
preparation) . . 

Earth 

Rock fill 

Earth fill (in 
eluding dikes 
at both ends.) 
Gates, bridges 

etc 

Cofferdams.... 
Sub- total item (a) . 

(b) Engineering and 
Engineering and 1 

(c) Total of item - 

Dikes 

(a) North and South 
end of Iroquois 
Point Dam 

Earth fill 

Rock fill 

Stripping 



Contingencies 25% 
2 - 



c.y, 
c.y, 

c.y, 



12,800 

50,900 

190,800 



40.50 
25.50 
10.00 



c.y, 
c.y. 
c.y, 



c.y. 



24,900 

439,000 

90,200 



210,000 



3.83 
0.60 
1.50 



0.86 



190,000 

50,000 

170.000 



518,400 
1,297,900 
1,908,000 



95,400 
263,400 
135,300 



180,000 

136,000 

1 95.000 



Contingencies 25% 
Contingencies - Cofferdam 30% 

3 - 



c.y, 
c.y. 
c.y, 



111,200 
5,800 
9,000 



0.50 
2.00 
0.50 



55,600 

11,600 

4,500 



410,000 
102.500 



$ 512,500 



8,729,400 

1,383,600 

958,000 



$ 11,071,000 



71,700 



-11- 



C - Works Common To Navigation and Power (Cont'd.) 



No, 



Item 



Unit 



Quantity : 



ce 



Amount 



Total 



*(b) U.S. Shore - : 
jiilson Hill to Louisj- 
yille Landing 

Earth fill / 

Rock fill .* 

Stripping • 

(c) West and East oi? 
Jdassena Canal [ 

Earth fill .* 

Rock fill. ••••• 

Stripping. ........ * 

(d) Between Massena* 
Canal and Navigation 
Canal " 

Earth fill I 

Rock fill .; 

Stripping .] 



(e) East and West o£ 
Long Sault Dam 

Earth fill....... 

Rock fill 

Stripping 

(f) Canadian side 

Earth fill 

Rock fill 

Stripping 



c.y, 

c.y, 
c.y, 



c.y. 
c.y. 
c.y. 



c.y. 
c.y. 
c.y. 



c.y. 
cy- 

c.y. 



c.y. 
c.y. 
c.y. 



274,575 
26,181 
59,974 



832,768 

61,371 

103,944 



429,672 
34,561 
62,437 



203,154 
18,002 

37,889 



5,310,211 
158,807 
310,699 



(g) On Barnhart • 
Island : 

Earth fill s c.y. 

Rock fill s c.y. 

Stripping........: c.y. 

t t 
Sub-total items (a)*to (g) incl 



697,775 
48,210 
81,300 



0.50 
2.00 
0.50 



0.50 
2.00 
0.50 



0.50 
2.00 
0.50 



0.50 
2.00 
0.50 



0.50 
2.00 
0.50 



0.50 
2.00 
0.50 



137,290 
52,360 

29,990 



416,380 

122,740 

51.970 



101,580 
36,000 

18»94Q 



348,890 
96,420 

4Q»6?o 





219,640 



591,090 



315,180 



156,520 



3,128,070 



48? i960 



(i) Total of item - : 4 - 



(h) Engineering and*ContiAgencies 25^.5 1 s 

: A - . : . ! I 

t : : 

: : : 

t : : 

: : 



4,968,160 
1.242,040 



Supply Channel and 

Weir at Massena 

(a) Supply Channel : 

and Weir J : 
s Concrete. •• s c.y.: 



78,860 : 10.00 
-12- 



$ 6,210,200 



789,000 



C - Works Common To Navigation and Power (Cont'd) 



No.. 



Item 



Unit 



Quantity 



Unit 
Price 



Amount 



Total 



c.y. 
c.y, 
c.y. 
c.y. 



Excavation 

Rock footing.... 

•bjarcn. ....•••••• 

Dredging, ....... 

Concrete Paving. . 
Gate3, bridges, 
hoist, etc j 

Sub- total item (a) < 

(b) Engineering and Contingencies 25$ 

(c) Total of item | 5 - 



5,930 

922,200 

120,700 

12,350 

82,100 



2.00 

0.50 

1.00 

12.00 



12,000 
461,000 
121,000 
148,000 

137.000 



c.y, 
c.y. 



2,515,000 

83,000 

350,000 



642,400 



Diversion cut 
through Long Sault 
Island. 

(a) Diversion cut. 
Excavation 

Dry earth 

Dry rock 

Dredging J c.y. 

Sub-total item (al 

(b) Engineering ana Contingencies 25% 

(c) Total of item ^6- 

: 

Main Long Sault Dim* 
(a) Dam : 

Concrete {includes 

reinforcing) t c.y. 



Foundation grout-: 
ing J 

Excavation s 
Earth (includes s 

stripping) s 

Rock footing (in* 
eludes line drill* 
ing etc. and 
foundation prep- 
aration) 

Gates, towers, 

hoists, etc 

Unwatering.. .... 

Sub- total item (a} 



0.50 
2.00 
1.00 



1,257,000 
166,000 



11.29avgS 7,251,300 



c.y, 



c.y, 
c.y, 



444,900 



0.60avg 



204,800 
20,800 



3.07avg 
1.00 



200,000 
267,600 



628,600 
20,800 

1,040,000 

?.?09,000 



1,668,000 
417.000 



$ 2,085,000 



1,773,500 



$ 2,216,900 



$ Lfc, 717,300 



-15- 



C - Works Common To Navigation and Power (Cont'd) 



No. 



Item 



(b) Engineering and 

(c) Engineering and 

(d) Total of item - 



c.y, 



c.y. 
c.y, 

c.y, 

c.y, 



Guard Gate H-ft. 
Lock and Weir at 
Jlaple Grove. (New 
Cornwall) 

(a) Lock Entrance 
Piers and Weir 

Concrete (includes 

reinforcing) 

Concrete Weir silli c.y 
Concrete piers, 
slabs and beams.. • 
Fill - earth...... 

Excavation 

Earth 

Rock (includes 

channeling) 

Lock gates, sluice 
gates, hoist, stop 

logs, etc 

Fenders, capstans, 
lighting equip. etc! 
Control station, 
buildings & grounds] 
Piling, rip-rap and 

pumping. • 

Sub-total item (a): 

(b) Engineering and: Contingencies 25$. 

(c) Total of item -:8 - .; 



Unit : Quantity 



Unit 
Price 



Amount 



Contingencies 25$. • 
Contingencies 30$. ^< 



: 

-t- 

: 

* 



Total 



7 - 



"V 



: 
V 



162,295 
1,290 

9,000 
743,307 

405,533 
13,608 



10.06avg 
14.00 

18.00 
0.40 

0.65 
4.68avg 



2,352,100 
994,000 



$ 16,063,400 



1,631,950 
18,060 

162,000 
297,320 

263,600 

63,750 

386,600 
167,000 
100,000 
228,810 



3,319,090 
! B «29«770 
: $ 4,148,860 



14-ft. Lock and ? 
Dikes at Iroquois * 
(a) Lock (Lock #25i* 
Canadian figures used 

Concrete.. ,t c 

Excavation - earths c 

Earth fill s c 

Rock fill : c 

Stripping : c 

Lock gates, etc...;.. 
Sub- total item (a) ; . . 

: 



•y. : 
.y. J 

•y. : 



19,140 
78,100 
162,040 
13,650 
31,630 



10.00 
0.65 
0.90 
1.00 
0.65 



191,400 
50,770 

145,840 
13,650 
20,560 
60.000 



482,220 



-14- 



C - Works Common To Navigation and Power (Cont'd) 



Item 



Unit * Quantity 




Unit 
Price 



Amount 



Total 



(b) Engineering and 

(c) Total of item - 



Railroad Relocation 

(a) Norwood and St. 
Lawrence Rly < 

(b) Canadian NaUona} 

Rly ..« 



121,780 



$ 604,000 



209,000 : 



Sub- total items (a 

(c) Engineering and 

(d) Total of item - 

Clearing Pool 

(a) United States 
and Canadian Side*. 

Sub-total item (a) 

(b) Engineering and 

(c) Total of item - 



&b).« 

Contingencies 25$. 



2.708.000 t 



10 - !, 
: 



i. 



s 2,917,000 
: 729 t 2?0 

>$ 3,646,250 



: 



Contingencies 25%, 

u-'i 



Rehabilitation of 
Morrisburg 
(a) Morrisburg 
(Canadian figs.usedj 

Earth fill , c.y. : 

Reconstruction -value^ : 

of buildings 

Streets, sidewalks 



865,480 



sewers, water 



supply, etc....... 

Contingencies 

Sub- total item (a) 

(b) Engineering and 

(c) Total of item - 

Rehabilitation of 

Iroquois 

(a) Iroquois 

(Canadian figs„usedj 
Improvements in- 
cluding debenture 

debt ; 

Land. 



22 - 



0.65 



ContiAgencies 12-£% 

! ! 

: t 

: : 



Contingencies \ I { 

Sub-total item (a) , . . . . [ 



,400.000 



1,650,000 
550,000 
804.270 



400,000 
100.000 



$ 500,000 



562,560 

2,122,950 , 

: 

718,300 s 
1.061.500 8 



«♦ 4,465,310 
: S58.690 



5,024,000 



$ 3,004,270 



-15- 



C - Works Common To Navigation and Power (Cont'd) 



No. 



Item 



Unit : Quantity- 



Unit 
Price 



Amount 




Total 



M 



15 



16 



(b) Engineering and; 

(c) Total of item - 

Acquisition of land 
United States side. 

(a) Including Islands 
Sub-total - 14- - .;, 

(b) Engineering and 

(c) Total of item - 



Contingencies 12-JJ6 
14 - 



Acquisition of land 
Canadian side 

(a) Mainland 
(Canadian figs. used) 

Improvements . . . 

Lands 

Orchards 

Existing power 
development. . . . 
Contingencies ... J 

(b) Islands I 

Sub-total (a & bj 

(c) Engineering and Contingencies 12-g^ 

• 

(d) Total of item ♦ 15 - 



Highway Relocation 

(a) United States 
shore 

(b) Canadian shore 
Sub- total (a & b) : 

(c) Engineering and Contingencies 2% 

(d) Total of Item i 16 - 



5,393,760 

3,107,200 

8^,500 

895,800 

2,696,880 

276.200 



420,000 
1.708.000 



374.730 
% 3,379,000 



5,510,000 
690.000 
: $ 6,200,000 



12,454,340 
1.556.660 

; $14, 011, 000 



2,128,000 
532.000 

% 2,660,000 



-16- 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PROJECT 
INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 

CONTROLLED SINGLE STAGE PROJECT 
"238 - 2i*2" 

JOINT REPORT 
OP 

CANADIAN AND UNITED STATES ENGINEERS 

DETAILED ESTIMATE OF COST 
OTTAWA, CANADA, JANUARY 3, 19LJL 



ST. IiASJBMCE HlfEH PROJECT 
IBTBBNATIOS'AL RAPIDS SECTION 

CONTROLLED SINGLE STAGE PROJECT 
"238 - 2U2" 

SUMMARY OF ESTIMATE 

(A) Works soley for Navigation. 

(i) Upper Pool— at Point Rockway $ 7,1+97,000 

(ii)Lower Pool— Opposite Barnhart Isd. 31,081,000 

$ 33,573,000 

(B) Works primarily for Power. 

(i) Structures, Head and Tailrace Exc'n • 1*6,1176,000 

(ii) Machinery and Equipment 50,328,000 

96,80U,000 

(C) Works common to Navigation and Power. 

1. Channel excavation • 146,136,000 

2. Ice cribs above Prescott and above Galop led.* 656,090 

3* Iroquois Point Dam * ••• 7,310,000 

k» Dykes 12,37U,000 

5» Supply channel and weir at Massena...... •••••• 2,363*000 

6* Diversion cut through Long Sault Isd. ......... 2,569,000 

7* Main Long Sault Dam 20,055,000 

8. Guard Gate, ll|-ft* Lock and Weir at Maple 

Grove..... • 2,62l+,000 

9* lU-ft. Lock and Dykes at Iroquois* 60l|,000 

10* Railroad relocation • 3,696,000 

11« Clearing pool 518,000 

12. Rehabilitation of Morrisburg. £,02)4,000 

13. Rehabilitation of Iroquois • 3,379,000 

1L> Acquisition of lands, etc*, U. S. side.......* ij.,657,000 

15* Acquisition of lands, etc., Can. side* ill, 01 1,000 

16. Highway relocation • 2,812,000 

130,788,000 

Grand Total , $266, 170,000 



-17- 



ST. LAURENCE RIVER PROJECT 
INTERNATIONAL RAPIDS SECTION 

CONTROLLED SINGLE STAGE PROJECT 
"238 - 2l+2* 

DETAILED ESTIMATE OF COST 
(A) WORKS SOLELY FOR NAVIGATION — (27 FT. DEPTH) 
(i) Upper Pool at Point Rockway 



No. 


s Item 


i 

t Unit 


i 

$ Quantity 


» Rate 


i Amount 


1 Total 


1 


» Guide Pier in 
i South Galop- 


i 
i 












i Cribwork.... 


i c.y* 


i 6,000 


t 5.OO 


r 30,000 








( #30,000 


2 i 


i Point Three i 
i Points Look 
t and Entrance 
i Piers — 
















\ c.y* i 


i 11+1,960 


> 10*00 1 


1 1,14.19,600 








\ c.y* i 


i 9U,730 


1 5»oo j 


U73.650 






i Excavation- i 
















i c.y* i 


i 220,000 i 


t 0.1+0 1 


88,000 1 








i c.y* i 


\ 140,000 i 


I 0.65 1 


26,000 1 






i Lock gates. 










. 




i valves, oper- 














ating ma chin-; 






















9U7.700 

175,000 1 






Emergency gate 




















1 3,129.950 


3 i 


Approach chan-i 
nels to Point j 
Three Points 
Lock — j 
Excavation — i 
















i c.y* i 


t 3,030,000 i 


1 0*1*0 1 


1,212,000 1 








t c.y. i 


106,000 j 


1 0.65 i 


68,900 1 






dredging. ...i 


t c.y. i 


1 320,500 1 


I 0.90 J 


288,1+50 1 








1 1,569,350 


1+ i 


Dykes— j 












« 


Earth fill...) 


\ c.y. i 


1 1,002,770 1 


1 0,90 1 


902, 1+90 1 






Rock fill.... ^ 


e*y* J 


1 63,71*0 1 


1 1*00 1 


63,7U0 , 






Stripping.. ••) 


i c.y* i 


1 156,560 , 


1 0*65 1 


101,760 1 








1,067,990 


5 « 










200,000 j 
















200,000 


6 i 


Engineering & \ 
Contingencies] 






1 25* 1 




1,U99,710 


7 a 








7,l+97,ooo 



-19- 



(ii) Lower Pool — Opposite Barnhart Island 



• * 

* • 

No« t Item s 


Unit i 


i Quantity i 


Rate i 


t Amount 1 


1 Total 


1 : Channel Exoava-i 












i tion— t 












: (a) Above i 












t Long Sav.lt t 












t Isd. to Rob- t 












t ins on Bay Lock* 












: Excavation- * 












t dry earth*..: 


c*y« i 


t 2*513.880 , 


O.65 1 


t 1,63U,020 , 






c*y« j 


s 10,020 i 


t 11*00 , 


1 110,220 1 








t I,7i4l*,2l*0 


: (b) Robinson j 












t Bay Lock to t 








. * 




t Grass River t 












s Lock— s 












t Excavation—; 












i dry earth* • • t 


c*y* 


i 2,9U2,200 i 


1 O.65 


1 1,912,1+30 








1 1,912.1*30 


s (c) Grass t 












s River Lock tot 












t Shore Line— i 












i Excavation— i 












t dredging* ••• j 


c*y* 


i 374.000 , 


t 0.80 


\ 299,200 








\ #9,200 


t (d) At lower j 












t end of Corn- t 












i wall Isd* — i 












t Excavation— » 










1 


i dredging* •••* 


c*y» 


i 522,000 


t 0.80 


1 l+i7#6oo 




j overdepth • • « t 


c*y* 


t 100,000 


1 0.80 


1 80,000 








1 1*97.600 


s (e) At mouth t 












t of Grass Riven 












i Excavation—: 












: dredging****: 


c*y» 


i 227,000 i 


t 0.80 


i 181,600 








1 181,600 


2 : Drainage ditch : 












: Excavation— : 














o*y* 


i 10,3)0 j 


1 O.65 


i 6,630 








1 6,630 


: Carried for- : 














1 U,6ia,7oo 



-20- 



(ii) Lower Pool — Opposite Barnhart Island (Continued) 



No* i Item 


t Unit 


t 

t Quantity 


t Rate 


i Amount 


t Total 


; Brought for- 






















, $ 4,641,700 


3 s Dykes— 










t (a) Above Rob- 


i 










t ins on Bay Lock- 


r : 










i Earth fill*.* 


i c.y. 


t 807,860 


1 0*1}2 


1 339,300 




t Earth fill*.* 


i c.y. 


i £262,560 


» 0.90 


1 2,036,310 




% Rock fill**.* 


i c.y. 


1 1+9,500 


1 1*00 


1 U9.500 




t Stripping. •• • 


t c.y* 


1 312,110 


1 O.65 


, 202,880 






t s*y. 


1 191,370 


1 0.25 


1 47,81+0 






i s.y. 


1 17,000 


1 0.1*5 


1 7,650 








1 2,683,480 


t (b) Robinson 








t 




t Bay Lock to 




1 








t Grass River— 












s Earth fill... 


t c.y. 


1 6^,270 


» 0.1+2 


i 281,090 




t Earth fill...: 


I c.y. i 


1 357,250 1 


1 0*60 1 


1 214,350 1 




t Stripping. ••* 


\ c.y* i 


1 li.6,510 ] 


t 0.65 1 


1 95*230 1 






i s.y. j 


! 167,010 | 


1 0.25 


1 41,750 






\ s.y. j 


t 22,000 j 


I 0.45 1 


1 9,900 




i Paving— con- : 














i c.y. i 


1 13,880 1 


1 11.00 j 


1 152,680 j 




t : : 




1 795,000 


t (c) Rock filli 












: guide dyke ] 










1 


j below Grass i 












t River Lock— j 












j Rock fill**..] 


i c.y. i 


1 63,000 j 


1 2.00 j 


1 126,000 1 








1 126,000 


4 t Guard Gate and] 












s Supply Weir j 












: above Robin- i 












j son Bay Lock-] 














i c.y. i 


4,520 ] 


1 12.00 j 


1 54,240 j 






c.y. i 


38,080 , 


10*00 ] 


1 380,800 1 




s Foundation ] 












s contingency, i 








t 5*400 , 
208,600 ] 




c.y. j 


la, 720 , 


5.00 ] 




t Excavation— ] 












t earth. ••...», 


c.y. j 


39,21+0 , 


O.65 j 


1 25,510 1 






i c.y. i 


3.310 ] 


1 3.IO j 


10,260 , 




i Sheeting and j 












t braoing •••••] 


M.F.B.M. i 


59 1 


110.00 j 


6,490 , 


, 


t Lock gates, j 












i operating i 












t machinery, ] 




















149,000 , 




t Sluice gates,j 










t hoists, etc. i 








33,800 1 












• • w m 


874,120 



-21- 



(ii) Lower Pool — Opposite Barnhart Island (Continued) 



No. t Item j 


Unit 


i Quantity • 


s Rate 


1 Amount 1 


\ Total 


5 t Robinson Bay : 












: Lock— Entrance* 












t piers and -weir* 












i Concrete* •••• j 


o*y* 


I 305,920 , 


\ 10.00 1 


1 3,059,200 , 




i Concrete* •••• : 


c*y* 


1 11^,600 


I 15.00 


■ 1,719.000 , 






c.y. 


1 31+.390 , 


1 5«oo 


1 1421,990 




i Excavation— t 














c.y. 


1 878,530 , 


1 0.65 


1 571,040 i 




i Lock gates and, 


t 










i operating ma-: 








1 801.000 




: Lock valves j 








\ V/V^|wVV 




i and operating : 




















1 100,000 




t Emergency gate: 
: Fenders, cap-: 








1 175,000 1 












t stans, light- i 












i ing equipment^ 




















1 206,700 




j Sluice gates, i 


















1 52,690 - 












^^^ m ^ 


t 7.106,580 


6 t Regulating » 












: weir at Rob- : 












t inson Bay— : 














c*y. j 


t 13,200 1 


1 12.00 


t 158,1,00 j 






c*y. 


1 22,190 


r 10.00 


1 221,900 1 




t Foundation % 














» 






1 15,840 i 




x Excavation— j 










t Rock footings: 


c.y* s 


l 2.970 ! 


t 2.1*0 1 


( 7,130 1 




t Rock trench* • : 


c*y* i 


J U50 1 


1 U*io 


1 1,850 1 






c.y* 


. 3U8,360-i 


1 O.65 


: 226,1430 








. . 




1 35,650 1 




: Sluice gates,: 


















t 30,800 1 














1 698,000 


7 : Grass River : 




► « 


i 






: Lock and En- : 












: trance Piers-: 












: Concrete •••*.: 


c.y* i 


t 351,060 j 


1 10.00 1 


1 3,510,600 1 




: Excavation— : 














c.y. i 


1 1,296,950 j 


1 0.65 1 


t 843,020 j 






c*y. i 


1 76,050 , 


5.00 j 


380,250 1 




i Lock gates » 












: and operating: 




















1 8U5,6oo j 





-22- 



(ii) Lower Pool — Opposite Barnhart Island— Continued 



No, 


i Item i 


Unit 


i Quantity 


1 Rate 1 


\ Amount 1 


t Total 




i Lock valves i 
t and ope ratings 








t 100,000 i 

I 206,700 1 






Fenders, cap*: 
t stans, light-* 
t ing equipment^ 










8 i 


I N.Y.C. Rly* t 
i Diversion and* 








I 1,308,000 i 


1 5,886,170 


9 j 


; Canal lightings 








1 16,000 1 


1 1,308,000 


10 i 


i Clearing pool-s 

• Roads— s 

Diversion. ••• j 

i Improvements • : 

i New : 

Property dam- : 

ages— Lower * 

i Pool— : 


acre 

Mile j 
Mile i 
Mile i 


i 150 

: 1.25j 

1 2.75 
1 2.40 


1 100,00 ! 
t30000. GO 1 

1 3000.00 J 
t30000.oo j 


[ 15,000 1 


1 16,000 


11 i 


1 37,500 i 
1 8.250 1 

t 72,000 J 


1 15,000 


12 \ 


1 330,330 1 

1 266,600 J 


1 117,750 














13 i 


Engineering i 
and Contin- s 






1 25# 




1 596,930 

1 6,216,270 
1 31,081,000 


14 i 


Total (27 ft, t 









(B) WORKS PRIMARILY FOR POWER 
(i) Structures, Head and Tailr&ce Excavation 



: Tailrace Exca-: 










t vat ion — s 










t (a) Tailraoe-j 










t Excavation— 1 










t dry earth,,. ,| 


c.y. 


j 3,868,300 1 


1 O.65 1 


2,514,400 1 


: dry rock. ••••: 


c.y. 


1 327,320 1 


1.60 j 


523,710 s 


t dredging, • , . • ; 


c.y. 


$ 8*44,560 i 

• 


0,90 , 

1 1 


1 760,100 1 


1 t 


1 3,798.210 , 



-25- 



(i) Structures, Head and Tallrace Excavation— Continued 



Item 



: Unit 



Credit for 
rock excavation; 

(b) Crab Island 
Shoal — 
Excavation- 
dredging* • • • • 
" overdepth 

Ice Sluices 
and Walls at 
Powerhouse— 
Concrete • •••« 

Concrete ♦ •«•• 
Foundation 
contingency. • 
Excavation- 
earth. ••••••• 

rook footing. 

Sluice gates, 

hoists, etc* 



Power hous e 
Structures— 
Concrete in 
substructures 
Superstruc- 
tures* • •••••• 

Gates and 
racks •••••••• 

Unwatering • • • 
Excavation- 
earth. • 

dry rock..... 



Credit for 
rock excavation 

Railway Conneoi 
tion to Power-: 
house. •••••• 

Engineering 
and Contin- 
gencies* •••• 

Total. 



c.y. 

c.y. 



c.y. 
c.y. 



c.y. 
c.y. 



c.y t 



c.y. 
c.y. 



Quantity ; Rate 



1,261+, 930 
173,000 



169,130 
115,050 



al+,020 

23,92) 



1.209,360 



1,135,850 
235.510 



0.90 
0,90 



12.00 
10.00 



O.65 
2.1+0 



15.00 



O.65 
1.60 



2% 



Amount 



327,320 



1,156,14+0 
160,200 



2,029,560 
1.150,500 

202,960 

139,110 
57,410 

133,600 



18,11+0,1+00 
3,880,010 
3,581+, 090 

1,91+3.500 
738,300 

376,820 



28,663,120 
235,510 



•••••••••«..• 



Total 



3,1+70,890 



1,316,61+0 



3,713.140 



28,1+27,610 



250,000 



9,297,720 



1+6,1+76.000 



-24- 



_m 



(ii) Machinery and Equipment 



♦ ft 1 * t 

No* t Item : Unit t Quantity » Bate j Amount » Total 


1 i Machinery and it it : 
i Equipment— : s t t i 
t Generators t i it t 


: Cranes and t i * t s 


i » t i : $ 1+0,263.520 
2 * Engineering t * : t t 
s and contin- s t ft t 





(C) WORKS COMMON TO NAVIGATION AND POWER 



t Channel exca- 










: vat ion— 










t (a) Chimney 










: Point— 








I . t 


t Excavation— 












i c*y* 


i 180,500 j 


1 4.25 1 


1 767,130 t 


t dredging* • ♦.., 


c*y* i 


« 255.190 1 


t 0*90 ; 


1 229.670 | 


; (b) Removal 




j of Spencer i 










t Isd* pier— i 










i Excavation* ••: 


i o*y* 


1 123,950 1 


1 1.50 


I 185,930 t 


t (c) Removal i 




i of Gut Dam— j 










t Excavation**. j 


i c*y. i 


1 bk,6k0 1 


1 1.50 | 


66,960 $ 


i (d) Removal i 




i of centre j 








• 
• 


t wall Locks 27 i 








* 
1 • 


i and 25 and j 










: Canal Bank— i 










i Excavation— j 










: Masonry and i 












c*y* i 


lii.630 , 


1*60 1 


23,1*10 x 


t Dredging* ••••: 


c*y. i 


t 181,000 j 


i 0*90 j 


162,900 x 


j (e) North j 




x Galop Chan- i 










i nel to below ? 










t Baycraft Isd*-i 




» « 


j 





996,800 



185.930 



66,960 



186,310 



-25- 



(C) WORKS COMMON TO NAVIGATION AND POWER ( continued) 



Item 



Unit 



Quantity- 



Rate 



Amount 



Total 



Excavation— 
dry earth. ••• 
dry rock**.** 
dredging . • • • • 
wet rock,..,* 



(f) South 
Galop Chan- 
nel—from 
Butternut Isd* 
to south of 
Baycraft Isd« 
Excavation- 
dry earth**** 
dry rock...** 
dredging* • • • • 
Unwatering— 
incl. banks •• 



(g) South of 
Baycraft Isd* 
to below 
Lotus Isd.— 
Excavation- 
dry earth. ••• 
dry rock***** 
dredging. •••• 

(h) South of 
Lalone Isd. — 
Excavation — 
dry earth. ••• 
dry rock...** 



(i) Sparrow- 
hawk Point- 
Excavation — 

dr edging ..... 
dry earth 

(3) Galop 
Canal Bank, 
Presqu*isle 
and Tous saints 
Isd.— 

Excavation— 
dredging...*, 
dry earth. ••• 



c.y. 
c*y* 
c.y. 
c.y* 



c*y* 
c.y. 
c*y* 



c.y. 
c.y. 
c.y. 



c.y. 
c.y. 



c.y. 
c*y. 



c.y. 
o.y« 



5,839,980 
22U.5U0 

2,197,000 
232,690 



l+61+,6l0 

2,620,530 

362,520 



Ul6,030 

289,670 

2,6148,780 



289,200 
263,200 



3,00^,090 
1,490.790 



2,557,600 
324,770 



O.65 
1.60 
O.90 
U.25 



O.65 
1.60 
0.90 



O.65 
1.60 
O.90 



O.65 
1.60 



O.90 
O.65 



O.90 
O.65 



1,845,980 
359,260 

1,977,300 
988,930 



302,000 

1*, 192,850 

326,270 

1,1+22,960 



270,1*20 

1*63,1*70 

2,383,910 



187,980 
421,120 



2,704,040 

969,010 



2,301»8)40 
211,100 



5,171,1+70 



6,21+4, 080 



3,117,800 



609,100 



3,673.050 



2,512,91*0 



-26- 



(C) WORKS COMMON TO NAVIGATION AND POUTER (Continued) 



No* i Item 


i Unit 


i Quantity 


1 Rate 


t 1 

r Amount t 

l i 


Total 


i (k) Point 








t S 

> * 




j Three Points- 








i x 




i Excavation— 








E • 






i c.y. 


i 3,14+2,590 


1 0*90 


, 3,098,330 1 




t dry earth.. • « 


i c.y. 


, 1,052,130 


1 O.65 


1 683,880 , 








3,782,210 


i (1) Leish- i 


: 


» 




> • 




i man's Point 




• 
• 








i and Opposite ; 












s Irishman's \ 












: Point— i 












t Excavation— 












s dredging.. • *• 


\ c.y* 


i 1.719,620 


t 0.90 


, 1,5U7»660 s 




t dry earth*..* 


i c*y* i 


t 1,582,580 


1 0.65 


1 1,028,680 t 








2, 576,3Uo 


i (m) North and; 












t South side of, 












: Ogden Is land- s 












: Excavation— i 














t o*y. j 


i 1,1*00,780 


« 0*90 


1 1,260,700 i 




t dry earth* • • • j 


( c.y* i 


, 3,8li*,700 , 


i O.65 j 


t 2,1*79,560 1 




t dry rock i 


i c.y. i 


1 65,1*90 - 


: 1.60 1 


1 IOI4..78O : 












1 19U,930 j 












X • » * ^ m 


14,039,970 


t (n) Morris- j 












t burg Canal i 












t Bank and Can-j 












t ada Island— j 












t Excavation— : 














c.y*- i 


l,36U,930 1 


1 0,90 1 


1 1,228,1+14.0 1 




i dry earth. .«*j 


o*y. j 


201,300 4 


O.65 j 


t 130,850 t 






c.y. s 


13,770 1 


1 1.60 i 


1 22,030 t 






c.y. i 


5,180 , 


t 2*70 i 


13,990 : 








1,395,310 


t (o) North j 












t side of Corn-i 












s trail Island— j 












t Excavation— i 












i dry earth*.*.] 


c*y* i 


800,000 j 


O.65 , 


520,000 1 






c.y* ] 


63U.560 , 


0*80 , 


507,650 t 








1,027,650 


: (p) South j 












t side of Corn-i 












t wall Island— i 












t Excavation— i 












t dry earth* ***t 


c.y. i 


618,270 « 


O.65 j 


1+01,880 : 




i dredging.*..*] 


c.y* i 


3,150.370 1 

* 


t 0*80 , 

1 


2,520,300 t 








2,922,180 



-27- 



(C) WORKS COMMON TO NAVIGATION AND POWER— Continued 



Item 



Unit 



Quantity- 



Rate 



Amount 



(q) Engineer- 
ing and Con* 
tingencies.. •• 

(r) Total 

Ice Cribs 
above Prescott 
and above Galop: 
Isd.— : 

(a) Cribs, 
booms and 
rockfill— 
Cribwork.... 

Booms. •••••• 

Rockfill.,.. 



(b) Engineer- 
ing and Con- 
tingencies. • • 

(c) Total.... 
Iroquois Point 

Dam— 
(a) Dam- 
Concrete • • • • • 
Concrete. .... 
Concrete ..... 
Foundation 
contingency.. 
Excavation- 
Earth 

Rock......... 

Earth 

Rock fill*.*. 
Gates, bridges 

etc.*.* 

Placing cais- 
sons »•••••••• 



(b) Engineer- 
ing and Con- 
tingencies. *• 

(c) Total.... 
Dykes— 

(a) North and 
South end of 
Iroquois Pt. 
Dam- 
Earth fill... 
Rock fill...* 
Stripping.... 



c.y. 
c.y. 
c.y. 



c.y. 
c.y. 
c.y. 
c.y* 



o.y. 
c.y. 
c.y. 



91.&0 

22,1^0 

6,1*70 



37.890 

7,060 

69,920 

234,550 



83,720 

6,790 

16,500 



25fo 



25% 



16.00 
12.00 
10.00 



19.00 

27.00 

O.90 

2.00 



0.90 

1*00 

0.65 



200,000 

45,000 

281,000 



I,l46l*i4*0 

269,U00 

64,700 
173,080 

719,910 
190.620 

62,930 
469,100 

682,200 

780.000 



75,350 

6,790 

10,730 



9,627,900 



14*8,136,000 



526,000 



130,000 
656,000 



4,873,380 



2,1*36,620 

•/,3io,odd 



92,870 



-28- 



(C) WORKS COMMON TO NAVIGATION AND POWER— Continued 



s : 






1 


1 




No. : Item i 
t t 


Unit i 


i Quantity 


t Rate 


1 Amount 


t Total 


t i 

j (b) U. S. : 












t Shore-Wilson $ 












i Hill to Louis-: 












t rille Landingi 












: Earth fill...: 


c.y. 3 


i 556,6L*o 


! 0.90 J 


i 500,980 




: Rock fill*.**: 


c.y. 


t 50,120 j 


t 1.00 1 


1 50,120 i 




t Stripping. • ••: 


c.y. j 


i 106,1*00 , 


i O.65 1 


l 69,160 ! 








1 620,260 


: (c) West and $ 












i East of Mas- : 












t sena Canal— t 












i Earth fill...i 


c.y. 


i 1,81*3, 600 


1 0.90 


, 1,659.21*0 




i Rock fill....; 


c.y. 


» 185,990 


1 1*00 


1 185,990 




: Stripping. ••«: 


c.y. 


I 231,920 


\ 0.65 


1 150,790 








1 1,995,980 


: (d) Between : 












t Mas sena Canal: 




. 








: and Naviga- » 












: tion Canal— : 












t Earth fill*.*: 


c.y. j 


i 1*78,660 , 


1 0.90 J 


t 1+30,800 1 




s Rock fill....: 


c.y. i 


« 29,510 i 


I 1.00 , 


1 29,510 J 




: Stripping....: 


c.y. j 


72,170 i 


1 0.65 1 


1*6,910 1 








1 507,220 


: (e) East and : 












: West of Long s 












: Sault Dam— » 












: Earth fill...: 


c.y. i 


1 339,530 j 


1 0.90 1 


t 305,580 I 




: Rock fill....: 


c.y. j 


1 140,81*0 j 


\ 1.00 ( 


1 1*8,81*0 , 






c.y. i 


32,360 , 


1 0.65 ! 


21,030 1 








! 375A50 


: (f) Canadian : 












t side — : 












: Earth fill...: 


c.y. i 


t 1*,212,180 1 


1 0.90 1 


1 3,790,960 , 




: Rock fill....; 


c.y. j 


1 583,550 1 


1.00 j 


1 583,550 t 




: Stripping. ... : 


c.y. i 


1 392,820 s 


0.65 J 


255,330 1 








1 l*,629,8i*0 


: (g) On Barn- : 












t hart Island—: 












: Earth fill...: 


c.y. i 


1,578,1*80 i 


1 0.90 : 


s 1,1*20,630 j 




: Rock fill...*: 


c.y. i 


1 126,600 i 


1 1.00 j 


1 126,600 j 




: Stripping. •*•: 


c.y. i 


201,590 1 


O.65 j 


131,030 1 








1 1,678,260 


t (h) Engineer-: 












t ing and con- : 


















( 25# 1 




i 2,i*7l*,120 








12,37U,ooO 



-29- 



(C) WORKS COMMON TO NAVIGATION AND POWER— Continued 



No* t Item i 


i Unit i 


i Quantity j 


Rate 1 


1 Amount 1 




5 : Supply chan- j 




| ! 








t nel and weir : 












t at Mas sena— i 












t (a) Supply i 












x channel and 1 












s weir— 














i c.y* i 


i 28,260 j 


t 12.00 j 


1 339,120 






i c.y* j 


t 66,1*10 i 


t 10.00 : 


661*, 100 1 




: Foundation j 












f contingency* • , 








» 33,910 1 




t Excavation— i 










t Rook footing »i 


t o.y* i 


5,l+oo , 


1 2.1*0 t 


t 12,960 




s rook trench* .j 


o.y* ) 


[ 650 i 


t l+ao j 


t 2,660 j 






( c.y* i 


\ 988.5U0 , 


t 0.65 


1 6142,550 1 






i c*y* i 


1 1*6,000 1 


t 0*90 i 


1 l+i,Uoo , 




t Concrete pav-! 














c*y* 


1 6,550 , 


1 11.00 j 


! 72.050 , 




t Gates, brid-» i 






i ges, hoists, 




















t 62,100 














1 1,890,850 


s (b) Engineer* 




,-■ . 








i ing and con- 






















1 1+72,150 












1 "!*•#• 

5 2, 363,606 


6 i Diversion cut , 










■ ■"# •< ^ 9 


: through Long 












s Sault Island- 












t (a) Diversion] 












i cut— I 












t Excavation— i 












i dry earth* •••) 


i c*y* j 


1 2,172,1420 i 


\ 0*65 1 


t 1,1*12,070 






i c*y* i 


\ 29,110 1 


1 l.6o j 


1*6,580 






t c*y. i 


t 317,500 i 


\ 0.90 , 


1 285,750 1 




t Concrete pav-i 














\ c.y. 


\ 28,270 i 


t 11.00 j 


\ 310,970 








\ 2,055.370 


$ (b) Engineer- 












t ing and Con- j 


















i 25% 1 




1 513,630 










i 2,5^,000 


7 i Main Long 












i Sault Dara— i 












t (a) Dam — 














i c.y. i 


» 709,070 


1 12.00 t 


t 8,508,81*0 1 






i c.y. i 


\ 81,290 


1 10.00 j 


i 812,900 j 




t Foundation i 




















1 850,680 1 





-30- 



(C) WORKS COMMON TO NAVIGATION AND POWER— Continued 



No* t Item 


r Unit 


t Quantity 


1 Bate 


1 Amount 


1 Total 


t Excavation— 












t earth ••• »••»• 


t e.y. 


, 1,402,490 


t O.65 


1 911,620 




i rook footings 


t c.y. 


i 116,260 


1 2.40 


1 279,020 




s rock trench. •■ 


i c.y. 


: 530 


1 4.10 


1 1,640 




t Gates, towers 












i hoists, etc** 








. 978,300 
1 3,700,000 




4 •• *0? ^m*m w 90 • ^^ w ^* V V 


















* 9T W I W 


1 16,043,200 


t (b) Engineer- 












t ing and Con- i 












/ _ . \ m __l _ i 






1 25% 




1 4,011,800 


8 i Guard Gate, 










t 20,055,000 


t 14 ft. Lock i 












i and Weir at 












i Maple Grove— j 












j (a) Lock, en-i 












t tranoe piers s 












i and weir— 














i c.y. i 


i 98,340 


l 10.00 ; 


1 983,4oo 






l c.y. j 


i 40,870 1 


1 5.00 , 


1 204,350 




s Excavation— i 














c.y. i 


1 859,600 1 


1 O.65 j 


t 558,740 i 




t earth trench. j 


i c.y. i 


1 5,790 , 


4.00 1 


1 23,160 1 




: Sheeting and j 




















1 15.950 i 




t Lock gates , ; 










t sluioe gates ,i 




















314,000 , 














2,099,600 


t (b) Engineer- j 












: ing and Con- \ 


















2575 1 




1 524.400 










2.62U.000 


9 jlii. ft. Lock andi 










*m f vi^fl www 


» Dykes at Iro- i 












: quois — j 












x (a) Lock — \ 












i Concrete.....] 


cu. yd. i 


19,140 1 


10.00 1 


1 191,400 1 




: Excavation— i 














cu. yd. i 


78,100 j 


0.65 j 


50,770 i 




» Earth fill...i 


cu. yd. t 


162,040 1 


0.90 1 


145,840 : 


1 


t Rock fill....] 


cu. yd. j 


13,650 j 


1.00 j 


13,650 , 




i Stripping... *t 


cu. yd. i 


31,630 j 


0.65 J 


20,560 1 




i Lock gates, ; 








\ 1 












60,000 j 














482,220 


: (b) Engineer- j 












: ing and Con- a 


















25^ i 




121,780 










604,000 



-31- 



(C) WORKS COMMON TO NAVIGATION AND POWER— Concluded 



j : t j : t 

No. j Item : Unit j Quantity : Rate : Amount : Total 


10 : Railroad relo-: : : » j 
: ©ation— it it t 
t (a) Norwood : i t t t 
t and St» Law- : t it t 

x (b) Canadian : ; : j » 


: i i t t ; 2.957.500 
: (c) Engineer- j ; j : : 
: ing and con- it t ; : 




11 : Clearing Pool-: ; : s t 


t ; : t i" t 104,000 
j (c) Engineer-: : : : i 
t ing and con- : : : : : 




12 : Rehabilitation: : : : : 


13 : Rehabilitation: : ; : : 


lU i Acquisition of: : : : : 
: land. etc.. : : : : : 


15 t Acquisition of: : : t t 
i lands, etc., : : t t t 


16 : Highway relo- : 1 : : j 
: cation— : : : : t 


1 t 1 : t t 2,2l£,500 
: (c) Engin3er-» : : : 1 
1 ing and con- : : : : 1 





-33- 




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